Kings, Queens, Presidents and First Ladies


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First Generation  Next


1. Duke William de Normandie I "Longsword" [18626] was born c893 and died on 17 Dec 942 at age 49.

General Notes: Died Dec. 17, 942, Picardy [France]

Also called William Longsword, French Guillaume Longue-épéeson of Rollo and second duke of Normandy (927–942). He sought continually to expand his territories either by conquest or by exacting new lands from the French king for the price of homage. In 939 he allied himself with Hugh the Great in the revolt against King Louis IV; through the mediation of the pope, the war ended, and Louis renewed William's investiture of Normandy (940). William, however, continued his territorial ambitions, especially northward. Drawn to a conference on an island in the Somme River, he was assassinated on the orders of the count of Flanders, Arnulf I.

William married Espriota Unknown [19065] [MRIN: 6389].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 2 M    i. Duke Richard de Normandie I "The Fearless" [18625] was born c932 and died in 996 at age 64.

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2. Duke Richard de Normandie I "The Fearless" [18625] was born c932 and died in 996 at age 64.

General Notes: Born c. 932
Died 996

Richard The Fearless, French Richard Sans Peurduke of Normandy (942–996), son of William I Longsword.

Louis IV of France took the boy-duke into his protective custody, apparently intent upon reuniting Normandy to the crown's domains; but in 945 Louis was captured by the Normans, and Richard was returned to his people. Richard withstood further Carolingian attempts to subdue his duchy and, in 987, was instrumental in securing the French crown for his brother-in-law, the Robertian Hugh Capet.

Richard married Gunnora of Denmark [19066] [MRIN: 6388], daughter of King of Denmark Harald Bluetooth [19067] and Gunhilda of Sweden [19068]. Gunnora died in 1031.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 3 M    i. Duke Richard "the Good" de Normandie II [18126] was born c963 in Normandie, France and died on 28 Aug 1027 in Normandie, France at age 64.

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3. Duke Richard "the Good" de Normandie II [18126] was born c963 in Normandie, France and died on 28 Aug 1027 in Normandie, France at age 64.

General Notes: Richard The Good, French Richard Le Bonduke of Normandy (c963–1027), son of Richard I the Fearless. He held his own against a peasant insurrection, helped Robert II of France against the duchy of Burgundy, and repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by the Anglo-Saxon King Ethelred II the Unready. He also pursued a reform of the Norman monasteries.

Richard married Judith de Bretagne [18127] [MRIN: 6125], daughter of Robert II Brittany [18129] and Unknown, about 999 in Normandie, France. Judith was born in 982 in Bretagne, France and died on 16 Jun 1017 in Normandie, France at age 35.

Children from this marriage were:

   4 M    i. Archbishop Mauger de Normandie [18137] .

Noted events in his life were:

• Title: Archbishop of Rouen

   5 M    ii. Duke Richard de Normandie III [18132] was born about 1001 in Normandie, France and died on 6 Aug 1028 about age 27.

+ 6 M    iii. Duke Robert de Normandie I "The Magnificent" [18124] was born c1003 in Normandie, France, died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicea, Bithynia, Turkey at age 32, and was buried in Nicea, Bithynia, Turkey.

   7 M    iv. Count William (Guillaume) de Normandie [18138] was born in 1005 in Normandie, France and died in Jun 1025 at age 20.

Noted events in his life were:

• Title: Count of Arques

   8 F    v. Alice (Adelais) de Normandie [18133] was born about 1007 in Normandie, France and died after Jul 1037 in France.

Alice married Count Renaud of Burgundy [18134] [MRIN: 6130].

   9 F    vi. Eleanor de Normandie [18135] was born about 1009 in Normandie, France and died in 1071 about age 62.

Eleanor married Count Baldwin of Flanders IV [18136] [MRIN: 6131].

Richard next married Adela Unknown [18128] [MRIN: 6126].

Richard next married Astrid Forkbeard [18130] [MRIN: 6128], daughter of Swein Forkbeard [18131] and Unknown.
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6. Duke Robert de Normandie I "The Magnificent" [18124] was born c1003 in Normandie, France, died on 22 Jul 1035 in Nicea, Bithynia, Turkey at age 32, and was buried in Nicea, Bithynia, Turkey.

General Notes: died July 1035, Nicaea

Robert The Magnificent, or The Devil, French Robert Le Magnifique, or Le Diable duke of Normandy (1027–35), the younger son of Richard II of Normandy and the father, by his mistress Arlette, of William the Conqueror of England. On the death of his father (1027), Robert contested the duchy with his elder brother Richard III, legally the heir, until the latter's opportune death a few years later. A strong ruler, Robert succeeded in exacting the obedience of his vassals. On the death of Robert II the Pious, king of France (1031), a crisis arose over the succession to the French throne. The Duke gave his support to Henry I against the party favouring his younger brother; in reward for his services he demanded and received the Vexin Français, a territory not far north of Paris. A patron of the monastic reform movement, he died while returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

Robert married Herleva de Falaise [18125] [MRIN: 6124]. Herleva was born about 1003 in Falaise, Normandie, France and died c1050 about age 47.

Children from this marriage were:

   10 F    i. Adbelahide de Normandie [19135] was born about 1027 in Normandie, France and died before 1090.

+ 11 M    ii. King William de Normandie I "the Conqueror" [18092] was born in Oct 1028 in Falaise, was christened in 1066, died on 9 Sep 1087 in St. Gervais, Rouen at age 58, and was buried in Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen, Normandie, France.

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11. King William de Normandie I "the Conqueror" [18092] was born in Oct 1028 in Falaise, was christened in 1066, died on 9 Sep 1087 in St. Gervais, Rouen at age 58, and was buried in Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen, Normandie, France.

General Notes: On September 9, 1087, William I was injured when a horse bolted as a burning roof collapsed in Mantes within sight of Paris. William's protruding stomach struck the pommel of the saddle and he died in intense agony several days later in Roen, France.

William The Conqueror, or William the Bastard as he was known in his day, though out of his hearing, was the illegitimate son of of Robert I, Duke of Normandy. The Normans were Vikings who had settled in northern France and had taken on the lifestyle of the French aristocracy without losing that passion for conquest. William was descended from RAGNALD, the ancestor of the Earls of Orkney.

While in Normandy, William believed the throne of England had been promised to him by EDWARD THE CONFESSOR as far back as 1051. Although historians have found nothing of a record of Edward's promise, William held to its provision.

When Edward died in 1066, Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, assumed the throne and was crowned king. William saw him as a usurper and prepared for warfare by building alliances. During the decade of the 1050's William worked at this consolidation and found himself in a number of skirmishes in defense of Normady against Henri I of France, giving him and his army battle experience.

William acquired territories, namely; Maine in 1062, Anjou, and Brittany. He prepared for the invasion of England in September 1066 and the campaign lasted until the 25th of December 1066 when he was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. His dominion was primarily in the south covering the old kingdoms of Wessex, Kent, Sussex and Essex. Within a year William began a slow campaign of territorial acquisition and this continued until 1068 when he brought his wife, Matilda to England to be crowned queen.

Within the process of this campaign, William had caused to be built 78 castles, the most famous being the Tower of London.

The King of Denmark and Edgar of Atheling joined forces and decided to recapture England, and they did manage to capture York in September of 1069. This angered William and he abandoned his previous campaign of slow calculated military movement and marched north, this time destroying everything in his path. In 1070 the Danish retreated, made a brief second attempt then abandoned the Isles.

To pay for his considerable army, William had to raise taxes. To determine how to levy this tax he ordered a survey conducted, now known as the Domesday Book.

In July 1087, while beseiging the town of Mantes, his horse jumped over a ditch and William received an injury from the pommel of the saddle which ripped his stomach. The wound caused peritonitis. William lingered for five weeks and died in September.

His body was returned to Caen for burial but the tomb was not large enough for his considerable girth. Finally the attendants attempted to force the body into the tomb, the already decaying and swollen body burst open letting out an intense smell of putrefaction that caused most to flee the site. Only a hardy few completed the burial.

Noted events in his life were:

• Life Summation: WILLIAM I "THE CONQUEROR".
Also called "THE BASTARD".
King of England, late November/early December 1066-9 September 1087.

Crowned: Westminster Abbey, 25 December 1066.
Titles: King of England, Duke of Normandy and County of Maine.

Born: Falaise, Normandy, Autumn 1028.
Died: St. Gervais, Rouen, 9 September 1087, age 59.
Buried: Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen.

Married: c1053, Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V of Flanders, 10 children.

William married Countess of Flanders Matilda van Vlaanderen [18093] [MRIN: 6108], daughter of Baldwin V of Flanders Vlaanderen [18112] and Unknown, in 1053 in Notre Dame Cathedral d'eu. Matilda was born about 1031 in Flanders (Belgium), died on 2 Nov 1083 in Caen, Normandie, France about age 52, and was buried in Eglise de la Sainte Trinitbe, Caen, Normandie, France.

General Notes: Died 1083

French Mathilde, or Mahault, De Flandre queen consort of William I the Conqueror, whom she married c. 1053. During William's absences in England, the duchy of Normandy was under her regency, with the aid of their son, Robert Curthose (see Robert II [Normandy]), except when he was in rebellion against his father. The embroidery of the Bayeux tapestry was once wrongly attributed to her.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 12 M    i. Duke Robert de Normandie II [18113] was born circa 1052 in Normandy, France, died on 10 Feb 1134 in Cardiff Castle, Wales at age 82, and was buried in St. Peters Church, Gloucester, England.

   13 M    ii. Prince of England Richard de Normandie [18114] was born in 1054 in Normandy, France and died in 1081 in New Forest, Hampshire, England at age 27.

   14 F    iii. Princess of England Cecilia Normandie [18119] was born about 1055 in Normandy, France and died on 30 Jul 1126 in Caen, Calavados, France about age 71.

Noted events in her life were:

• Profession: Nun.

   15 M    iv. King of England William de Normandie II "Rufus" [18115] was born c1056 in Normandy, France and died on 1 Aug 1100 in New Forest, England at age 44.

General Notes: William II Rufus (1087–1100)

Under William I's two sons William II Rufus and Henry I, strong, centralized government continued, and England's link with Normandy was strengthened. Rebellion by Norman barons, led by the king's half uncles, Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain, was soon put down by William II, who made promises of good government and relief from taxation and the severity of the forest laws. Odo of Bayeux was banished, and William of St. Calais, bishop of Durham, tried for treason. As an ecclesiastic he rejected the jurisdiction of the king's court. But Lanfranc pointed out that it was not as a churchman but as lord of his temporal fiefs that he was being tried. He was finally allowed to leave the country, in return for surrender of his fiefs.

William II's main preoccupation was to win Normandy from his elder brother Robert. After some initial skirmishing, William's plans were furthered by Robert's decision to go on crusade in 1096. Robert mortgaged his lands to William for 10,000 marks, which was raised in England by drastic and unpopular means. In his last years William campaigned successfully in Maine and the French Vexin so as to extend the borders of Normandy. His death was the result of an “accident” possibly engineered by his younger brother Henry: he was shot with an arrow in the New Forest. Henry, who was conveniently with the hunting party, rode post haste to Winchester, seized the treasury, and was chosen king the next day.

WILLIAM II "Rufus", King of England, 9 September 1087 to 2 August 1100. Crowned at Westminster 26 September 1087.

Born: Normandy c 1057
Died: New Forest 2 August 1100, age 43.
Buried: Winchester Cathedral.

   16 F    v. Adeliza Normandie [18120] was born about 1057 in Normandie, France and died in 1065 about age 8.

Noted events in her life were:

• Profession: Nun

   17 F    vi. Princess of England Constance de Normandie [18121] was born about 1061 in Normandy, France, died on 13 Aug 1090 in England about age 29, and was buried in St. Edmondsbury, Suffolk, England.

Constance married Alain IV of Brittany [18122] [MRIN: 6123].

   18 F    vii. Princess of England Adela Normandie [18116] was born c1062 in Normandie, France, died on 8 Mar 1135 in Marsilly, Aquitaine at age 73, and was buried in Caen, Normandie, France.

Adela married Count Stephen Blois [18117] [MRIN: 6121].

   19 F    viii. Princess of Normandie Gundred de Normandie [19134] was born in 1063 in Normandie, France and died on 27 May 1085 at age 22.

   20 F    ix. Agatha Normandie [18123] was born about 1064 in Normandy, France, died before 1086 in Calavados, France, and was buried in Bayeux, Calavados, France.

+ 21 M    x. King Henry "Beauclerc" I [18090] was born in Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, was christened on 5 Aug 1100 in Selby, Yorkshire, died on 11 Dec 1135 in Gisors, St. Denis, France at age 67, and was buried on 4 Jan 1136 in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England.

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12. Duke Robert de Normandie II [18113] was born circa 1052 in Normandy, France, died on 10 Feb 1134 in Cardiff Castle, Wales at age 82, and was buried in St. Peters Church, Gloucester, England.

General Notes: Born c. 1052
Died February 1134, Cardiff, Wales

Name:
Robert Curthose, French Robert Courteheuse duke of Normandy (1087–1106), a weak-willed and incompetent ruler whose poor record as an administrator of his domain was partly redeemed by his contribution to the First Crusade (1096–99).

The eldest son of William I the Conqueror, Robert was recognized in boyhood as his father's successor in Normandy. Nevertheless he twice rebelled against his father (1077/78 and c. 1082–83) and was in exile in Italy until he returned as duke on his father's death in 1087. He was totally unable to control his rebellious vassals or to establish a central authority in Normandy.

In 1091 Robert's younger brother, King William II of England, invaded Normandy and compelled Robert to yield two counties. William attacked again in 1094, and when a peace was made that gave him control of Normandy in return for money, Robert joined the First Crusade. He fought at Dorylaeum (1097) and was at the capture of Jerusalem (1099). His courageous leadership contributed to the victory at Ascalon (1099).

When Robert's youngest brother, Henry I, succeeded William as king of England (1100), Robert was in Italy. He hastened back to invade England, with ignominious results, and Henry in turn invaded Normandy (1105 and 1106). Captured in the Battle of Tinchebrai (Sept. 28, 1106), Robert spent the rest of his life as a prisoner, dying in Cardiff castle.

Robert married Sybillia Unknown [18118] [MRIN: 6122].

The child from this marriage was:

   22 M    i. Count of Flanders William Clito [19076] was born in 1101 and died in 1128 at age 27.

General Notes: Born c. 1101
Died July 28, 1128, Aalst, Flanders [now in Belgium]

Named:
French Guillaume Cliton count of Flanders and titular duke of Normandy (as William IV, or as William III if England's William Rufus' earlier claim to the duchy is not acknowledged).

Son of Duke Robert II Curthose (and grandson of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders), William Clito was supported by Louis VI of France in claiming the duchy when his father was imprisoned (1106) by the English. Henry I of England, however, had his own son William the Aetheling recognized as heir to Normandy and, in 1119, decisively defeated Louis VI and Clito at Bremule. When the Aetheling was drowned (1120), Clito made further trouble in Normandy but died in 1128.

21. King Henry "Beauclerc" I [18090] was born in Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, was christened on 5 Aug 1100 in Selby, Yorkshire, died on 11 Dec 1135 in Gisors, St. Denis, France at age 67, and was buried on 4 Jan 1136 in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England.

General Notes: Born 1069, Selby, Yorkshire, Eng.
Died Dec. 1, 1135, Lyons-la-Forêt, Normandy


Henry Beauclerc (Good Scholar), French Henri Beauclerc youngest and ablest of William I the Conqueror's sons, who as king of England (1100–35) strengthened the crown's executive powers and, like his father, also ruled Normandy (from 1106).

Henry was crowned at Westminster on August 5, 1100, three days after his brother, King William II, William the Conqueror's second son, had been killed in a hunting accident. Duke Robert Curthose, the eldest of three brothers, who by feudal custom had succeeded to his father's inheritance, Normandy, was returning from the First Crusade and could not assert his own claim to the English throne until the following year. The succession was precarious, however, because a number of wealthy Anglo-Norman barons supported Duke Robert and Henry moved quickly to gain all the backing he could. He issued an ingenious Charter of Liberties, which purported to end capricious taxes, confiscations of church revenues, and other abuses of his predecessor. By his marriage with Matilda, a Scottish princess of the old Anglo-Saxon royal line, he established the foundations for peaceable relations with the Scots and support from the English. He recalled St. Anselm, the scholarly archbishop of Canterbury whom his brother, William II, had banished.

When Robert Curthose finally invaded England in 1101, several of the greatest barons defected to him. But Henry, supported by a number of his barons, most of the Anglo-Saxons, and St. Anselm, worked out an amicable settlement with the invaders. Robert relinquished his claim to England, receiving in return Henry's own territories in Normandy and a large annuity.

Although a crusading hero, Robert was a self-indulgent, vacillating ruler who allowed Normandy to slip into chaos. Norman churchman who fled to England urged Henry to conquer and pacify the Duchy and thus provided moral grounds for Henry's ambition to reunify his father's realm at his brother's expense. Paving his way with bribes to Norman barons and agreements with neighboring princes, in 1106 Henry routed Robert's army at Tinchebrai in southwestern Normandy and captured Robert, holding him prisoner for life.

Between 1104 and 1106 Henry had been in the uncomfortable position of posing, in Normandy, as a champion of the church while fighting with his own archbishop of Canterbury. St. Anselm had returned from exile in 1100 dedicated to reforms of Pope Paschal II, which were designed to make the church independent of secular sovereigns. Following papal bans against lay lords investing churchmen with their lands and against churchmen rendering homage to Henry himself. Henry regarded bishopics and abbeys not only as spiritual offices but as great sources of wealth. Since, in many cases, they owed the crown military services, he was anxious to maintain the feudal bond between the bishops and the crown.

Ultimately, the issues of ecclesiastical homage and lay investiture forced Anselm into a second exile. After numerous letters and threats between King, Pope and archbishop, a compromise was concluded shortly before the Battle of Tinchebrai and was ratified in London in 1107. Henry relinquished his right to invest churchmen while Anselm submitted on the question of homage. With the London settlement and the English victory at Tinchebrai, the Anglo-Norman state was reunified and at peace.

In the following years, Henry married his daughter Matilda to Emperor Henry V of Germany and groomed his only legitimate son, William as successor. Henry's right to Normandy was challenged by William Clito, son of the captive Robert Curthouse, and Henry was obliged to repel two major assaults against eastern Normandy by William Clito's supporters: Louis VI of France, Count Fulk of Anjou, and the restless Norman barons who detested Henry's ubiquitous officials and high taxes. By 1120, however, the barons had submitted, Henry's son had married into the Angevin house, and Louis VI, defeated in battle, had concluded a definitive peace.

The settlement was shattered in November 1120 when Henry's son perished in a shipwreck of the "WHITE SHIP" destroying Henry's succession plans. After Queen Matilda's death in 1118, he married Adelaide of Louvain in 1121, but this union proved childless. On Emperor Henry V's death in 1125, Henry summoned the empress Matilda back to England and made his barons do homage to her as his heir. In 1128 Matilda married Geoffrey Plantagenet, heir to the county of Anjou and in 1133 she bore him her first son, the future King Henry II. When Henry I died at Lyons-la-Foret in eastern Normandy, his favorite nephew, Stephen of Blois, disregarding Matilda's right of succession, seized the English throne. Matilda's subsequent invasion of England unleashed a bitter civil war that ended with King Stephen's death and Henry II's unopposed accession in 1154.

Henry married Anstrida Anskill [18174] [MRIN: 6148].

Children from this marriage were:

   23 M    i. Richard of Lincoln [18175] was born c1100 and died in 1120 at age 20.

General Notes: Drowned in the "White Ship".

   24 M    ii. Fulk "Beauclerc" [18176] .

General Notes: A monk. Died young.

   25 F    iii. Juliana "Beauclerc" [18177] .

Juliana married Lord of Breteuil Eustace de Pacy [18178] [MRIN: 6149].

Henry next married Nester Rhys ap Tewdwr [18179] [MRIN: 6150].

The child from this marriage was:

   26 M    i. Henry Fitzhenry [18180] was born c1103 and died in 1157 at age 54.

General Notes: Killed during Henry II's invasion of Anglesey.

Henry next married Edith Sigulfson of Greystoke [18181] [MRIN: 6151].

The child from this marriage was:

   27 M    i. Baron of Okehampton Robert Fitzedith [18182] died in 1172.

Henry next married Isabel de Beaumont [18183] [MRIN: 6152].

Henry next married Edith Unknown [18184] [MRIN: 6153].

The child from this marriage was:

   28 F    i. Matilda "Beauclerc" [18185] was born circa 1090 and died in 1120 at age 30.

General Notes: Drowned in the "White Ship".

Matilda married Duke Conan III Brittany [18190] [MRIN: 6155].

Henry next married Unknown Mother [18186] [MRIN: 6154].

Children from this marriage were:

   29 M    i. Gilbert "Beauclerc" [18187] was born c1130 and died after 1142.

   30 M    ii. William de Tracy "Beauclerc" [18188] died c1136.

   31 F    iii. Matilda "Beauclerc" [18185] was born circa 1090 and died in 1120 at age 30.

General Notes: Drowned in the "White Ship".

Matilda married Duke Conan III Brittany [18190] [MRIN: 6155].

+ 32 F    iv. Constance "Beauclerc" [18191] .

   33 F    v. Eustacia "Beauclerc" [18195] .

   34 F    vi. Alice "Beauclerc" [18196] .

General Notes: Had five sons.

Alice married Matthew de Montmorenci Constable of France [18197] [MRIN: 6158].

   35 F    vii. Unknown "Beauclerc" [18198] .

Unknown married William de Warenne [18199] [MRIN: 6159].

Henry next married Unknown [18200] [MRIN: 6160].

Children from this marriage were:

   36 F    i. Joan "Beauclerc" [18201] .

General Notes: Ancestor to John Balliol.

Joan married Fergus of Galloway [18202] [MRIN: 6161].

   37 F    ii. Emma "Beauclerc" [18203] .

Emma married Guy de Laval [18204] [MRIN: 6162].

   38 F    iii. Sybilla "Beauclerc" [18170] was born c1092 and died in 1122 at age 30.

Sybilla married King Alexander I Scotland [18171] [MRIN: 6147].

Sybilla next married Baldwin de Boullers [18206] [MRIN: 6163].

Henry next married Sybilla Corbet [18094] [MRIN: 6109] about 1092. Sybilla was born about 1077 in Alcester, Warwick, England and died after 1156.

Children from this marriage were:

   39 M    i. Gundrada "Beauclerc" [18172] .

   40 F    ii. Rohese "Beauclerc" [18173] died after 1176.

+ 41 M    iii. Earl Robert de Caen de Mellent [18095] was born about 1090 in Caen, Calvados, France and died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, England about age 57.

   42 F    iv. Sybilla "Beauclerc" [18170] was born c1092 and died in 1122 at age 30.

Sybilla married King Alexander I Scotland [18171] [MRIN: 6147].

Sybilla next married Baldwin de Boullers [18206] [MRIN: 6163].

   43 M    v. William "Beauclerc" [18169] was born c1105 and died after 1187.

+ 44 M    vi. Earl of Cornwall Rainald de Dunstanville [18168] was born c1110 in Dunstanville, Kent, England and died on 1 Jul 1175 in Chertsey, Surrey at age 65.

Henry next married Queen Edith "Atheling" Mathilda of Scotland [18091] [MRIN: 6107] on 11 Nov 1100 in Westminster Abbey, London. Edith was born in Oct 1079 in Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 38.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 45 F    i. Queen Matilda Adelaide of England [18089] was born on 5 Aug 1102 in Winchester, England and died on 10 Sep 1167 in Notre Dame, Rouen, Seine Maritime, Normandy at age 65.

   46 F    ii. Princess of England Elizabeth Beauclerc [19136] was born in 1095 in Ralby, Yorkshire, England.

   47 M    iii. Prince of England William "Atheling" Beauclerc [19137] was born on 5 Aug 1103 in Selby, Yorkshire, England and died on 26 Nov 1119 at Sea at age 16.

   48 M    iv. Prince of England Richard Beauclerc [19138] was born in 1105 in England and died on 26 Sep 1119 at Sea at age 14.

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32. Constance "Beauclerc" [18191] .

Constance married Roscelin de Beaumont [18192] [MRIN: 6156].

The child from this marriage was:

   49 F    i. Ermengarde de Beaumont [18193] .

Ermengarde married King William the Lyon of Scotland [18194] [MRIN: 6157].

41. Earl Robert de Caen de Mellent [18095] was born about 1090 in Caen, Calvados, France and died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, England about age 57.

Robert married Mabel FitzHamon [18096] [MRIN: 6110] in 1109. Mabel was born in 1090 and died in 1157 at age 67.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 50 M    i. Earl William FitzRobert [18097] was born on 23 Nov 1116 in Gloycestershire, England and died on 23 Nov 1183 at age 67.

44. Earl of Cornwall Rainald de Dunstanville [18168] was born c1110 in Dunstanville, Kent, England and died on 1 Jul 1175 in Chertsey, Surrey at age 65.

General Notes: Reginald, earl of Cornwall.

Rainald married Beatrice FitzRichard [18207] [MRIN: 6164] in 1135. Beatrice was born in 1114 in Cardinan, Cornwall and died in 1162 at age 48.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 51 F    i. Beatrice de Vaux [18208] was born in 1149 in Stoke, Devonshire, England and died on 24 Mar 1217 at age 68.

45. Queen Matilda Adelaide of England [18089] was born on 5 Aug 1102 in Winchester, England and died on 10 Sep 1167 in Notre Dame, Rouen, Seine Maritime, Normandy at age 65.

General Notes: Born 1102, London
Died Sept. 10, 1167, near Rouen, Fr.

Also called Maud, German Mathild, consort of the Holy Roman emperor Henry V and afterward claimant to the English throne in the reign of King Stephen.

She was the only daughter of Henry I of England by Queen Matilda and was sister of William the Aetheling, heir to the English and Norman thrones. Both her marriages were in furtherance of Henry I's policy of strengthening Normandy against France. In 1114 she was married to Henry V; he died in 1125, leaving her childless, and three years later she was married to Geoffrey Plantagenet, effectively count of Anjou.

Her brother's death in 1120 made her Henry I's sole legitimate heir, and in 1127 he compelled the baronage to accept her as his successor, though a woman ruler was equally unprecedented for the kingdom of England and the duchy of Normandy. The Angevin marriage was unpopular and flouted the barons' stipulation that she should not be married out of England without their consent. The birth of her eldest son, Henry, in 1133 gave hope of silencing this opposition, but he was only two when Henry I died (1135), and a rapid coup brought to the English throne Stephen of Blois, son of William I the Conqueror's daughter Adela. Though the church and the majority of the baronage supported Stephen, Matilda's claims were powerfully upheld in England by her half brother Robert of Gloucester and her uncle King David I of Scotland. Matilda and Robert landed at Arundel in September 1139, and she was for a short while besieged in the castle. But Stephen soon allowed her to join her brother, who had gone to the west country, where she had much support; after a stay at Bristol, she settled at Gloucester.

She came nearest to success in the summer of 1141, after Stephen had been captured at Lincoln in February. Elected “lady of the English” by a clerical council at Winchester in April, she entered London in June; but her arrogance and tactless demands for money provoked the citizens to chase her away to Oxford before she could be crowned queen. Her forces were routed at Winchester in September 1141, and thereafter she maintained a steadily weakening resistance in the west country. Her well-known escape from Oxford Castle over the frozen River Thames took place in December 1142.

Normandy had been in her husband's possession since 1144, and she retired there in 1148, remaining near Rouen to watch over the interests to her eldest son, who became duke of Normandy in 1150 and King Henry II of England in 1154. She spent the remainder of her life in Normandy exercising a steadying influence over Henry II's continental dominions.

Matilda married Duke Geoffrey Plantagenet "the Fair" [18088] [MRIN: 6106] in Jun 1128 in Le Mans Cathedral. Geoffrey was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France and died on 7 Sep 1151 in Le Mans, France at age 38.

General Notes: Born Aug. 24, 1113
Died Sept. 7, 1151, Le Mans, Maine [France]

Also called Geoffrey Plantagenet, by name Geoffrey The Fair, French Geoffroi Plantagenet, or Geoffroi Le Belcount of Anjou (1131–51), Maine, and Touraine and ancestor of the Plantagenet kings of England through his marriage, in June 1128, to Matilda (q.v.), daughter of Henry I of England. On Henry's death (1135), Geoffrey claimed the duchy of Normandy; he finally conquered it in 1144 and ruled there as duke until he gave it to his son Henry (later King Henry II of England) in 1150.

Geoffrey was popular with the Normans, but he had to suppress a rebellion of malcontent Angevin nobles. After a short war with Louis VII of France, Geoffrey signed a treaty (August 1151) by which he surrendered the whole of Norman Vexin (the border area between Normandy and Île-de-France) to Louis.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 52 M    i. King Henry II Plantagenet "Curtmantle" [18085] was born on 5 Mar 1133 in Le Mans, Sarthe, France and died on 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France at age 56.

   53 F    ii. Agnes Plantagenet [19139] was born in 1130 in LeMans, France and died in 1192 in Anyore, England at age 62.

   54 M    iii. Geoffrey "Mantell" Plantagenet VI [19140] was born on 3 Jun 1134 in Rouen, France, died on 27 Jul 1157 in Nantes, France at age 23, and was buried in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, France.

   55 M    iv. Guillaume Plantagenet [19141] was born on 22 Jul 1136 in Argentan, Orne, France, died on 30 Jan 1164 in Rouen, France at age 27, and was buried in Notre Dame, Rouen, France.

   56 F    v. Emma Plantagenet de Normandie [19142] was born in 1138 in Normandie, France.

Matilda next married Holy Roman Emporer Henry de Normandie V [18784] [MRIN: 6448]. Henry died in 1125.
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50. Earl William FitzRobert [18097] was born on 23 Nov 1116 in Gloycestershire, England and died on 23 Nov 1183 at age 67.

William married Hawise de Beaumont [18098] [MRIN: 6111] about 1150 in Leicestershire. Hawise was born about 1130 in Leicester, Leicestershire, England and died on 24 Apr 1183 about age 53.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 57 F    i. Mabel FitzRobert [18099] was born in 1155 and died in 1188 at age 33.

51. Beatrice de Vaux [18208] was born in 1149 in Stoke, Devonshire, England and died on 24 Mar 1217 at age 68.

Beatrice married William II de Briwere [18209] [MRIN: 6165] in 1174. William was born in 1145 in Stoke, Devonshire, England and died about 1230 in Devonshire, England about age 85.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 58 F    i. Gracia de Briwere "The Dark" [18210] was born in 1186 in Stoke, Devonshire, England and died in 1223 at age 37.

52. King Henry II Plantagenet "Curtmantle" [18085] was born on 5 Mar 1133 in Le Mans, Sarthe, France and died on 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France at age 56.

General Notes: Henry II, "FitzEmpress" or "Curtmantle".
King of England 25 October 1154 to 6 July 1189
Titles: King of England; Duke of Normandy; Duke of Aquitaine, County of Anjou, Touraine and Maine.
Born: Le Mans, Maine, 5 March 1133
Died: Chinon Castle, Anjou, 6 July 1189, aged 56.
Buried: Fontevrault Abbey, France
Married: 18 May 1152 at Bordeaux Cathedral, Gascony, Eleanor (c1122-1204), daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine and divorcee' of Louis VII King of France.
8 children.
12 illegitimate children.

Henry of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, Henry Fitzempress, or Henry Curtmantle (Short Mantle)duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his family (his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and such sons as Richard the Lion-Heart and John Lackland) ultimately brought about his defeat.

After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1150 and count of Anjou on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, in 1151. Although the claim of his mother, Matilda, daughter of Henry I, to the English crown had been set aside by her cousin, King Stephen, in 1152, Henry advanced his fortunes by marrying the beautiful and talented Eleanor, recently divorced from King Louis VII of France, who brought with her hand the lordship of Aquitaine. Henry invaded England in 1153, and King Stephen agreed to accept him as coadjutor and heir. When Stephen died the following year Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming lord of territories stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees.

The young king lacked visible majesty. Of stocky build, with freckled face, close-cut tawny hair, and gray eyes, he dressed carelessly and grew to be bulky; but his personality commanded attention and drew men to his service. He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times the ungovernable temper of a furious animal and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary. Restless, impetuous, always on the move, regardless of the convenience of others, hewas at ease with scholars, and his administrative decrees were the work of a cool realist. In his long reign of 34 years he spent an aggregate of only 14 in England.

His career may be considered in three aspects: the defense and enlargement of his dominions, the involvement in two lengthy and disastrous personal quarrels, and his lasting administrative and judicial reforms.

His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. This is a misnomer, for Henry's sovereignty rested upon various titles, and there was no institutional or legal bond between different regions. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three daughters gave him political influence in Germany, Castile, and Sicily. His continental dominions brought him into contact with Louis VII of France, the German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and, for much of the reign, Pope Alexander III. With Louis the relationship was ambiguous. Henry had taken Louis's former wife and her rich heritage. He subsequently acquired the Vexin in Normandy by the premature marriage of his son Henry to Louis's daughter, and during much of his reign he was attempting to outfight or outwit the French king, who, for his part, gave shelter and comfort to Henry's enemy, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury. The feud with Louis implied friendly relations with Germany, where Henry was helped by his mother's first marriage to the emperor Henry V but hindered by Frederick's maintenance of an antipope, the outcome of a disputed papal election in 1159. Louis supported Alexander III, whose case was strong, and Henry became arbiter of European opinion. Though acknowledging Alexander, he continued throughout the Becket controversy to threaten transference of allegiance to Frederick's antipope, thus impeding Alexander's freedom of action.

Early in his reign Henry obtained from Malcolm III of Scotland homage and the restoration of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and later in the reign (1174) homage was exacted from William the Lion, Malcolm's brother and successor. In 1157 Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. In Ireland, reputedly bestowed upon him by Pope Adrian IV, Henry allowed an expedition of barons from South Wales to establish Anglo-Norman supremacy in Leinster (1169), which the King himself extended in 1171.

His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family.

The quarrel with Becket, Henry's trusted and successful chancellor (1154–62), broke out soon after Becket's election to the archbishopric of Canterbury (May 1162). It led to a complete severance of relations and to the Archbishop's voluntary exile. Besides disrupting the public life of the church, this situation embroiled Henry with Louis VII and Alexander III; and, though it seemingly did little to hamper Henry's activities, the time and service spent in negotiations and embassies was considerable, and the tragic denouement in Becket's murder earned for Henry a good deal of damaging opprobrium.

More dangerous were the domestic quarrels, which thwarted Henry's plans and even endangered his life and which finally brought him down in sorrow and shame.

Throughout his adult life Henry's sexual morality was lax; but his relations with Eleanor, 11 years his senior, were for long tolerably harmonious, and, between 1153 and 1167, she bore him eight children. Of these, the four sons who survived infancy—Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John—repaid his genuine affection with resentment toward their father and discord among themselves. None was blameless, but the cause of the quarrels was principally Henry's policy of dividing his dominions among his sons while reserving real authority for himself. In 1170 he crowned his eldest son, Henry, as co-regent with himself; but in fact the young king had no powers and resented his nonentity, and in 1173 he opposed his father's proposal to find territories for the favored John (Lackland) at the expense of Geoffrey. Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. There was a general revolt of the baronage in England and Normandy, supported by Louis VII in France and William the Lion in Scotland. Henry's prestige was at a low ebb after the murder of Becket and recent taxation, but he reacted energetically, settled matters in Normandy and Brittany, and crossed to England, where fighting had continued for a year. On July 12, 1174, he did public penance at Canterbury. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwick, and three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England. His sons were pardoned, but Eleanor was kept in custody until her husband died.

A second rebellion flared up in 1181 with a quarrel between his sons Henry and Richard over the government of Aquitaine, but young Henry died in 1183. In 1184 Richard quarrelled with John, who had been ordered to take Aquitaine off his hands. Matters were eased by the death of Geoffrey (1186), but the King's attempt to find an inheritance for John led to a coalition against him of Richard and the young Philip II Augustus, who had succeeded his father, Louis VII, as king of France. Henry was defeated and forced to give way, and news that John also had joined his enemies hastened the King's death near Tours in 1189.

In striking contrast to the checkered pattern of Henry's wars and schemes, his governance of England displays a careful and successful adaptation of means to a single end—the control of a realm served by the best administration in Europe. This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and not until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated by the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his followers—did the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light.

At the beginning of his reign Henry found England in disorder, with royal authority ruined by civil war and the violence of feudal magnates. His first task was to crush the unruly elements and restore firm government, using the existing institutions of government, with which the Anglo-Norman monarchy was well provided. Among these was the King's council of barons, with its inner group of ministers who were both judges and accountants and who sat at the Exchequer, into which the taxes and dues of the shires were paid by the King's local representative, the sheriff (shire-reeve). The council contained an unusually able group of men—some of them were great barons, such as Richard de Lucy and Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; others included civil servants, such as Nigel, bishop of Ely, Richard Fitzneale, and his son, Richard of Ilchester. Henry took a personal interest in the technique of the Exchequer, which was described at length for posterity in the celebrated Dialogus de scaccario, whose composition seemed to Maitland “one of the most wonderful things of Henry's wonderful reign.” How far these royal servants were responsible for the innovations of the reign cannot be known, though the development in practice continued steadily, even during the King's long absences abroad.

In the early months of the reign the King, using his energetic and versatile chancellor Becket, beat down the recalcitrant barons and their castles and began to restore order to the country and to the various forms of justice. It was thus, a few years later, that he came into conflict with the bishops, then led by Becket, over the alleged right of clerics to be tried for crime by an ecclesiastical court. A result of this was the celebrated collection of decrees—the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)—which professed to reassert the ancestral rights of the King over the church in such matters as clerical immunity, appointment of bishops, custody of vacant sees, excommunication, and appeals to Rome. The Archbishop, after an initial compliance, refused to accept these, and they were throughout the controversy, a block to an agreement. The quarrel touched what was to be the King's chief concern—the country's judicial system.

Anglo-Saxon England had two courts of justice—that of the hundred, a division of the shire, for petty offenses, and that of the shire, presided over by the sheriff. The feudal regime introduced by the Normans added courts of the manor and of the honor (a complex of estates). Above all stood the royal right to set up courts for important pleas and to hear, either in person or through his ministers, any appeal. Arrest was a local responsibility, usually hard upon a flagrant crime. A doubt of guilt was settled by ordeal by battle; the accused in the shire underwent tests held to reveal God's judgment. Two developments had come in since William the Conqueror's day: the occasional mission of royal justices into the shires and the occasional use of a jury of local notables as fact finders in cases of land tenure.

Henry's first comprehensive program was the Assize of Clarendon (1166), in which the procedure of criminal justice was established; 12 “lawful” men of every hundred, and four of every village, acting as a “jury of presentment,” were bound to declare on oath whether any local man was a robber or murderer. Trial of those accused was reserved to the King's justices, and prisons for those awaiting trial were to be erected at the King's expense. This provided a system of criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused. In feudal courts the trial by battle could be avoided by the establishment of a concord, or fine. This system presupposed regular visits by the King's justices on circuit, and these tours became part of the administration of the country. The justices formed three groups: one on tour, one “on the bench” at Westminster, and one with the King when the court was out of London. Those at Westminster dealt with private pleas and cases sent up from the justices on eyre.

Equally effective were the “possessory assizes.” In the feudal world, especially in times of turmoil, violent ejections and usurpations were common, with consequent vendettas and violence. Pleas brought to feudal courts could be delayed or altogether frustrated. As a remedy Henry established the possessory writ, an order from the Exchequer, directing the sheriff to convene a sworn local jury at petty assize to establish the fact of dispossession, whereupon the sheriff had to reinstate the defendant pending a subsequent trial at the grand assize to establish the rights of the case. This was the writ of Novel Disseisin (i.e., recent dispossession). This writ was returnable; if the sheriff failed to achieve reinstatement, he had to summon the defendant to appear before the King's justices and himself be present with the writ. A similar writ of Mort d'Ancestor decided whether the ancestor of a plaintiff had in fact possessed the estate, whereas that of Darrein Presentment (i.e., last presentation) decided who in fact had last presented a parson to a particular benefice. All these writs gave rapid and clear verdicts subject to later revision. The fees enriched the treasury, and recourse to the courts both extended the King's control and discouraged irregular self-help. Two other practices developed by Henry became permanent. One was scutage, the commutation of military service for a money payment; the other was the obligation, put on all free men with a property qualification by the Assize of Arms (1181), to possess arms suitable to their station.

The ministers who engaged upon these reforms took a fully professional interest in the business they handled, as may be seen in Fitzneale's writing on the Exchequer and that of the chief justiciar, Ranulf de Glanville, on the laws of England; and many of the expedients adopted by the King may have been suggested by them. In any case, the long-term results were very great. By the multiplication of a class of experts in finance and law Henry did much to establish two great professions, and the location of a permanent court at Westminster and the character of its business settled for England (and for much of the English-speaking world) that common law, not Roman law, would rule the courts and that London, and not an academy, would be its principal nursery. Moreover, Henry's decrees ensured that the judge-and-jury combination would become normal and that the jury would gradually supplant ordeal and battle as being responsible for the verdict. Finally, the increasing use of scutage, and the availability of the royal courts for private suits, were effective agents in molding the feudal monarchy into a monarchical bureaucracy before the appearance of Parliament.

Henry II lived in an age of biographers and letter writers of genius. John of Salisbury, Thomas Becket, Giraldus Cambrensis, Walter Map, Peter of Blois, and others knew him well and left their impressions. All agreed on his outstanding ability and striking personality and also recorded his errors and aspects of his character that appear contradictory, whereas modern historians agree upon the difficulty of reconciling its main features. Without deep religious or moral conviction, Henry nevertheless was respected by three contemporary saints, Aelred of Rievaulx, Gilbert of Sempringham, and Hugh of Lincoln. Normally an approachable and faithful friend and master, he could behave with unreasonable inhumanity. His conduct and aims were always self-centred, but he was neither a tyrant nor an odious egoist. Both as man and ruler he lacked the stamp of greatness that marked Alfred the Great and William the Conqueror. He seemed also to lack wisdom and serenity; and he had no comprehensive view of the country's interest, no ideals of kingship, no sympathetic care for his people. But if his reign is to be judged by its consequences for England, it undoubtedly stands high in importance, and Henry, as its mainspring, appears among the most notable of English kings.

Henry married Eleanore d' Aquitanie [18087] [MRIN: 6105] on 18 May 1152 in Poitiers. Eleanore was born about 1122 in Chateau de Belin, Guinne, France and died on 1 Apr 1204 in l'Abbaye de Maine et Loire, France about age 82.

General Notes: born c. 1122
died April 1, 1204, Fontevrault, Anjou, Fr.

Also called Eleanor Of Guyenne, French Éléonore, or Aliénor, D'aquitaine, or De Guyennequeen consort of both Louis VII of France (in 1137–52) and Henry II of England (in 1152–1204) and mother of Richard I the Lion-Heart and John of England. She was perhaps the most powerful woman in 12th-century Europe.

Eleanor was the daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers, who possessed one of the largest domains in France—larger, in fact, than those held by the French king. Upon William's death in 1137 she inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine and in July 1137 married the heir to the French throne, who succeeded his father, Louis VI, the following month. Eleanor became queen of France, a title she held for the next 15 years. Beautiful, capricious, and adored by Louis, Eleanor exerted considerable influence over him, often goading him into undertaking perilous ventures.

From 1147 to 1149 Eleanor accompanied Louis on the Second Crusade to protect the fragile Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, founded after the First Crusade only 50 years before, from Turkish assault. Eleanor's conduct during this expedition, especially at the court of her uncle Raymond of Poitiers at Antioch, aroused Louis's jealousy and marked the beginning of their estrangement. After their return to France and a short-lived reconciliation, their marriage was annulled in March 1152. According to feudal customs, Eleanor then regained possession of Aquitaine, and two months later she married the grandson of Henry I of England, Henry Plantagenet, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy. In 1154 he became, as Henry II, king of England, with the result that England, Normandy, and the west of France were united under his rule. Eleanor had only two daughters by Louis VII; to her new husband she bore five sons and three daughters. The sons were William, who died at the age of three; Henry; Richard, the Lion-Heart; Geoffrey, duke of Brittany; and John, surnamed Lackland until, having outlived all his brothers, he inherited, in 1199, the crown of England. The daughters were Matilda, who married Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria; Eleanor, who married Alfonso VIII, king of Castile; and Joan, who married successively William II, king of Sicily, and Raymond VI, count of Toulouse. Eleanor would well have deserved to be named the “grandmother of Europe.”

During her childbearing years, she participated actively in the administration of the realm and even more actively in the management of her own domains. She was instrumental in turning the court of Poitiers, then frequented by the most famous troubadours of the time, into a centre of poetry and a model of courtly life and manners. She was the great patron of the two dominant poetic movements of the time: the courtly love tradition, conveyed in the romantic songs of the troubadours, and the historical matière de Bretagne, or “legends of Britanny,” which originated in Celtic traditions and in the Historia regum Britanniae, written by the chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth some time between 1135 and 1139.

The revolt of her sons against her husband in 1173 put her cultural activities to a brutal end. Since Eleanor, 11 years her husband's senior, had long resented his infidelities, the revolt may have been instigated by her; in any case, she gave her sons considerable military support. The revolt failed, and Eleanor was captured while seeking refuge in the kingdom of her first husband, Louis VII. Her semi-imprisonment in England ended only with the death of Henry II in 1189. On her release, Eleanor played a greater political role than ever before. She actively prepared for Richard's coronation as king, was administrator of the realm during his crusade to the Holy Land, and, after his capture by the Duke of Austria on Richard's return from the east, collected his ransom and went in person to escort him to England. During Richard's absence, she succeeded in keeping his kingdom intact and in thwarting the intrigues of his brother John Lackland and Philip II Augustus, king of France, against him.

In 1199 Richard died without leaving an heir to the throne, and John was crowned king. Eleanor, nearly 80 years old, fearing the disintegration of the Plantagenet domain, crossed the Pyrenees in 1200 in order to fetch her granddaughter Blanche from the court of Castile and marry her to the son of the French king. By this marriage she hoped to insure peace between the Plantagenets of England and the Capetian kings of France. In the same year she helped to defend Anjou and Aquitaine against her grandson Arthur of Brittany, thus securing John's French possessions. In 1202 John was again in her debt for holding Mirebeau against Arthur, until John, coming to her relief, was able to take him prisoner. John's only victories on the Continent, therefore, were due to Eleanor.

She died in 1204 at the monastery at Fontevrault, Anjou, where she had retired after the campaign at Mirebeau. Her contribution to England extended beyond her own lifetime; after the loss of Normandy (1204), it was her own ancestral lands and not the old Norman territories that remained loyal to England. She has been misjudged by many French historians who have noted only her youthful frivolity, ignoring the tenacity, political wisdom, and energy that characterized the years of her maturity. “She was beautiful and just, imposing and modest, humble and elegant”; and, as the nuns of Fontevrault wrote in their necrology: a queen “who surpassed almost all the queens of the world.”


Children from this marriage were:

   59 M    i. William Plantagenet [18627] .

   60 M    ii. Henry Plantagenet [18628] .

   61 F    iii. Matilda Plantagenet [18632] .

   62 F    iv. Eleanor Plantagenet [18633] .

   63 F    v. Joan Plantagenet [18634] .

   64 M    vi. King Richard de Aquitaine I "Lionheart" [18629] was born on 8 Sep 1157 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, died on 6 Apr 1199 in Chalus, Aquitaine at age 41, and was buried in Fontevrault Abbey, Anjou.

General Notes: born Sept. 8, 1157, Oxford
died April 6, 1199, Châlus, Duchy of Aquitaine

Richard The Lion-heart, or Lion-hearted, French Richard Coeur De Lionduke of Aquitaine (from 1168) and of Poitiers (from 1172) and king of England, duke of Normandy, and count of Anjou (1189–99). His knightly manner and his prowess in the Third Crusade (1189–92) made him a popular king in his own time as well as the hero of countless romantic legends. He has been viewed less kindly by more recent historians and scholars.

Richard was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and he was given the Duchy of Aquitaine, his mother's inheritance, at the age of 11 and was enthroned as duke at Poitiers in 1172. Richard possessed precocious political and military ability, won fame for his knightly prowess, and quickly learned how to control the turbulent aristocracy of Poitou and Gascony. Like all Henry II's legitimate sons, he had little or no filial piety, foresight, or sense of responsibility. He joined his brothers in the great rebellion (1173–74) against their father, who invaded Aquitaine twice before Richard submitted and received pardon. Thereafter Richard was occupied with suppressing baronial revolts in his own duchy. His harshness infuriated the Gascons, who revolted in 1183 and called in the help of the “Young King” Henry and his brother Geoffrey of Brittany in an effort to drive Richard from his duchy altogether. Alarmed at the threatened disintegration of his empire, Henry II brought the feudal host of his continental lands to Richard's aid, but the younger Henry died suddenly (June 11, 1183) and the uprising collapsed.

Richard was now heir to England, and to Normandy and Anjou (which were regarded as inseparable), and his father wished him to yield Aquitaine to his youngest brother, John. But Richard, a true southerner, would not surrender the duchy in which he had grown up, and even appealed, against Henry II, to the young king of France, Philip II Augustus. In November 1188 he did homage to Philip for all the English holdings on French soil and in 1189 openly joined forces with Philip to drive Henry into abject submission. They chased him from Le Mans to Saumur, forced him to acknowledge Richard as his heir, and at last harried him to his death (July 6, 1189).

Richard received Normandy on July 20 and the English throne on September 30. Richard, unlike Philip, had only one ambition, to lead the crusade prompted by Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187. He had no conception of planning for the future of the English monarchy and put up everything for sale to buy arms for the crusade. Yet he had not become king to preside over the dismemberment of the Angevin empire. He broke with Philip and did not neglect Angevin defenses on the Continent. Open war was averted only because Philip also took the cross. Richard dipped deep into his father's treasure and sold sheriffdoms and other offices. With all this he raised a formidable fleet and an army, and in 1190 he departed for the Holy Land, traveling via Sicily.

Richard found the Sicilians hostile and took Messina by storm (October 4). To prevent the German emperor Henry VI from ruling their country, the Sicilians had elected the native Tancred of Lecce, who had imprisoned the late king's wife, Joan of England (Richard's sister), and denied her possession of her dower. By the Treaty of Messina Richard obtained for Joan her release and her dower, acknowledged Tancred as king of Sicily, declared Arthur of Brittany (Richard's nephew) to be his own heir, and provided for Arthur to marry Tancred's daughter. This treaty infuriated the Germans, who were also taking part in the Third Crusade, and it incited Richard's brother John to treachery and rebellion. Richard joined the other crusaders at Acre on June 8, 1191, having conquered Cyprus on his way there. While at Limassol in Cyprus, Richard married (May 12) Berengaria of Navarre.

Acre fell in July 1191, and on September 7 Richard's brilliant victory at Ars¨f put the crusaders in possession of Joppa. Twice Richard led his forces to within a few miles of Jerusalem. But the recapture of the city, which constituted the chief aim of the Third Crusade, eluded him. There were fierce quarrels among the French, German, and English contingents. Richard insulted Leopold V, duke of Austria, by tearing down his banner and quarreled with Philip Augustus, who returned to France after the fall of Acre. Richard's candidate for the crown of Jerusalem was his vassal Guy de Lusignan, whom he supported against the German candidate, Conrad of Montferrat. It was rumored, unjustly, that Richard connived at Conrad's murder. After a year's unproductive skirmishing, Richard (September 1192) made a truce for three years with Saladin that permitted the crusaders to hold Acre and a thin coastal strip and gave Christian pilgrims free access to the holy places.

Richard sailed home by way of the Adriatic, because of French hostility, and a storm drove his ship ashore near Venice. Because of the enmity of Duke Leopold he disguised himself, but he was discovered at Vienna in December 1192 and imprisoned in the Duke's castle at Dürnstein on the Danube. Later, he was handed over to Henry VI, who kept him at various imperial castles. It was around Richard's captivity in a castle, whose identity was at first unknown in England, that the famous romance of Blondel was woven in the 13th century.

Under the threat of being handed over to Philip II, Richard agreed to the harsh terms imposed by Henry VI: a colossal ransom of 150,000 marks and the surrender of his kingdom to the Emperor on condition that he receive it back as a fief. The raising of the ransom money was one of the most remarkable fiscal measures of the 12th century and gives striking proof of the prosperity of England. A very high proportion of the ransom was paid, and meanwhile (February 1194) Richard was released.

He returned at once to England and was crowned for the second time on April 17, fearing that the independence of his kingship had been compromised. Within a month he went to Normandy, never to return. His last five years were spent in warfare against Philip II, interspersed with occasional truces. The King left England in the capable hands of Hubert Walter, justiciar and archbishop of Canterbury. It was Richard's impetuosity that brought him to his death at the early age of 42. The Vicomte of Limoges refused to hand over a hoard of gold unearthed by a local peasant. Richard laid siege to his castle of Châlus and in an unlucky moment was wounded. He died in 1199. He was buried in the abbey church of Fontevrault, where Henry II and Queen Eleanor are also buried, and his effigy is still preserved there.

Richard was a thoroughgoing Angevin, irresponsible and hot-tempered, possessed of tremendous energy, and capable of great cruelty. He was more accomplished than most of his family, a soldier of consummate ability, a skillful politician, and capable of inspiring loyal service. He was a lyric poet of considerable power and the hero of troubadours. In striking contrast with his father and with King John, he was, there seems no doubt, a homosexual. He had no children by Queen Berengaria, with whom his relations seem to have been merely formal.

Richard married Berengaria Sancho [18086] [MRIN: 6390] on 12 May 1191 in Limassol, Cyprus. Berengaria was born c1163 and died after 1230.

   65 M    vii. Duke Geoffrey Plantagenet de Brittany [18630] was born on 23 Sep 1158 and died in Aug 1186 in Paris, France at age 27.

General Notes: born Sept. 23, 1158
died Aug. 19?, 1186, Paris [France]

also called Geoffrey Plantagenet, French Geoffroi Plantagenet duke of Brittany and earl of Richmond, the fourth, but third surviving, son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

In 1166, in furtherance of his father's policy of extending and consolidating Angevin power in France, Geoffrey was betrothed to Constance, daughter and heir of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany. At the same time, Duke Conan was forced to surrender to Henry II for Geoffrey's use the whole duchy of Brittany except the county of Guingamp. Geoffrey received the homage of the Breton nobles in 1169, and in 1173 he joined the rebellion against Henry II led by his eldest brother, Henry, the “Young King,” and supported by the rulers of France, Scotland, and Flanders. He submitted to his father at Michaelmas, 1174, and was sent back to Brittany, where he proceeded to recover lost ducal estates and subdue rebellious barons. He and Constance were married in 1181.

From then until his death he fought against both his brother Richard the Lion-Heart and his father (toward whom he behaved atrociously), largely for possession of Anjou. In 1185 he issued an “assize” at Rennes regularizing the succession to military fiefs in Brittany. He died at Paris, either of illness or in a tournament, leaving a daughter, Eleanor, and a posthumous son, Arthur I.

+ 66 M    viii. King John Plantagenet "Lackland" [18631] was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England and died on 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England at age 48.

Henry next married Ida Plantagenet [18081] [MRIN: 6104] in 1176. Ida was born in 1154 in Norfolk, England.
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57. Mabel FitzRobert [18099] was born in 1155 and died in 1188 at age 33.

Mabel married Gruffudd ap Ifor Bach [18100] [MRIN: 6112]. Gruffudd was born about 1158 and died in 1211 about age 53.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 67 M    i. Rhys ap Gruffudd [18101] .

58. Gracia de Briwere "The Dark" [18210] was born in 1186 in Stoke, Devonshire, England and died in 1223 at age 37.

Gracia married Reginald de Braose [18211] [MRIN: 6166]. Reginald was born in 1178 in Bramber, Sussex, England and died on 9 Jun 1228 in Brecon, Breconshire, Wales at age 50.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 68 M    i. Lord William de Braose "Black Will" [18212] was born about 1200 in Brecknock, Surrey, England and died on 2 May 1230 in Wales about age 30.

66. King John Plantagenet "Lackland" [18631] was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England and died on 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England at age 48.

General Notes: born Dec. 24, 1167, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England
died Oct. 19, 1216, Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England.

King of England, Lord of Ireland, County of Mortain, Duke of Normandy.

John Lackland, French Jean Sans Terreking of England from 1199 to 1216. In a war with the French king Philip II, he lost Normandy and almost all his other possessions in France. In England, after a revolt of the barons, he was forced to seal the Magna Carta (1215).

John was the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry's plan (1173) to assign to John, his favorite son (whom he had nicknamed Lackland), extensive lands upon his marriage with the daughter of Humbert III, count of Maurienne (Savoy), was defeated by the rebellion the proposal provoked among John's elder brothers. Various provisions were made for him in England (1174–76), including the succession to the earldom of Gloucester. He was also granted the lordship of Ireland (1177), which he visited from April to late 1185, committing youthful political indiscretions from which he acquired a reputation for reckless irresponsibility. Henry's continued favor to him contributed to the rebellion of his eldest surviving son, Richard I (later called Coeur de Lion), in June 1189. For obscure reasons John deserted Henry for Richard.

On Richard's accession in July 1189, John was made count of Mortain (a title that became his usual style), was confirmed as lord of Ireland, was granted lands and revenues in England worth £6,000 a year, and was married to Isabella, heiress to the earldom of Gloucester. He also had to promise (March 1190) not to enter England during Richard's absence on his crusade. But John's actions were now dominated by the problem of the succession, in which his nephew, the three-year-old Arthur I, duke of Brittany, the son of his deceased elder brother Geoffrey, was his only serious rival. When Richard recognized Arthur as his heir (October 1190), John immediately broke his oath and returned to England, where he led the opposition to Richard's dictatorial chancellor, William Longchamp. On receiving the news in January 1193 that Richard, on his way back from the crusade, had been imprisoned in Germany, John allied himself with King Philip II Augustus of France and attempted unsuccessfully to seize control of England. In April 1193 he was forced to accept a truce but made further arrangements with Philip for the division of Richard's possessions and for rebellion in England. On Richard's return, early in 1194, John was banished and deprived of all his lands. He was reconciled to Richard in May and recovered some of his estates, including Mortain and Ireland, in 1195, but his full rehabilitation came only after the Bretons had surrendered Arthur to Philip II in 1196. This led Richard to recognize John as his heir.

In 1199 the doctrine of representative succession, which would have given the throne to Arthur, was not yet generally accepted, and following Richard's death in April 1199 John was invested as duke of Normandy and in May crowned king of England. Arthur, backed by Philip II, was recognized as Richard's successor in Anjou and Maine, and it was only a year later, in the Treaty of Le Goulet, that John was recognized as successor in all Richard's French possessions, in return for financial and territorial concessions to Philip.

The renewal of war in France was triggered by John's second marriage. His first wife, Isabella of Gloucester, was never crowned, and in 1199 the marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity, both parties being great-grandchildren of Henry I. John then intervened in the stormy politics of his county of Poitou and, while trying to settle the differences between the rival families of Lusignan and Angoulême, himself married Isabella (August 1200), the heiress to Angoulême, who had been betrothed to Hugh IX de Lusignan. This politically conceived marriage provoked the Lusignans into rebellion the next year; they appealed to Philip II, who summoned John to appear before his court. In the general war that followed his failure to answer this summons, John had a temporary success at Mirebeau in August 1202, when Arthur of Brittany was captured, but Normandy was quickly lost (1204). By 1206, Anjou, Maine, and parts of Poitou had also gone over to King Philip.

These failures, foreshadowed under Henry II and Richard, were brought about by the superiority of French resources and the increasing strain on those of England and Normandy. Nevertheless, they were a damaging blow to John's prestige, and, equally important, they meant that John resided now almost permanently in England. This factor, coinciding with the death (1205) of the chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, gave his government a much more personal stamp, which was accentuated by the promotion of members of his household to important office. His determination to reverse the continental failure bore fruit in ruthlessly efficient financial administration, marked by taxation on revenues, investigations into the royal forests, taxation of the Jews, a great inquiry into feudal tenures, and the increasingly severe exploitation of his feudal prerogatives. These measures provided the material basis for the charges of tyranny later brought against him.

John's attention was diverted and his prestige disastrously affected by relations with the papacy. In the disputed election to the see of Canterbury following the death of Hubert Walter, Pope Innocent III quashed the election of John's nominee in procuring the election of Stephen Langton (December 1206). John, taking his ground on the traditional rights of the English crown in Episcopal elections, refused to accept Langton. In March 1208, Innocent laid an interdict on England and excommunicated John (November 1209). The quarrel continued until 1213, by which time John had amassed more than £100,000 from the revenues of vacant or appropriated sees and abbeys. But such a dispute was a dangerous hindrance to John's intention to recover his continental lands. In November 1212 he agreed to accept Langton and the Pope's terms. Apparently at his own behest, he surrendered his kingdom to the papal nuncio at Ewell, near Dover, on May 15, 1213, receiving it back as a vassal rendering a tribute of 1,000 marks (£666 13s. 4d.) a year. He was absolved from excommunication by Langton in July 1213, and the interdict was finally relaxed a year later. John thus succeeded in his aim to secure the papacy as a firm ally in the fight with Philip and in the struggle already pending with his own baronage. But his treatment of the church during the interdict, although arousing little if any opposition among the laity at the time, angered monastic chroniclers, who henceforth loaded him with charges of tyranny, cruelty, and, with less reason, of sacrilege and irreligion.

In August 1212 recurrent baronial discontent had come to a head in an unsuccessful plot to murder or desert John during a campaign planned against the Welsh. Pope Innocent's terms had included the restoration of two of those involved, Eustace de Vesci and Robert Fitzwalter, and, although the barons soon lost papal support, they retained the protection of Stephen Langton. John, skillfully isolating the malcontents, was able to launch his long-planned campaign against the French, landing at La Rochelle in February 1214. He achieved nothing decisive and was forced to accept a truce lasting until 1220. Returning to England in October 1214, he now had to face much more widespread discontent, centered mainly on the northern, East Anglian, and home counties. After lengthy negotiations in which both sides appealed to the Pope, civil war broke out in May 1215. John was compelled to negotiate once more when London went over to the rebels in May, and on June 19 at Runnymede he accepted the baronial terms embodied in the Magna Carta, which ensured feudal rights and restated English law. This settlement was soon rendered unworkable by the more intransigent barons and John's almost immediate appeal to Pope Innocent against it. Innocent took the King's side, and in the ensuing civil war John captured Rochester castle and laid waste the northern counties and the Scottish border. But his cause was weakened by the arrival of Prince Louis (later Louis VIII) of France, who invaded England at the barons' request. John continued to wage war vigorously but died, leaving the issues undecided. His death made possible a compromise peace, including the restoration of the rebels, the succession of his son Henry III, and the withdrawal of Louis.

John's reputation, bad at his death, was further depressed by writers of the next generation. Of all centuries prior to the present, only the 16th, mindful of his quarrel with Rome, recognized some of his quality. He was suspicious, vengeful, and treacherous; Arthur I of Brittany was probably murdered in captivity, and Matilda de Braose, the wife of a recalcitrant Marcher baron, was starved to death with her son in a royal prison. But John was cultured and literate. Conventional in his religion rather than devout, he was remembered for his benefactions to the church of Coventry, to Reading Abbey, and to Worcester, where he was buried and where his effigy still survives. He was extraordinarily active, with a great love of hunting and a readiness to travel that gave him a knowledge of England matched by few other monarchs. He took a personal interest in judicial and financial administration, and his reign saw important advances at the Exchequer, in the administration of justice, in the importance of the privy seal and the royal household, in methods of taxation and military organization, and in the grant of chartered privileges to towns. If his character was unreliable, his political judgment was acute. In 1215 many barons, including some of the most distinguished, fought on his side.

John married Suzanne de Warenne [18082] [MRIN: 6101]. Suzanne was born about 1166.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 69 M    i. King Henry III Plantagenet [18079] was born on 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle Hampshire, England and died on 16 Nov 1272 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 65.

John next married Clemence de Arcy [18083] [MRIN: 6102]. Clemence was born about 1173 and died in Sep 1196 about age 23.

John next married Isabelle Taillefer [18084] [MRIN: 6103] on 24 Jun 1200 in Bordeaux. Isabelle was born in 1188 in Angouleme, France and died on 31 May 1246 in Fontevrault at age 58.
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67. Rhys ap Gruffudd [18101] .

Rhys married.

His child was:

+ 70 F    i. Joan verch Rhys [18102] .

68. Lord William de Braose "Black Will" [18212] was born about 1200 in Brecknock, Surrey, England and died on 2 May 1230 in Wales about age 30.

William married Eva Marshal [18213] [MRIN: 6167]. Eva was born about 1206 in Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales and died before 1246 in England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 71 F    i. Eva de Braose [18214] was born in 1220 in Bramber, Sussex, England and died before 28 Jul 1255.

69. King Henry III Plantagenet [18079] was born on 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle Hampshire, England and died on 16 Nov 1272 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 65.

General Notes: Married 14 January 1236 at Canterbury Cathedral - nine children.
Born October 1, 1207, Winchester, Hampshire, Eng.
Died November 16, 1272, London

King of England from 1216 to 1272. In the 24 years(1234–58) during which he had effective control of the government, he displayed such indifference to tradition that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258).

The elder son and heir of King John (ruled 1199–1216), Henry was nine years old when his father died. At that time London and much of eastern England were in the hands of rebel barons led by Prince Louis (later King Louis VIII of France), son of the French king Philip II Augustus. A council of regency presided over by the venerable William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, was formed to rule for Henry; by 1217 the rebels had been defeated and Louis forced to withdraw from England. After Pembroke's death in 1219 Hubert de Burgh ran the government until he was dismissed by Henry in 1232. Two ambitious Frenchmen, Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux, then dominated Henry's regime until the barons brought about their expulsion in 1234. That event marked the beginning of Henry's personal rule.

Although Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant yet cowardly, ambitious yet impractical. The breach between the King and his barons began as early as 1237, when the barons expressed outrage at the influence exercised over the government by Henry's Savoyard relatives. The marriage arranged (1238) by Henry between his sister, Eleanor, and his brilliant young French favorite, Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, increased foreign influence and further aroused the nobility's hostility. In 1242 Henry's Lusignan half brothers involved him in a costly and disastrous military venture in France. The barons then began to demand a voice in selecting Henry's counsellors, but the King repeatedly rejected their proposal. Finally, in 1254 Henry made a serious blunder. He concluded an agreement with Pope Innocent IV (pope 1243–54), offering to finance papal wars in Sicily if the Pope would grant his infant son, Edmund, the Sicilian crown. Four years later Pope Alexander IV (pope 1254–61) threatened to excommunicate Henry for failing to meet this financial obligation. Henry appealed to the barons for funds, but they agreed to cooperate only if he would accept far-reaching reforms. These measures, the Provisions of Oxford, provided for the creation of a 15-member privy council, selected (indirectly) by the barons, to advise the King and oversee the entire administration. The barons, however, soon quarrelled among themselves, and Henry seized the opportunity to renounce the Provisions (1261). In April 1264 Montfort, who had emerged as Henry's major baronial opponent, raised a rebellion; the following month he defeated and captured the King and his eldest son, Edward, at the Battle of Lewes (May 14, 1264), Sussex. Montfort ruled England in Henry's name until he was defeated and killed by Edward at the Battle of Evesham, Worcestershire, in August 1265. Henry, weak and senile, then allowed Edward to take charge of the government. After the King's death, Edward ascended the throne as King Edward I.



Henry married Eleonore de Provence [18080] [MRIN: 6100] on 14 Jan 1236 in Canterbury. Eleonore was born about 1217 in Aix-en-Provence, France and died on 24 Jun 1291 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England about age 74.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 72 M    i. King Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" [18077] was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster and died on 7 Jul 1307 in Burh by Sands near Castile at age 68.

+ 73 M    ii. Earl Edmund Plantagenet "Crouchback" [18580] was born on 16 Jan 1244 in London, England and died on 5 Jun 1296 in Bayonne, France at age 52.

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70. Joan verch Rhys [18102] .

Joan married Sir Ralph Maelog [18103] [MRIN: 6114].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 74 F    i. Ann Maelog [18104] .

71. Eva de Braose [18214] was born in 1220 in Bramber, Sussex, England and died before 28 Jul 1255.

Eva married Baron William de Cantelupe III [18215] [MRIN: 6168] after 25 Jul 1238. William was born about 1216 in Aston Cantlow, Warwickshire and died on 25 Sep 1254 in Calne, Wiltshire, England about age 38.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 75 F    i. Millicent de Cantelupe [18216] was born in 1250 and died on 7 Jan 1299 at age 49.

72. King Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" [18077] was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster and died on 7 Jul 1307 in Burh by Sands near Castile at age 68.

General Notes: King of England; Wales, Man, Scotland, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Gascony, Earl of Chester.
Born: Palace of Westminster, 17 June 1239
Died: Burgh-on-Sands, near Carlisle, 7 July 1307, at age 68
Buried: Westminster Abbey
Married: (1) October 1254 at Las Huelgas, Castile, to Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III King of Castile - 16 children. (2) 10 September 1299 at Canterbury Cathedral, to Margaret, daughter of Philippe III, King of France - 3 children. One illegitimate child.

Edward "Longshanks" son of Henry III and king of England in 1272–1307, during a period of rising national consciousness. He strengthened the crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility. He subdued Wales, destroying its autonomy; and he sought (unsuccessfully) the conquest of Scotland. His reign is particularly noted for administrative efficiency and legal reform. He introduced a series of statutes that did much to strengthen the crown in the feudal hierarchy. His definition and emendation of English common law has earned him the name of the “English Justinian".

Edward was the eldest son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. In 1254 he was given the duchy of Gascony, the French Oléron, the Channel Islands, Ireland, Henry's lands in Wales, and the earldom of Chester, as well as several castles. Henry negotiated Edward's marriage with Eleanor, half sister of Alfonso X of Leon and Castile. Edward married Eleanor at Las Huelgas in Spain (October 1254) and then traveled to Bordeaux to organize his scattered appanage. He now had his own household and officials, chancery and seal, with an exchequer (treasury) at Bristol Castle; though nominally governing all his lands, he merely enjoyed the revenues in Gascony and Ireland. He returned to England in November 1255 and attacked Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, prince of Gwynedd, to whom his Welsh subjects had appealed for support when Edward attempted to introduce English administrative units in his Welsh lands. Edward, receiving no help from either Henry or the marcher lords, was defeated ignominiously. His arrogant lawlessness and his close association with his greedy Poitevin uncles, who had accompanied his mother from France, increased Edward's unpopularity among the English. But after the Poitevins were expelled, Edward fell under the influence of Simon de Montfort, his uncle by marriage,with whom he made a formal pact. Montfort was the leader of a baronial clique that was attempting to curb the misgovernment of Henry.

Edward reluctantly accepted the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which gave effective government to the barons at the expense of the king. On the other hand, he intervened dramatically to support the radical Provisions of Westminster (October 1259), which ordered the barons to accept reforms demanded by their tenants. In the dangerous crisis early in 1260 he supported Montfort and the extremists, though finally he deserted Montfort and was forgiven by Henry (May 1260). He was sent to Gascony in October 1260 but returned early in 1263. Civil war had now broken out between Henry and the barons, who were supported by London. Edward's violent behavior and his quarrel with the Londoners harmed Henry's cause. At the Battle of Lewes (May 14, 1264) his vengeful pursuit of the Londoners early in the battle contributed to Henry's defeat. Edward surrendered and became a hostage in Montfort's hands. He escaped at Hereford in May 1265 and took charge of the royalist forces, penned Montfort behind the River Severn, and, by lightning strategy, destroyed a large relieving army at Kenilworth (August 1). On August 4 he trapped and slew Montfort at Evesham and rescued Henry. Shattered and enfeebled, Henry allowed Edward effective control of government, and the latter's extreme policy of vengeance, especially against the Londoners, revived and prolonged rebel resistance. Finally, the papal legate Ottobuono, Edward's uncle Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and other moderates persuaded Henry to the milder policy of the Dictum of Kenilworth (Oct. 31, 1266), and after some delay the rebels surrendered. Edward took the cross (1268), intending to join the French king Louis IX on a crusade to the Holy Land, but was delayed by lack of money until August 1270. Louis died before Edward's arrival; and Edward, after wintering in Sicily, went to Acre, where he stayed from May 1271 to September 1272, winning fame by his energy and courage and narrowly escaping death by assassination but achieving no useful results. On his way home he learned in Sicily of Henry III's death on Nov. 16, 1272.

Edward had nominated Walter Giffard, archbishop of York, Philip Basset, Roger Mortimer, and his trusted clerk Robert Burnell to safeguard his interests during his absence. After Henry's funeral, the English barons all swore fealty to Edward (Nov. 20, 1272). His succession by hereditary right and the will of his magnates was proclaimed, and England welcomed the new reign peacefully, Burnell taking charge of the administration with his colleagues' support. The quiet succession demonstrated England's unity only five years after a bitter civil war. Edward could journey homeward slowly,halting in Paris to do homage to his cousin Philip III for his French lands (July 26, 1273), staying several months in Gascony and reaching Dover on Aug. 2, 1274, for his coronation at Westminster on August 19. Now 35 years old, Edward had redeemed a bad start. He had been arrogant, lawless, violent, treacherous, revengeful, and cruel; his Angevin rages matched those of Henry II. Loving his own way and intolerant of opposition, he had still proved susceptible to influence by strong-minded associates. He had shown intense family affection, loyalty to friends, courage, brilliant military capacity, and a gift for leadership; handsome, tall, powerful, and tough, he had the qualities men admired. He loved efficient, strong government, enjoyed power, and had learned to admire justice, though in his own affairs it was often the letter, not the spirit of the law that he observed. Having mastered his anger, he had shown himself capable of patient negotiation, generosity, and even idealism; and he preferred the society and advice of strong counselors with good minds. As long as Burnell and Queen Eleanor lived, the better side of Edward triumphed, and the years until about 1294 were years of great achievement. Thereafter, his character deteriorated for lack of domestic comfort and independent advice. He allowed his autocratic temper full rein and devoted his failing energies to prosecution of the wars in France and against Scotland.

Shrewdly realistic, Edward understood the value of the “parliaments,” which since 1254 had distinguished English government and which Montfort had deliberately employed to publicize government policy and to enlist widespread, active support by summoning representatives of shires and boroughs to the council to decide important matters. Edward developed this practice swiftly, not to share royal power with his subjects but to strengthen royal authority with the support of rising national consciousness. From 1275 to 1307 he summoned knights and burgesses to his parliaments in varying manners. The Parliament of 1295, which included representatives of shires,boroughs, and the lesser clergy, is usually styled the Model Parliament, but the pattern varied from assembly to assembly, as Edward decided. By 1307, Parliament, thus broadly constituted, had become the distinctive feature of English politics, though its powers were still undefined and its organization embryonic.

Edward used these parliaments and other councils to enact measures of consolidation and reform in legal, procedural, and administrative matters of many kinds. The great statutes promulgated between 1275 and 1290 are the glory of his reign. Conservative and definitory rather than original, they owed much to Burnell, Edward's chancellor. With the vast developments and reorganization of the administrative machine that Burnell coordinated, they created a new era in English government. The quo warranto inquiry, begun in 1275, the statutes of Gloucester (1278) and of Quo Warranto (1290) sought with much success to bring existing franchises under control and to prevent the unauthorized assumption of new ones. Tenants were required to show “by what warrant” or right they held their franchises. Edward strove, unsuccessfully, to restore the feudal army and strengthen local government institutions by compelling minor landowners to assume the duties of knighthood. His land legislation, especially the clause de donis conditionalibus in the miscellaneous Second Statute of Westminster (1285) and the statute Quia Emptores (Third Statute of Westminster, 1290), eventually helped to undermine feudalism, quite contrary to his purpose. By the Statute of Mortmain (1279) the crown gained control of the acquisition of land by ecclesiastical bodies. The Statute of Winchester (1285) codified and strengthened the police system for preserving public order. The Statute of Acton Burnell (1283) and the Statute of Merchants (1285) showed practical concern for trade and merchants. These are but the most famous of many statutes aimed at efficiency and sound administration.

Meanwhile, Edward destroyed the autonomous principality of Wales, which, under Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, had expanded to include all Welsh lordships and much territory recovered from the marcher lords. Domestic difficulties had compelled Henry III to recognize Llywelyn's gains by the Treaty of Shrewsbury (1267), but Edward was determined to reduce Llywelyn and used Llywelyn's persistent evasion of his duty to perform homage as a pretext for attack. He invaded Wales by three coordinated advances with naval support (1277), blockaded Llywelyn in Snowdonia, starved him into submission, and stripped him of all his conquests since 1247. He then erected a tremendous ring of powerful castles encircling Gwynedd and reorganized the conquered districts as shires and hundreds. When English rule provoked rebellion, he methodically reconquered the principality, killing both Llywelyn (1282) and his brother David (1283). By the Statute of Wales (1284) he completed the reorganization of the principality on English lines, leaving the Welsh marchers unaffected. A further Welsh rising in 1294–95 was ruthlessly crushed, and Wales remained supine for more than 100 years.

After 1294, matters deteriorated. Queen Eleanor had died in 1290, Burnell in1292, and Edward never thereafter found such good advisers. The conquest and fortification of Wales had badly strained his finances; now endless wars with Scotland and France bankrupted him. He quarrelled bitterly with both clergy and barons, behaving as a rash and obstinate autocrat who refused to recognize his limitations. Philip III and Philip IV of France had both cheated him of the contingent benefits promised by the Treaty of Paris (1259). By constant intervention on pretext of suzerainty they had nibbled at his Gascon borders and undermined the authority of his administration there. After doing homage to Philip IV in 1286, Edward visited Gascony to reorganize the administration and restore authority. On returning to England in 1289 he had to dismiss many judges and officials for corruption and oppression during his absence. In 1290, having systematically stripped the Jews of their remaining wealth, he expelled them from England. French intervention in Gascony was now intensified; affrays between English and French sailors inflamed feelings; and in 1293 Philip IV tricked Edward's brother Edmund, earl of Lancaster, who was conducting negotiations, into ordering a supposedly formal and temporary surrender of the duchy, which Philip then refused to restore. The Welsh rising and Scottish troubles prevented Edward from taking action, and when at last, in 1297, he sailed to attack France from Flanders, his barons refused to invade Gascony, and William Wallace's rising forced him to return. He made peace with Philip (1299) and by Boniface VIII's persuasion married Philip's sister Margaret, and eventually recovered an attenuated Gascon duchy.

For more than 100 years relations between England and Scotland had been amicable, and the border had been remarkably peaceful. Edward inaugurated 250 years of bitter hatred, savage warfare, and bloody border forays. The deaths of Alexander III of Scotland (1286) and his granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway (1290), whom Edward planned to marry to his heir, Edward of Caernarvon (afterward Edward II), ended the line of succession. Many dubious claimants arose, and the Scottish magnates requested Edward's arbitration. Edward compelled the nobles and the claimants to recognize his suzerainty, and only then adjudged John de Balliol king (1292). Balliol did homage and was crowned, but Edward's insistence on effective jurisdiction, as suzerain, in Scottish cases eventually provoked the Scottish nobles to force Balliol to repudiate Edward's claims and to ally with France (1295). Edward invaded and conquered Scotland (1296), removing to Westminster the coronation stone of Scone. Wallace led a revolt in 1297, and Edward, though brilliantly victorious at Falkirk (July 22, 1298), could not subdue the rebellion despite prolonged campaigning (1298–1303).

The strain of these years provoked heavy collisions between Edward and his magnates. He had quarrelled violently with his archbishops of Canterbury, John Peckham (1279–92) and Robert Winchelsey (1293–1313), over ecclesiastical liberties and jurisdiction. In 1297 Winchelsey, obeying Pope Boniface VIII's bull Clericis Laicos (1296), rejected Edward's demands for taxes from the clergy, whereupon Edward outlawed the clergy. His barons now defied his orders to invade Gascony and, when Edward went to Flanders, compelled the regents to confirm the charters of liberties, with important additions forbidding arbitrary taxation (1297), thereby forcing Edward to abandon the campaign and eventually to make peace with France. Although Pope Clement V, more pliant than Boniface, allowed Edward to exile Winchelsey and intimidate the clergy (1306), the barons had exacted further concessions (1301) before reconciliation. Edward renewed the conquest of Scotland in 1303, captured Stirling in 1304, and executed Wallace as a traitor in 1305; but when Scotland seemed finally subjected, Robert I the Bruce revived rebellion and was crowned in 1306. On his way to reconquer Scotland, Edward died near Carlisle.

Edward married Eleanor de Castilie [18078] [MRIN: 6099] on 18 Oct 1254 in Abbey of Las Huelgas, Castile. Eleanor was born in 1241 in Castile and died on 29 Nov 1290 in Herdby, Lincolnshire at age 49.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 76 M    i. John de Botetourte [20073] was born in 1265 and died on 25 Nov 1324 at age 59.

   77 F    ii. Eleanor Plantagenet [20066] was born in 1269 and died in 1298 at age 29.

Eleanor married Count Henri III of Bar [20067] [MRIN: 6822]. Henri died in 1302.

+ 78 F    iii. Joan of Acre [18245] was born in 1272 in Acre, Palestine and died on 23 Apr 1307 in Clare, Suffolk, England at age 35.

   79 M    iv. Earl Alfonso of Chester [20068] was born in 1273 and died in 1284 at age 11.

+ 80 F    v. Margaret Plantagenet [20069] was born in 1275 and died in 1318 at age 43.

+ 81 F    vi. Princess Elizabeth Plantagenet [18076] was born on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle Carnev and died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex at age 33.

+ 82 M    vii. King Edward Plantagenet II [18449] was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Carnarvon Castle and died on 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire at age 43.

Edward next married Margaretha of France [18635] [MRIN: 6391] on 10 Sep 1299 in Canterbury Cathedral, England. Margaretha was born in 1279 and died on 14 Feb 1317 in Marlborough Castle, England at age 38.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Married from: Daughter of King Philippe III of France.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 83 M    i. Earl Edmund of Woodstock [18975] was born on 5 Aug 1301 in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England and died on 19 Mar 1330 in Winchester, Hampshire, England at age 28.

+ 84 M    ii. John de Botetourte [20073] was born in 1265 and died on 25 Nov 1324 at age 59.

   85 M    iii. Earl Thomas Plantagenet of Norfolk [20072] was born in 1300 and died in 1338 at age 38.

73. Earl Edmund Plantagenet "Crouchback" [18580] was born on 16 Jan 1244 in London, England and died on 5 Jun 1296 in Bayonne, France at age 52.

General Notes: born Jan. 16, 1245, London, Eng.
died , c. June 5, 1296, Bayonne, France

Crouchback, second surviving son of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, who founded the house of Lancaster.

At the age of 10, Edmund was invested by Pope Innocent IV with the kingdom of Sicily (April 1255), as an expression of his conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor, who held Sicily; but Edmund was never more than an absentee titular king, and Pope Alexander IV canceled the grant (December 1258).

In 1265 Edmund received the earldom of Leicester, and two years later was created Earl of Lancaster. He joined the crusade of his elder brother, the Lord Edward (1271–1272); and Edward, on his accession as King Edward I, found in Edmund a loyal supporter. In 1275, two years after the death of his first wife, Edmund married Blanche of Artois, the widow of Henry III of Navarre and Champagne, and assumed the title Count Palatine of Champagne and Brie. When the court of King Philip IV of France pronounced that the king of England had forfeited Gascony, Edmund renounced his homage to Philip and withdrew with his wife to England. He was appointed lieutenant of Gascony in 1296 but died in the same year, leaving his son Thomas to succeed him in his English possessions.

Edmund's nickname “Crouchback” (meaning “Crossback,” or crusader) was misinterpreted, probably intentionally, by his direct descendant, King Henry IV, who, in claiming the throne (1399), asserted that Edmund had really been Henry III's eldest son but had been disinherited as a hunchback.

Edmund married Blanche d' Artois [18581] [MRIN: 6365] on 3 Feb 1276 in Paris, France. Blanche was born about 1245 in Arras, France and died on 2 May 1302 in Paris, France about age 57.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 86 M    i. Earl Henry Plantagenet [18582] was born about 1281 in Grosmont Castle, England and died on 22 Sep 1345 in Leicester, England about age 64.

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74. Ann Maelog [18104] .

Ann married Sir Gwrgi Ghant [18105] [MRIN: 6115].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 87 M    i. Jenkins ap Gwrgi [18106] .

75. Millicent de Cantelupe [18216] was born in 1250 and died on 7 Jan 1299 at age 49.

Millicent married Eudes la Zouche [18217] [MRIN: 6169] on 13 Dec 1273. Eudes was born about 1244 in Haryngworth, Northamptonshire and died on 28 Apr 1279 about age 35.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 88 F    i. Elizabeth la Zouche [18218] died after 1297.

76. John de Botetourte [20073] was born in 1265 and died on 25 Nov 1324 at age 59.

John married Maud FitzThomas [19085] [MRIN: 6824] about 1290. Maud died after 28 Apr 1329.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 89 M    i. Sir Otto de Botetourte [20074] died in 1345.

78. Joan of Acre [18245] was born in 1272 in Acre, Palestine and died on 23 Apr 1307 in Clare, Suffolk, England at age 35.

Joan married Lord Ralph de Monthermer [18246] [MRIN: 6187] in Jan 1297 in Akko, Hazafon, Israel. Ralph was born c1262 and died on 5 Apr 1325 at age 63.

Joan next married Earl Gilbert de Clare II "The Red" [18247] [MRIN: 6188] in Nov 1289. Gilbert was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire, England and died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, England at age 52.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 90 F    i. Margaret de Clare [18248] was born in Oct 1292 in Caerphilly Castle, England and died on 13 Apr 1342 at age 49.

80. Margaret Plantagenet [20069] was born in 1275 and died in 1318 at age 43.

Margaret married Duke John II of Brabant [20070] [MRIN: 6823]. John died in 1312.

The child from this marriage was:

   91 M    i. John III of Brabant [20071] was born in 1300 and died in 1355 at age 55.

81. Princess Elizabeth Plantagenet [18076] was born on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle Carnev and died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex at age 33.

Elizabeth married Earl Humphrey de Bohun VIII [18075] [MRIN: 6098] on 14 Nov 1302 in Westminster. Humphrey was born in 1276 and died on 16 Mar 1321 in Boroughbridge, Yorkshire at age 45.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 92 M    i. Earl William de Bohun [18073] was born in 1312 and died in 1360 at age 48.

+ 93 F    ii. Alionore de Bohun [18321] was born in 1304 and died on 7 Oct 1363 at age 59.

+ 94 F    iii. Mary de Bohun [18688] was born c1369 and died in 1394 at age 25.

82. King Edward Plantagenet II [18449] was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Carnarvon Castle and died on 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire at age 43.

General Notes: King of England and Scotland, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Wales, Duke of Acquitaine.

born April 25, 1284, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales
died September 1327, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Eng. (Murdered)

Edward of Caernarvon, King of England from 1307 to 1327. Although he was a man of limited capability, he waged a long, hopeless campaign to assert his authority over powerful barons.

The fourth son of King Edward I, he ascended the throne upon his father's death (July 7, 1307) and immediately gave the highest offices to Edward I's most prominent opponents. He earned the hatred of the barons by granting the earldom of Cornwall to his frivolous favorite (and possible lover), Piers Gaveston. In 1311 a 21-member baronial committee drafted a document-known as the Ordinances-demanding the banishment of Gaveston and the restriction of the King's powers over finances and appointments. Edward pretended to give in to these demands; he sent Gaveston out of the country but soon allowed him to return. In retaliation the barons seized Gaveston and executed him (June 1312).

Edward had to wait 11 years to annul the Ordinances and avenge Gaveston. Meanwhile, the Scottish king Robert I the Bruce was threatening to throw off English overlordship. Edward led an army into Scotland in 1314 but was decisively defeated by Bruce at Bannockburn on June 24. With one stroke, Scotland's independence was virtually secured, and Edward was put at the mercy of a group of barons headed by his cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who by 1315 had made himself the real master of England. Nevertheless, Lancaster proved to be incompetent; by 1318 a group of moderate barons led by Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, had assumed the role of arbitrators between Lancaster and Edward. At this juncture Edward found two new favorites-Hugh le Despenser and his son and namesake. When the King supported the younger Despenser's territorial ambitions in Wales, Lancaster banished both Despensers. Edward then took up arms in their behalf. His opponents fell out among themselves, and he defeated and captured Lancaster at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, in March 1322. Soon afterward, he had Lancaster executed.

At last free of baronial control, Edward revoked the Ordinances. His reliance on the Despensers, however, soon aroused the resentment of his queen, Isabella. While on a diplomatic mission to Paris in 1325, she became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled baronial opponent of Edward. In September 1326 the couple invaded England, executed the Despensers, and deposed Edward in favor of his son, who was crowned (January 1327) King Edward III. Edward II was imprisoned and in September 1327 died, nor by starvation as is often reported and first attempted, rather he was held down while a red hot poker was inserted into his bowels; thus he perished.

Noted events in his life were:

• Length of Rule: Ruled England from 8 July 1307 to 25 January 1327 at which time he abdicated. Edward II was actually crowned on the 25 February 1308 at Westminster Abbey.

• Titles: King of England; King of Scotland; Lord of Ireland; Prince of Wales; Duke of Aquitane.

• Death: The Queen, Isabella, became acquainted with Roger Mortimer, whom she took as a lover. She and Roger had raised an army while she was in France for the purpose of disposing of Edward but the King of France (Charles IV) stood in her way for a time; but Isabella and Mortimer sailed for London, landing on 24 September 1326. It took a mere two months before they had Edward captive at Kenilworth Castle. Isabella called a parliament on 20 January 1327 to seek the deposition of Edward but the parliament had no authority for such decisions. Finally, under pressure, Edward capitulated in favor of his son on 25 January and Edward was transported to Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, where his rescue was attempted by Rhys ap Gruffydd. Isabella and Mortimer feared that Edward might yet make a resurgence, and so Mortimer arranged for Edward's death. He did not want it to appear that violence had been committed against the King. He was hoping for a natural death. So, he tried starving the King. It did not work. In the end Edward was held down while a red hot poker was inserted into his bowels.

He was buried at Gloucestershire Cathedral. It was not until 1330 that his death was avenged. Roger Mortimer was tried and executed and Queen Isabella was placed in confinement at Castle Rising in Norfolk. She lived on for thirty years after her husbands death, dying on 22 August 1358 and was buried at Greyfriars Church at Newgate Prison in London.

Edward married Isabella de France "The She-Wolf" [18450] [MRIN: 6295], daughter of King Philippe de France IV [18451] and Unknown, on 25 Jan 1308 in Boulogne Cathedral. Isabella was born in 1296 and died on 22 Aug 1358 in Hertford Castle at age 62.

General Notes: At their coronation, Isabella had thought she was insulted by Edward by his show of affection for another (Gaveston). She held this grudge and finally entered into an affair with Roger Mortimer.

Relations with France becoming hostile, she requested a visit with the King of France and was soon joined by Roger Mortimer, who lived with her as a lover. In time, she and Mortimer raised an army and landed at Harwich on 24 September 1326. Edward showed little resistance, retreating to a stronghold in Wales. In two months he was captured.

He was held captive at Kenilworth Castle. Meanwhile, Isabelle called upon Parliament to despose of Edward but Parliament had no such authority. Negotiations ensued in favor of Edward's capitulation in favor of his son, which he did on 25 January.

Isabella and Mortimer arranged for Edward's death, attempting to make it appear natural, not wanting a violence to the King to become of public concern. They tried starving Edward but it was unsuccessful. Eventually Edward was tortured with a red hot poker and murdered.

In 1330 Isabella's deeds came to light and she was exiled to imprisonment at Castle Rising in Norfolk, lasting another 30 years. Mortimer was tried and executed after torture.

Isabella is buried at Newgate Prison.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 95 M    i. King Edward Plantagenet III [18452] was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Winsdor, died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Surrey, England at age 64, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

   96 M    ii. Earl John of Cornwall Plantagenet [19086] was born in 1316 and died in 1336 at age 20.

   97 F    iii. Eleanor Plantagenet [19087] was born in 1318 and died in 1355 at age 37.

Eleanor married Count Reginald II of Gueldres [20075] [MRIN: 6560].

   98 F    iv. Joanna Plantagenet [20076] was born in 1321 and died in 1362 at age 41.

Joanna married David II of Scotland [20077] [MRIN: 6825]. David was born in 1324 and died in 1371 at age 47.

83. Earl Edmund of Woodstock [18975] was born on 5 Aug 1301 in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England and died on 19 Mar 1330 in Winchester, Hampshire, England at age 28.

General Notes: born Aug. 5, 1301, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.
died March 19, 1330, Winchester, Hampshire

Edmund of Woodstock youngest brother of England's King Edward II, whom he supported to the forfeit of his own life.

He received many marks of favor from his brother, whom he steadily supported until the last act in Edward's life opened in 1326. He fought in Scotland and then in France and was a member of the council when Edward III became king in 1327. Soon at variance with Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer, Edmund was involved in a conspiracy to restore Edward II, who he was led to believe was still alive (he had been murdered in September 1327); Edmund was arrested and beheaded. Although he had been condemned as a traitor, his elder son Edmund (c. 1327–33) was recognized as earl of Kent in December 1330, the title passing on his death to his brother John (c. 1330–52).

Noted events in his life were:

• Place of Birth: Woodstock (Oxfordshire, England). A royal manor built at least by the time of Athelred II in 995 when he held a council there. It became known as Woodstock Palace by the 12 century. Henry I regularly stayed there, using it as a base for his hunting in the vicinity. Henry II held court there on a number of occasions, the most significant on 1163 where both the Welsh and Scottish rulers paid homage to him and where he first strongly disagreed with Becket. The Scottish King William the Lyon was married there.

• Title: Earl of Kent

Edmund married Margaret le Wakefield [18976] [MRIN: 6506] in Dec 1321. Margaret was born about 1299 and died on 29 Sep 1349 about age 50.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 99 F    i. Countess Joan of Kent "The Fair Maid" [18977] was born on 29 Sep 1328 and died on 8 Aug 1385 at age 56.

84. John de Botetourte [20073] was born in 1265 and died on 25 Nov 1324 at age 59.

John married Maud FitzThomas [19085] [MRIN: 6824] about 1290. Maud died after 28 Apr 1329.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 76)

86. Earl Henry Plantagenet [18582] was born about 1281 in Grosmont Castle, England and died on 22 Sep 1345 in Leicester, England about age 64.

Henry married Maud de Chaworth [18583] [MRIN: 6366] on 2 Mar 1297. Maud was born about 1282 and died on 3 Dec 1322 about age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 100 F    i. Eleanor of Lancaster [18584] was born in 1311 in Grismond Castle, Monmouth, England and died on 11 Jan 1372 in Arundel, Sussex, England at age 61.

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87. Jenkins ap Gwrgi [18106] .

Jenkins married.

His child was:

+ 101 M    i. Gwilym ap Jenkin [18107] .

88. Elizabeth la Zouche [18218] died after 1297.

Elizabeth married Sir Nicholas de Poyntz III [18219] [MRIN: 6170]. Nicholas was born about 1278 and died about 12 Jul 1311 about age 33.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 102 M    i. Nicholas Poyntz [18220] died in 1376.

89. Sir Otto de Botetourte [20074] died in 1345.

Otto married Sibyll Unknown [19088] [MRIN: 6561].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 103 M    i. John de Botetourte [19089] was born c1333 in Mendleshom, Suffolk, England and died in 1377 in Hamerton, Huntingtonshire, England at age 44.

90. Margaret de Clare [18248] was born in Oct 1292 in Caerphilly Castle, England and died on 13 Apr 1342 at age 49.

Margaret married Piers de Gaveston [18249] [MRIN: 6189] on 1 Nov 1307. Piers was born about 1284 in Bearn, Gascony and died on 19 Jun 1312 about age 28.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 104 F    i. Amy (Joan) de Gaveston [18250] was born about 6 Jan 1312.

Margaret next married Earl Hugh de Audley [18279] [MRIN: 6206] on 28 Apr 1317 in Windsor, England. Hugh was born in 1289 and died on 10 Nov 1347 at age 58.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 105 F    i. Baroness Margaret de Audley [18280] was born about 1318 and died on 16 Sep 1349 in Tonbridge, Kent about age 31.

92. Earl William de Bohun [18073] was born in 1312 and died in 1360 at age 48.

William married Elizabeth de Badlesmere [18074] [MRIN: 6097]. Elizabeth was born in 1313 and died in 1356 at age 43.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 106 F    i. Elizabeth de Bohun [18072] died in 1385.

93. Alionore de Bohun [18321] was born in 1304 and died on 7 Oct 1363 at age 59.

Alionore married Earl James Butler [18322] [MRIN: 6229] in 1327. James was born about 1305 and died on 6 Jan 1338 about age 33.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 107 F    i. Pernel Butler [18323] was born in 1327 and died in 1365 at age 38.

94. Mary de Bohun [18688] was born c1369 and died in 1394 at age 25.

General Notes: Eight children.

Mary married King Henry Bolingbroke Lancaster IV [18667] [MRIN: 6419], son of Duke John of Lancaster "of Gaunt" [18463] and Blanche de Lancaster [18662], before 10 Feb 1381 in Arundel, Sussex, England. Henry was born on 2 Apr 1367 in Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England, died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminster Abbey, London at age 45, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

General Notes: born , April 3, 1366, Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, Eng.
died March 20, 1413, London

Also called (1377–97) Earl of Derby, or (1397–99) Duke of Hereford, by name Henry Bolingbroke, or Henry of Lancaster king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the House of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. At the same time he was unable to overcome the fiscal and administrative weaknesses that contributed to the eventual downfall of the Lancastrian dynasty.

Henry was the eldest surviving son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by his first wife, Blanche. Before becoming king he was known as Henry Bolingbroke, and he received from his cousin the titles earl of Derby (1377) and duke of Hereford (1397). During the opening years of the reign of King Richard II (ruled 1377–99), Henry remained in the background while his father ran the government. When Gaunt departed for an expedition to Spain in 1386, Henry entered politics as an opponent of the crown. He and Thomas Mowbray (later 1st duke of Norfolk) became the younger members of the group of five opposition leaders—known as the lords appellants—who in 1387–89 outlawed Richard's closest associates and forced the King to submit to their domination. Richard had just regained the upper hand when Gaunt returned to reconcile the King to his enemies. Bolingbroke then went on crusades into Lithuania (1390) and Prussia (1392). Meanwhile, Richard had not forgiven his past enmity. In 1398 the King took advantage of a quarrel between Bolingbroke and Norfolk to banish both men from the kingdom. The seizure of the Lancastrian estates by the crown upon John of Gaunt's death (February 1399) deprived Henry of his inheritance and gave him an excuse to invade England (July 1399) as a champion of the nobility. Richard surrendered to him in August; Bolingbroke's reign as King Henry IV began when Richard abdicated on Sept. 30, 1399.

Henry IV used his descent from King Henry III (ruled 1216–72) to justify his usurpation of the throne. Nevertheless, this claim did not convince those magnates who aspired to assert their authority at the crown's expense. During the first five years of his reign, Henry was attacked by a formidable array of domestic and foreign enemies. He quashed a conspiracy of Richard's supporters in January 1400. Eight months later the Welsh landowner Owen Glendower raised a national rebellion against oppressive English rule in Wales. Henry led a number of fruitless expeditions into Wales from 1400 to 1405, but his son, Prince Henry, had greater success in reasserting royal control over the region. Meanwhile, Glendower encouraged domestic resistance to Henry's rule by allying with the powerful Percy family—Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, and his son Sir Henry Percy, called Hotspur. Hotspur's brief uprising, the most serious challenge faced by Henry during his reign, ended when the King's forces killed the rebel in battle near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, in July 1403. In 1405 Henry had Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, and Richard Scrope, archbishop of York, executed for conspiring with Northumberland to raise another rebellion. Although the worst of Henry's political troubles were over, he then began to suffer from an affliction that his contemporaries believed to be leprosy—it may have been congenital syphilis. A quickly suppressed insurrection, led by Northumberland in 1408, was the last armed challenge to Henry's authority. Throughout these years the King had to combat border incursions by the Scots and ward off conflict with the French, who aided the Welsh rebels in 1405–06.

To finance these military activities, Henry was forced to rely on parliamentary grants. From 1401 to 1406 Parliament repeatedly accused him of fiscal mismanagement and gradually acquired certain precedent-setting powers over royal expenditures and appointments. As Henry's health deteriorated, a power struggle developed within his administration between his favorite, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, and a faction headed by Henry's Beaufort half brothers and Prince Henry. The latter group ousted Arundel from the chancellorship early in 1410, but they, in turn, fell from power in 1411. Henry then made an alliance with the French faction that was waging war against the Prince's Burgundian friends. As a consequence, tension between Henry and the Prince was high when Henry became totally incapacitated late in 1412. He died several months later, and the Prince succeeded as King Henry V.

Noted events in his life were:

• Titles: King of England - 30 September 1399 to 20 March 1413
Earl of Northampton and Hereford
Duke of Hereford
Duke of Lancaster
Earl of Leicester
Earl of Lincoln

The child from this marriage was:

+ 108 M    i. Henry V Lancaster [20078] was born in 1387 and died in 1422 at age 35.

95. King Edward Plantagenet III [18452] was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Winsdor, died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Surrey, England at age 64, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

General Notes: born Nov. 13, 1312, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.
died June 21, 1377, Sheen, Surrey

Edward of Windsor king of England from 1327 to 1377, who led England into the Hundred Years' War with France. The descendants of his seven sons and five daughters contested the throne for generations, climaxing in the Wars of the Roses (1455–85).

The eldest son of Edward II and Isabella of France, Edward III was summoned to Parliament as earl of Chester (1320) and was made duke of Aquitaine (1325), but, contrary to tradition, he never received the title of prince of Wales.

Edward III grew up amid struggles between his father and a number of barons who were attempting to limit the king's power and to strengthen their own role in governing England. His mother, repelled by her husband's treatment of the nobles and disaffected by the confiscation of her English estates by his supporters, played an important role in this conflict. In 1325 she left England to return to France to intervene in the dispute between her brother, Charles IV of France, and her husband over the latter's French possessions, Guyenne, Gascony, and Ponthieu. She was successful; the land was secured for England on condition that the English king pay homage to Charles. This was performed on the King's behalf by his young son.

The heir apparent was secure at his mother's side. With Roger Mortimer, an influential baron who had escaped to France in 1323 and had become her lover, Isabella now began preparations to invade England to depose her husband. To raise funds for this enterprise, Edward III was betrothed to Philippa, daughter of William, count of Hainaut and Holland.

Within five months of their invasion of England, the Queen and the nobles, who had much popular support, overpowered the King's forces. Edward II, charged with incompetence and breaking his coronation oath, was forced to resign, and on Jan. 29, 1327, Edward III, aged 15, was crowned king of England.

During the next four years Isabella and Mortimer governed in his name, though nominally his guardian was Henry, earl of Lancaster. In the summer of 1327 he took part in an abortive campaign against the Scots, which resulted in the Treaty of Northampton (1328), making Scotland an independent realm. Edward was deeply troubled by the settlement and signed it only after much persuasion by Isabella and Mortimer. He married Philippa at York on Jan. 24, 1328. Soon afterward, Edward made a successful effort to throw off his degrading dependence on his mother and Mortimer. While a council was being held at Nottingham, he entered the castle by night, through a subterranean passage, took Mortimer prisoner, and had him executed (November 1330). Edward had discreetly ignored his mother's liaison with Mortimer and treated her with every respect, but her political influence was at an end.

Edward III now began to rule as well as to reign. Young, ardent, and active, he sought to remake England into the powerful nation it had been under Edward I. He still resented the concession of independence made to Scotland by the Treaty of Northampton; and the death of Robert I, the Bruce, king of Scotland, in 1329 gave him a chance of retrieving his position. The new king of Scots, his brother-in-law, David II, was a mere boy, and Edward took advantage of his weakness to aid the Scottish barons who had been exiled by Bruce to place their leader, Edward Balliol, on the Scottish throne. David II fled to France, but Balliol was despised as a puppet of the English king, and David returned in 1341.

During the 1330's England gradually drifted into a state of hostility with France, for which the most obvious reason was the dispute over English rule in Gascony. Contributory causes were France's new king Philip VI's support of the Scots, Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities—then on bad terms with their French overlord—and the revival, in 1337, of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown. Edward twice attempted to invade France from the north (1339, 1340), but the only result of his campaigns was to reduce him to bankruptcy. In January 1340 he assumed the title of king of France. At first he may have done this to gratify the Flemings, whose scruples in fighting the French king disappeared when they persuaded themselves that Edward was the rightful king of France. But his pretensions to the French crown gradually became more important, and the persistence with which he and his successors urged them made stable peace impossible for more than a century. This was the struggle famous in history as the Hundred Years' War. Until 1801 every English king also called himself king of France.

Edward was present in person at the great naval battle off the Flemish city of Sluis in June 1340, in which he all but destroyed the French navy. Despite this victory his resources were exhausted by his land campaign, and he was forced to make a truce (which was broken two years later) and return to England. During the years after 1342 he spent much time and money in rebuilding Windsor Castle and instituting the Order of the Garter, which became Britain's highest order of knighthood.

Edward operated his court of the model of the Arthurian Round Table. Arthur was his hero, and many of the incidents later related by Thomas Malory in his Morte d'Arthur have their counterparts in Edward's tournaments and chivalric quests. The world of Edward III was the world of Arthur. Edward planned to instigate an Order of the Round Table which was eventually called the Most Noble Order of the Garter when he established it in 1348. It was the highest order of chivalry limited always to a select group of twenty-five or so knights. It was first bestowed upon Edward's eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, and included among its illustrious ranks his second cousin, Henry, Earl of Derby and Roger Mortimer, the grandson of his mother's lover. These honors and the opportunity to prove themselves to the king resulted in a rare camaraderie between the king and his nobles, one which helped sustain the successes of the first half of Edward's reign. It was a period of considerable glory and prestige for England.

A new phase of the French war began when Edward landed in Normandy in July 1346, accompanied by his eldest son, Prince Edward, later known as the Black Prince (born 1330). At first the King showed some lack of strategic purpose, engaging in little more than a large-scale plundering raid to the gates of Paris. The campaign was made memorable by his decisive victory over the French at Crécy in Ponthieu (August 26), where he scattered the army with which Philip VI sought to cut off his retreat to the northeast. Edward laid siege to the French port of Calais in September 1346 and received its surrender in August 1347. Other victories in Gascony and Brittany, and the defeat and capture of David II at Neville's Cross near Durham (October 1346), gave further proof of Edward's power, but Calais was to be his only lasting conquest. He ejected most of its French inhabitants, colonizing the town with Englishmen and establishing there a base from which to conduct further invasions of France. Nevertheless, in the midst of his successes, want of money forced him to make a new truce in September 1347.

Edward returned to England in October 1347. He celebrated his triumph by a series of splendid tournaments. In 1348 he rejected an offer to become Holy Roman emperor. In the same year the bubonic plague known as the Black Death first appeared in England and raged until the end of 1349. Its horrors hardly checked the magnificent revels of Edward's court, and neither the plague nor the truce stayed the slow course of the French war, though the fighting was indecisive and on a small scale. Edward's martial exploits during the next years were those of a gallant knight rather than of a responsible general. Although the English House of Commons was now weary of the war, efforts to make peace came to nothing, and large-scale operations began again in 1355, when Edward led an unsuccessful raid out of Calais. He harried the Lothians, part of southeastern Scotland, in the expedition famous as the Burned Candlemas (January and February 1356), and in the same year he received a formal surrender of the Kingdom of Scotland from Balliol. His exploits were, however, eclipsed by those of his son Edward, whose victory at Poitiers (Sept. 19, 1356), resulting in the capture of the French king, John II (who had succeeded Philip VI in 1350), forced the French to accept a new truce. Edward entertained his captive magnificently but forced him by the Treaty of London (1359) to surrender so much territory that the agreement was repudiated in France. In an effort to compel acceptance, Edward landed at Calais (October 28) and besieged Reims, where he planned to be crowned king of France. The strenuous resistance of the citizens frustrated this scheme, and Edward marched into Burgundy, eventually returning toward Paris. After this unsuccessful campaign he was glad to conclude preliminaries of peace at Brittany (May 8, 1360). This treaty, less onerous to France than that of London, took its final form in the Treaty of Calais, ratified by both kings (October 1360). By it, Edward renounced his claim to the French crown in return for the whole of Aquitaine, a rich area in southwestern France.

The Treaty of Calais did not bring rest or prosperity to either England or France. Fresh visitations of the Black Death in England in 1361 and 1369 intensified social and economic disturbances, and desperate but not very successful efforts were made to enforce the Statute of Laborers (1351), which was intended to maintain prices and wages as they had been before the pestilence. Other famous laws enacted during the 1350's had been the Statutes of Provisors (1351) and Praemunire (1353), which reflected popular hostility against foreign clergy. These measures were frequently reenacted, and Edward formally repudiated (1366) the feudal supremacy over England still claimed by the papacy.

When the French king Charles V, son of John II, repudiated the Treaty of Calais, Edward resumed the title of king of France, but he showed little of his former vigor in meeting this new trouble, leaving most of the fighting and the administration of his foreign territories to his sons Edward and John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While they were struggling with little success against the rising tide of French national feeling, Edward's want of money made him a willing participant in the attack on the wealth and privileges of the church. Meanwhile, Aquitaine was gradually lost, Prince Edward returned to England in broken health (1371), and John of Gaunt's march through France from Calais to Bordeaux (1373) achieved nothing. Edward's final attempt to lead an army abroad himself (1372) was frustrated when contrary winds prevented his landing his troops in France. In 1375 he was glad to make a truce, which lasted until his death. By it, the only important possessions remaining in English hands were Calais, Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Brest.

Edward was now sinking into his dotage. After the death of Queen Philippa in 1369 he fell entirely under the influence of his greedy mistress, Alice Perrers, while Prince Edward and John of Gaunt became the leaders of sharply divided parties in the royal court and council. John of Gaunt returned to England in April 1374 and with the help of Alice Perrers obtained the chief influence with his father, but his administration was neither honorable nor successful. At the famous so-called Good Parliament of 1376 popular indignation against John of Gaunt's ruling party came at last to a head. Alice Perrers was removed and some of Gaunt's followers were impeached. Before the Parliament had concluded its business, however, the death of Prince Edward (June 8, 1376) robbed the Commons of its strongest support. John of Gaunt regained power, and the acts of the Good Parliament had been reversed when Edward III died.

Edward III possessed extraordinary vigor and energy of temperament; he was an admirable tactician and a consummate knight. His court was the most brilliant in contemporary Europe, and he was himself well fitted to be the head of the gallant knights who obtained fame in the French wars. Though his main ambition was military glory, he was not a bad ruler of England, being liberal, kindly, good-tempered, and easy of access. His need to obtain supplies for carrying on the French wars made him favorable to his subjects' petitions and contributed to the growing strength of Parliament. His weak points were his wanton breaches of good faith, his extravagance, his frivolity, and his self-indulgence. His ambition ultimately transcended his resources, and before he died even his subjects had sensed his failure.

Noted events in his life were:

• Length of Rule: 25 January 1327 until 21 June 1377. Crowned at Westminster Abbey 1 February 1327.

• Titles: King of England; Duke of Aquitane; Earl of Chester; Count of Ponthieu; Lord of Ireland; King of France.

Edward married Philippa van Holland [18453] [MRIN: 6297], daughter of Count William van Hainault V [18650] and Unknown, on 24 Jan 1328. Philippa was born in 1314 in Hainault, Belgie and died on 14 Aug 1369 in Winsdor Castle at age 55.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 109 M    i. Edward Plantagenet "Black Prince" [18651] was born on 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England and died on 8 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England at age 45.

   110 F    ii. Isabella Plantagenet [18653] was born in 1332 and died in 1382 at age 50.

Isabella married Enquerrand de Coucy [18654] [MRIN: 6401]. Enquerrand was born about 1339 and died in 1382 about age 43.

   111 F    iii. Joan Plantagenet of Woodstock [18655] was born in 1335 and died in 1348 at age 13.

   112 M    iv. William de Hatfield [18656] was born about 1337.

General Notes: Edward III's son, William of Hatfield (1337) is buried in York Minster. This tomb effigy of an alabaster figure is notable due to the fact that there are very few memorials to medieval children. William was born in Hatfield Herts (Hertfordshire). This is the location where the Hatfield House was built.

Hatfield is situated in the south of Hertfordshire, 20 miles north of London. The town's history reaches back to Saxon times.

One of the first mentions of the area of Hatfield was in a set record keeping books ordered by King Alfred the Great. It mentions that in the year 633 AD that "This year King Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October."

The next mention is in the year 680 AD -- "This year Archbishop Theodore appointed a synod at Hatfield; because he was desirous of rectifying the belief of Christ"

Thomas de Hatfield was born in a manor house that was built in Haethfelth / Hatfield and later became the Bishop of Durham in 1345. Durham is located about 60 miles north of York. Bishops of Durham were thought of as Prince Bishops and ruled independent of the Crown. Thomas was one of the most powerful of these Prince Bishops. He worked closely with Edward III and these close ties are celebrated with elements of the Kings crest engraved into the Bishop's throne. Thomas granted 3 acres of land on the east side of the city to the monks of the Order of Mount Carmel so they could build a monastery. The area is now known as Friargate and the old stones of the monastery were remade into a wall there.

-----

William de Hatfield: Son of , King Edward III
HATFIELD, a parish-town, in the upper-division of Strafforth and Tickhill (the seat of W. Gossip, Esq.) 4 miles from Thorne, 8 from Doncaster, 11 from Bawtry, 34 from York. Pop. 1,948. The Church is a perpetual curacy, dedicated to St. Lawrence, in the deanry of Doncaster, value, p.r. £80. 4s. 3d. Patron, Lord Deerhurst, in right of his Wife. Bacon styles it a vicarage, value, £15. 5s.
On Hatfield Heath, a bloody battle was fought between Ceadwalla, King of the Britons, and Penda, the Pagan King of Mercia, against Edwin, the first Christian King of Northumberland, in which Edwin, and Offrid his eldest son, were slain. --Rapin. --Drake.

In the old Manor House here, was born, William, the second son of King Edward III. from which place he took the name of William de Hatfield. The Queen, Phillippa, his mother, on this occasion, gave five marks per annum to the neighboring Abbey of Roche, and five nobles to the Monks there, which sums, when he died, were transferred to the church of York, where the Prince was buried, to pray for his soul. --Drake.

The extensive level of Hatfield Chace, the largest in England, contains within its limits, above 180,000 acres, one half of which was covered with water, till Charles I. sold it to Sir Cornelius Vermuiden, a Dutchman, without the consent of the commissioners and tenants, to drain and cultivate; which to the general surprise, he at length effected, at the expense of about £400,000. But the affair involved him in tedious and ruinous law suits. --Hist. Doncaster.

In 1811, an Act was obtained for inclosing between eight and nine thousand acres of rich common in this neighbourhood, which must be ultimately productive of great public and private advantage.

In the centre of this chace, at a place called Lindholme, tradition relates, there formerly lived a Hermit, called William of Lindholme. Of his cell a particular account is given in the Gents. Mag. for 1747, written by George Stovin, Esq. of Crowle, and copied into the Hist. of Doncaster. Mr. Stovin's Letter is dated Aug. 31, 1727. It was situated to the middle of sixty acres of firm sandy ground, full of pebbles; at the east end stood an altar, made of hewn stone, and at the west end is the hermit's grave, covered with a freestone slab, under it were found a tooth, a scull, the thigh and shin bones of a human body, all of a very large size; likewise a peck of hemp seed, and a piece of beaten copper. A farmhouse now occupies the site of the cell.

The Church is a large handsome building, having a lofty elegant tower, and although originally Saxon, the present structure is not older than the reign of Henry III. In it are several monuments of the Hatfield family, and one of Abraham de la Pryme. --Hist. Doncaster.

[Description(s) from Langdale's Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire. (1822)]
------

Thomas Hatfield was buried in 1381 below the Bishop's Throne that he built in Durham Cathedral.

In the small town of Hatfield there is still an old Norman church dating from the 12th century. There are also manors and estates belonging to the Hatfield family near Thorp Arch, east of York, north of Leeds.

The Hatfield House has a long history. The original Royal Palace of Hatfield dates back to 1497. It was there that Elizabeth I spent most of her childhood until her succession to the throne in 1558. James I went on to trade the property to Sir Robert Cecil in exchange for Thebolds Park. Sir Robert began construction on the new Hatfield House in 1607 - 1611.

The great hall of the old palace still stands adjacent to the newer Hatfield House. Today the older palace is used chiefly as a banquet hall.

In nearby Nottingham many who bear the name of Hatfield can still be found. The Historic Houses Association lists several other manors and estates with the Hatfield name: Hatfield Hall in Yorkshire, Hatfield Priory in Essex 1768, Hatfield Place (Pond's farm) in Essex 1791.

+ 113 M    v. Duke Lionel of Clarence [18454] was born on 29 Nov 1338 in Antwerp and died on 17 Oct 1368 in Alba, Itlay at age 29.

+ 114 M    vi. Duke John of Lancaster "of Gaunt" [18463] was born in Mar 1340 in Abbey of St. Bavon, Ghent, Belgium and died on 3 Feb 1399 in London at age 58.

   115 M    vii. Duke of York Edmund Plantagenet [18670] was born on 5 Jun 1341 in King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England and died in 1 Aug in King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England.

General Notes: born June 5, 1341, King's Langley, Hertfordshire, Eng.
died Aug. 1, 1402, King's Langley

Also called (1362–85) Earl Of Cambridge fourth surviving legitimate son of King Edward III of England and founder of the House of York as a branch of the Plantagenet dynasty.

Created earl of Cambridge in 1362 and duke of York in 1385, Edmund was the least able of Edward III's sons, and in the political strife of Richard II's reign he played an ineffective part. Between 1359 and 1378 he served without distinction in several campaigns in France, Spain, and Brittany, and his one independent command, the Lisbon expedition of 1381–82 to aid King Ferdinand of Portugal against Castile, was a failure. York was appointed keeper of the realm during Richard II's absence in Ireland in 1394–95, and again on the King's departure for his second Irish expedition in May 1399. When Henry of Lancaster (afterward King Henry IV) invaded England (July), York tried to organize resistance, but he soon submitted (July 27), recognizing that Richard's cause was lost.

Noted events in his life were:

• Titles: Duke of York
Earl of Cambridge

Edmund married Isabella Castile [18671] [MRIN: 6410]. Isabella was born c1355 and died c1392 at age 37.

Edmund next married Joan de Holland [18672] [MRIN: 6411].

   116 F    viii. Blanche Plantagenet [18673] was born in 1342 and died in 1342.

   117 F    ix. Mary Plantagenet [18674] was born in 1344 and died in 1362 at age 18.

Mary married Duke of Brittany John de Montfort IV [18675] [MRIN: 6412]. John was born in 1339 and died in 1399 at age 60.

   118 F    x. Margaret Plantagenet [18676] was born in 1346 and died in 1361 at age 15.

Margaret married Earl of Pembroke John Hastings [18677] [MRIN: 6413]. John was born in 1347 and died in 1375 at age 28.

   119 M    xi. Thomas Plantagenet [18678] was born in 1347 and died in 1348 at age 1.

   120 M    xii. William Plantagenet [18679] was born in 1348 and died in 1348.

   121 M    xiii. Duke of Gloucester Thomas Plantagenet [18680] was born in 1355 and died in 1397 at age 42.

Thomas married Eleanor de Bohun [18681] [MRIN: 6414]. Eleanor was born c1366 and died in 1399 at age 33.

99. Countess Joan of Kent "The Fair Maid" [18977] was born on 29 Sep 1328 and died on 8 Aug 1385 at age 56.

Joan married Earl Thomas de Holand I [18978] [MRIN: 6507] in 1338. Thomas was born in 1314 in Upholland, Lancashire, England and died on 8 Dec 1360 in Normandy, France at age 46.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 122 M    i. Thomas de Holand II [18979] was born about 1350 in Upholland, Lancashire, England and died on 25 Apr 1397 in Arundel Castle, Sussex, England about age 47.

100. Eleanor of Lancaster [18584] was born in 1311 in Grismond Castle, Monmouth, England and died on 11 Jan 1372 in Arundel, Sussex, England at age 61.

Eleanor married Richard FitzAlan [18576] [MRIN: 6363]. Richard was born in 1313 in Arundel, Sussex, England and died on 24 Jan 1376 in Arundel, Sussex, England at age 63.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 123 M    i. Richard FitzAlan [18071] was born in 1346 and died in 1397 at age 51.

+ 124 F    ii. Alice FitzAlan [18578] was born in 1352 in Arundel, Sussex, England and died on 17 May 1416 at age 64.

Eleanor next married John Beaumont [18577] [MRIN: 6367] about Jun 1337. John was born in 1318 and died in May 1342 at age 24.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 125 M    i. Henry de Beaumont [18585] was born in 1340 and died on 25 Jun 1369 at age 29.

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101. Gwilym ap Jenkin [18107] .

Gwilym married.

His child was:

+ 126 F    i. Ann verch Gwilym [18108] .

102. Nicholas Poyntz [18220] died in 1376.

Nicholas married.

His child was:

+ 127 F    i. Margaret Poyntz [18221] .

103. John de Botetourte [19089] was born c1333 in Mendleshom, Suffolk, England and died in 1377 in Hamerton, Huntingtonshire, England at age 44.

John married Katherine de Weyland [19090] [MRIN: 6562]. Katherine was born about 1337 and died after 1377.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 128 M    i. Sir John Knyvet II [19091] was born about 1358 and died on 4 Dec 1418 in Mendleshom, Suffolk, England about age 60.

104. Amy (Joan) de Gaveston [18250] was born about 6 Jan 1312.

Amy married John de Driby [18251] [MRIN: 6190] in 1334. John was born about 1310 and died after 30 Nov 1357.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 129 F    i. Alice de Driby [18252] was born about 1340 and died on 12 Oct 1412 about age 72.

105. Baroness Margaret de Audley [18280] was born about 1318 and died on 16 Sep 1349 in Tonbridge, Kent about age 31.

Margaret married Sir Ralph de Stafford [18281] [MRIN: 6207] before 6 Jul 1336. Ralph was born on 24 Sep 1301 in Tunbridge Castle, Staffordshire, England and died on 31 Aug 1372 in Tunbridge Castle, Staffordshire, England at age 70.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 130 F    i. Katherine de Stafford [18282] was born in 1340 in Tunbridge Castle, Staffordshire, England and died before 25 Dec 1361.

106. Elizabeth de Bohun [18072] died in 1385.

Elizabeth married Richard FitzAlan [18071] [MRIN: 6096], son of Richard FitzAlan [18576] and Eleanor of Lancaster [18584]. Richard was born in 1346 and died in 1397 at age 51.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 131 F    i. Elizabeth FitzAlan [18069] was born about 1366 and died in 1425 about age 59.

+ 132 F    ii. Joan FitzAlan [18371] was born after 1359.

+ 133 F    iii. Alice FitzAlan [18400] was born about 1373.

107. Pernel Butler [18323] was born in 1327 and died in 1365 at age 38.

Pernel married Baron Gilbert Talbot IV [18324] [MRIN: 6230] before 8 Sep 1352. Gilbert was born about 1332 in Eccleswall, Herefordshire and died on 24 Apr 1387 in Roales, Spain about age 55.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 134 M    i. Lord Richard de Talbot VII [18325] was born about 1361 and died on 9 Sep 1396 in London, England about age 35.

108. Henry V Lancaster [20078] was born in 1387 and died in 1422 at age 35.

General Notes: born Sept. 16, 1387, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales
died Aug. 31, 1422, Bois de Vincennes, Fr.

King of England (1413–22) of the House of Lancaster, son of Henry IV. As victor of the Battle of Agincourt (1415, in the Hundred Years' War with France), he made England one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe.

Henry was the eldest son of Henry, earl of Derby (afterward Henry IV), by Mary de Bohun. On his father's exile in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, treated him kindly, and knighted him in 1399. Henry's uncle, Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, seems to have been responsible for his training, and, despite his early entry into public life, he was well educated by the standards of his time. He grew up fond of music and reading and became the first English king who could both read and write with ease in the vernacular tongue. On Oct. 15, 1399, after his father had become king, Henry was created earl of Chester, duke of Cornwall, and prince of Wales, and soon afterward, duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster. From October 1400 the administration of Wales was conducted in his name, and in 1403 he took over actual command of the war against the Welsh rebels, a struggle that absorbed much of his restless energy until 1408. Thereafter he began to demand a voice in government and a place on the council, in opposition to his ailing father and Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. The stories of Prince Henry's reckless and dissolute youth, immortalized by Shakespeare, and of the sudden change that overtook him when he became king, have been traced back to within 20 years of his death and cannot be dismissed as pure fabrication. This does not involve accepting them in the exaggerated versions of the Elizabethan playwrights, to which the known facts of his conduct in war and council provide a general contradiction. Probably they represent no more than the natural ebullience of a young man whose energies found insufficient constructive outlet. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, Sir William Gascoigne, was a Tudor invention, first related in 1531.

Henry succeeded his father on March 21, 1413. In the early years of his reign his position was threatened by an abortive Lollard rising (January 1414) and by a conspiracy (July 1415) of Richard of York, earl of Cambridge, and Henry, Lord Scrope of Masham, in favour of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March. On each occasion Henry was forewarned and the opposition was suppressed without mercy. Neither incident long distracted him from his chief concern: his ambitious policy toward France. Not content with a demand for possession of Aquitaine and other lands ceded by the French at the Treaty of Calais (1360), he also laid claim to Normandy, Touraine, and Maine (the former Angevin holdings) and to parts of France that had never been in English hands. Although such demands were unlikely to be conceded even by the distracted government of France under King Charles VI, Henry seems to have convinced himself that his claims were just and not a merely cynical cover for calculated aggression. Yet if “the way of justice” failed, he was ready to turn to “the way of force”; and warlike preparations were well advanced long before the negotiations with Charles, initiated during the reign of Richard II, were finally broken off in June 1415.

Henry V's true genius is revealed in the planning and execution of his subsequent campaigns for the conquest of France. Before hostilities began, his diplomatic skill was exerted in an effort to secure the support or at least the neutrality of John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy. His attempts to deprive France of maritime assistance show an awareness of the importance of sea power unusual in medieval kings, and after the Battle of the Seine (August 1416), England's naval mastery of the Channel was not seriously disputed. At home, Henry turned to the systematic financing of his projected invasion, partly through large-scale borrowing, partly through parliamentary taxation, the generosity of which reflects his success in arousing national enthusiasm for the war. Henry began the struggle with the wholehearted support of the magnates and the backing of a united nation. His military strategy was conceived with equal ability. It stands in marked contrast with the haphazard and spasmodic operations of the English in France in the previous century. His main objective, to which the winning of battles was largely irrelevant, was the systematic reduction of the great towns and fortresses of northern France. These, kept as headquarters of permanent English garrisons, would become focal points for the subjection of the surrounding countryside; behind the soldiers were to come administrators and tax collectors, who would make the war pay for itself. Despite the forethought and grasp this plan displayed, its execution took longer than Henry had anticipated. It absorbed his energies for seven years and brought him to an early grave.

His first campaign brought the capture of Harfleur (September 1415) and the great victory of Agincourt (Oct. 25, 1415). This resounding triumph made Henry the diplomatic arbiter of Europe: it won him a visit (1416) from the Holy Roman emperor Sigismund, with whom he made a treaty of alliance at Canterbury (1416) and whose influence was used to detach Genoa from its naval alliance with France. The cooperation of the two rulers led directly to the ending of the papal schism through the election of Martin V (1417), an objective that Henry had much at heart. Thereafter he returned to the long, grim war of sieges and the gradual conquest of Normandy. Rouen, the capital of northern France, surrendered in January 1419, and the murder of Duke John of Burgundy in September 1419 brought him the Burgundian alliance. These successes forced the French to agree to the Treaty of Troyes on May 21, 1420. Henry was recognized as heir to the French throne and regent of France, and Catherine, the daughter of Charles, was married to him on June 2. He was now at the height of his power: but his triumph was short-lived. His health grew worse at the sieges of Melun and Meaux, and he died of camp fever at the château of Vincennes in 1422.

Henry's character is by no means wholly admirable. Hard and domineering, he was intolerant of opposition and could be ruthless and cruel in pursuit of his policy. His lack of chivalrous qualities deprives him of any claim to be regarded as “the typical medieval hero.” Yet contemporaries united in praising his love of justice, and even French writers of his own day admired him as a brave, loyal, and upright man, an honorable fighter, and a commanding personality in whom there was little of the mean and the paltry. Although personally lacking in warmth, he had the capacity to inspire devotion in others, and he possessed high qualities of leadership. His piety was genuine, and on his deathbed he expressed a last wish that he might live to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem in a new crusade. In respect of ability, he must rank high among English kings. His achievement was remarkable: it has been rightly observed that “he found a nation weak and drifting and after nine years left it dominant in Europe.” The tragedy of his reign was that he used his great gifts not for constructive reform at home but to commit his country to a dubious foreign war. His premature death made success abroad unlikely and condemned England to a long, difficult minority rule by his successor.


Henry married Katherine of France [20082] [MRIN: 6826]. Katherine was born in 1401 and died in 1437 at age 36.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 135 M    i. Henry VI Lancaster [20079] was born in 1421 and died in 1471 at age 50.

109. Edward Plantagenet "Black Prince" [18651] was born on 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England and died on 8 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England at age 45.

General Notes: born June 15, 1330, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.
died June 8, 1376, Westminster, near London

Also called Edward Of Woodstock, Prince D'aquitaine, Prince Of Wales, Duke Of Cornwall, Earl Of Chester son and heir apparent of Edward III of England and one of the outstanding commanders during the Hundred Years' War, winning his major victory at the Battle of Poitiers (1356). His sobriquet, said to have come from his wearing black armour, has no contemporary justification and is found first in Richard Grafton's Chronicle of England (1568).

Edward was created Earl of Chester (March 1333), Duke of Cornwall (February 1337)—the first appearance of this rank in England—and Prince of Wales (May 1343); he was Prince of Aquitaine from 1362 to 1372. His first campaign was served under his father in northern France (1346–47), and at the Battle of Crécy (Aug. 26, 1346) he won both his spurs and the famous ostrich plumes and with them the mottoes used by himself and subsequent princes of Wales, homout; ich dene (“Courage; I serve”; the words are here spelled as Edward himself wrote them; later variants include houmout and ich dien or ich diene). One of the original Knights of the Garter, he was sent to France with independent command in 1355, winning his most famous victory over the French at Poitiers on Sept. 19, 1356. The French king John II,brought captive to England, was treated by the prince with a celebrated courtesy, but he was obligated to pay a ransom of 3,000,000 gold crowns and to negotiate the treaties of Brétigny and Calais (1360) by which Aquitaine was ceded to the English.

Edward married his cousin Joan, the divorced and widowed Countess of Kent, in October 1361. He was created Prince of Aquitaine in July 1362 and left England in 1363 to take up his duties. His powers and his opportunities were great, but his rule was a failure, and he himself was largely to blame. His court at Bordeaux, that of a foreign conqueror, was extravagant; the 13 sénéchaussées into which the principality was divided administratively followed their earlier French pattern and allowed local French loyalties to subsist; his relations with the many bishops were unfriendly, while the greater nobles, Arnaud-Amanieu, sire d'Albret, Gaston II, Count de Foix, and Jean I, Count d'Armagnac, were hostile. He summoned several estates, or parliaments, but always to levy taxes. In 1367 he undertook to restore Peter the Cruel of Castile to his throne, and though he won a classic victory at Nájera on April 3, 1367, the campaign ruined his health, his finances, and any prospect of sound rule in Aquitaine, where, in 1368, the nobles and prelates appealed against him to Charles V of France as suzerain. Edward's reply to the French king's citation to answer the appellants before the parlement of Paris in May 1369 is well known—he would appear with 60,000 men at his back. He had, however, alienated the towns and peasantry as well as the nobles; and by March 1369 more than 900 towns, castles, and strong places had declared against him. Relying on mercenaries whom he could not afford to pay, he was powerless to quell the revolt, and the terrible sack of Limoges (October 1370) merely redounded to his discredit. He returned to England a sick and broken man in January 1371 and formally surrendered his principality to his father in October 1372, alleging that the revenues of the country were insufficient to defray his expenses. He had no successor as Prince of Aquitaine.

Edward's position in England, where, throughout his life, he was heir apparent, was that of a typical 14th-century magnate. The registers of his household from 1346 to 1348 and from 1351 to 1365 have survived and add to what is known of him from the chroniclers and from his biographer, the herald of Sir John Chandos. In one important respect all of these sources paint the same picture, that of a man constantly living beyond his means. His generosity, however, extended to his tenants as well as to his knightly companions, and faithful service was rewarded, as in 1356 when the ferry of Saltash was granted to William Lenche, who had lost an eye at Poitiers.

The prince visited Chester in 1353 and again in 1358. Cheshire furnished many of his archers, who wore a rudimentary uniform of a short coat and hatof green and white cloth with the green on the right. Despite his title, however, Edward did not visit Wales.

He appears to have shared the interests of his class—jousting, falconry, hunting, gaming. He was literate and conventionally pious, substantially endowing a religious house at Ashridge (1376). He had the customary fine presence of the Plantagenets and shared their love of jewels. The Black Prince's ruby in the present imperial state crown may or may not have been given to him by King Peter of Castile after the Battle of Nájera, but he would certainly have prized it, as a connoisseur. Similar artistic interest is shown inhis seals, adorned with their ostrich feathers, and in the elegant gold coins that he issued as Prince of Aquitaine.

The last five years of the prince's life are obscure. Some contemporaries suggest that he supported the Commons when political discontent culminated in the Good Parliament of April 1376; but he knew he was dying, and he was probably seeking the best means to ensure the succession of his second—but only surviving—son, Richard of Bordeaux (afterward Richard II). Edward was buried at Canterbury, where his tomb with his accoutrements, restored and renovated, still stands.

Edward married Joan Maid of Kent [18652] [MRIN: 6400]. Joan was born in 1328 and died in 1385 at age 57.

The child from this marriage was:

   136 M    i. King of England Richard Plantagenet II [18682] was born on 6 Jan 1367 in Bordeaux, Gascony, died on 14 Feb 1400 in Pontefract Castle at age 33, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

General Notes: born January 6, 1367, Bordeaux [now in France]
died February 1400, Pontefract, Yorkshire [now in West Yorkshire], England


king of England from 1377 to 1399. An ambitious ruler, with a lofty conception of the royal office, he was deposed by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), because of his arbitrary and factional rule.

Richard was the younger and only surviving son of Edward, the Black Prince,and his wife, Joan of Kent. Because his father died prematurely in 1376, Richard succeeded his grandfather Edward III as king in June 1377.

The king's early years were overshadowed by the Hundred Years' War, a prolonged struggle with France. The heavy cost of the war led to the introduction in 1377 of a novel, and highly regressive, tax, the poll tax. In November 1380 Parliament granted permission to impose the tax for the third time at a flat rate much higher than before. The tactless attempts the government made in the following year to enforce collection of the tax led to the outbreak of the Peasants' Revolt. Richard's role in ending the Revolt was rightly acclaimed, but it should not be supposed that he was influential in making policy. Almost certainly, the confrontation with the rebels at Smithfield was engineered by a hard-line group of his counselors.

In the years after the Revolt, Richard's interest in the affairs of state intermittently increased. According to the chronicler Thomas Walsingham, a contemporary of Richard's, the choice of Anne of Bohemia, the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV, as his bride in 1381 was very much Richard's own. By 1383 his personal initiative showed in the choice of his friends and counselors, including two figures of particular importance—Sir Simon Burley, his former tutor, and Burley's ally, Sir Michael de la Pole, chancellor from 1383. Richard was also on close terms with some ambitious younger men, notably Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, and the knights Ralph Stafford and James Berners. These younger men were deeply jealous of the power and prestige of John of Gaunt, the duke of Lancaster. Their repeated criticism of the duke and their involvement in an attempt on his life led to an atmosphere of rancour and suspicion at court. By 1385 Richard's relations with the higher nobility were quickly deteriorating.

In October 1386 there was a major crisis in Parliament. In the wake of Lancaster's departure for Spain in July with a large fleet to pursue his claim to the Castilian throne, the French planned an invasion of England. De la Pole, hastily organizing the coastal defences, sought an unprecedentedly large grant of taxation from Parliament. The massive scale of his demand provoked resistance, and the House of Commons clamoured for his resignation. Richard, stung by the Commons' effrontery, retorted that he would not remove one scullion from his kitchen at their behest. Eventually, however, he had to give way. De la Pole was replaced as chancellor and put on trial, and a commission of government was appointed to hold office for a year.

Richard reacted to the Commons' assault by retreating to the Midlands to rally his supporters. At Shrewsbury and Nottingham in August he received vigorous reaffirmation of his rights from the royal courts. News of the judges'opinions frightened the king's critics, who reacted by bringing an accusatio, or formal appeal, against his allies of treason. The Lords Appellant, as they were now called—the duke of Gloucester and the earls of Warwick, Arundel, Nottingham, and Derby—mobilized their retinues in self-defense. Richard dispatched his friend Robert de Vere southward with an armed force, but de Vere was defeated at Radcot Bridge on December 20, 1387. A few days laterLondon was occupied by the Appellants. Richard returned to his capital humiliated.

In the aptly named “Merciless Parliament” that followed, the Appellants purged the court. Two of Richard's main allies were executed, and others were dismissed from office. By the following spring, however, the Appellant tide had subsided. At a council meeting at Westminster on May 3, 1389, Richard formally resumed responsibility for government. He dismissed the Appellants' ministers and appointed new officers of his own. At the same time, he published a manifesto promising better governance and an easing of the burden of taxation.


Richard's mature kingship

In a five-year period beginning in 1389, Richard went some way toward honouring his promises. Taxes fell sharply following a truce with the French in 1389, and from 1389 to 1391 no demands for a tax on “moveable” property were made. Richard also showed greater circumspection in his patronage. Previously he had concentrated favour on just a few, but he now rewarded a wider circle, though each in smaller measure.

Yet the seeming moderation of Richard's rule was matched by a strong emphasis on the reassertion of royal authority. Richard was determined never again to suffer a humiliation of the kind inflicted upon him by the Appellants. Accordingly, in the 1390s he developed a program to strengthen the material foundations of his rule. In a novel initiative he built up a large baronial-style affinity, whose members wore the king's badge of the white hart. At the same time, he attracted to the central offices of government a corps of hard-working ministers deeply committed to his cause, notably John Waltham, the treasurer (1391–95), and Edmund Stafford, the chancellor (1396–99). Richard also sought to enhance the dignity and mystique of his monarchy. He encouraged lofty new forms of address—for example, “your highness” or “your majesty,” instead of “my lord.” He also elaborated the ceremony and protocol of his court, making the rebuilt Westminster Hall the focus of a grand monarchical cult. He stressed the quasi-religious dimension to his kingship, and solemn crown-wearings in Westminster Abbey formed an increasingly important part of his kingly ritual.

The highly assertive nature of his kingship revealed itself in his first expedition to Ireland. In 1394–95 he led a substantial force there to buttress the position of the English administration. The native Irish were overawed bythe presence of an English king, and the local chieftains, or “High Kings,” all attended the court in Dublin to submit to his authority. In letters of submission made for the penitent chieftains, Richard articulated his politicalvision. Rebellion and disobedience were to be rewarded with appropriate punishment, the rebel Irish were to enter into the king's obedience, and all Irish, of whatever status, were to perform their accustomed obligations to him.

The exalted notions that Richard articulated in Ireland formed the background for his dramatic reassertion of royal authority two years later in England. In July 1397 Richard ordered the arrest of the senior Appellants—Gloucester, Arundel, and Warwick. The first two were imprisoned and executed, and the last exiled to the Isle of Man. In letters thathe sent to foreign rulers shortly afterward, Richard justified his actions in terms of his political beliefs. He said that the lords' earlier rebellion and disobedience called for “an avenging punishment” that would “thresh the traitors out even to the husk,” and that the destruction and ruin of their persons would bring to his subjects a “peace” that would last forever. By peace, Richard meant not only the absence of war but also “unity,” the foundation of a strong realm.

But Richard's peace was illusory. In reality, his entourage was riddled with factions and feuds. In January 1398 a quarrel broke out between Henry Bolingbroke, Lancaster's son, and the king's former ally, Thomas Mowbray (Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Nottingham). Mowbray apparently warned Bolingbroke of a plot by some of the king's intimates to destroy the Lancastrian inheritance. Bolingbroke reported the conversation to the king, who ordered that the conflict created by this betrayal of confidence be settledby a trial by combat. A day was set for the adversaries to meet, but at the last moment Richard, fearful of Bolingbroke's possible victory, cancelled the engagement and gave judgment himself. Bolingbroke was sentenced to exile for 10 years, and Mowbray for life.

In February 1399 Lancaster died, and Richard took possession of his inheritance. Three months later, his coffers replenished with Lancastrian gold, Richard set off again for Ireland; the settlement of 1395 was in danger of unraveling, and his personal attention was required. While he was away, his cousin Bolingbroke returned from exile. Landing in Yorkshire, the duke met the earl of Northumberland and quickly won his support. Then he begana triumphant march across central and western England. Richard was slow to return from Ireland. By the time he reached Wales in mid-July, popular support for him had melted away, and in the meantime York, “the keeper of the realm,” had ceased resistance. Around August 15 Richard surrendered to Northumberland at Conway. Northumberland took him under guard to Bolingbroke at Flint; from there he was taken to Chester and later to London.

In September Bolingbroke summoned a Parliament in his adversary's name, and a committee was appointed to draft articles of deposition. On September 29, after a series of meetings in the Tower of London, Richard was induced to lay aside his crown. On the following day the king's statement of abdication was read in Parliament and approved. The assembly also assented to the articles of deposition, because abdication alone, as an act that could be rescinded, was insufficient. When the proceedings were concluded, Richard was taken from the Tower to Leeds and later to Pontefract. In January 1400 a group of his former courtiers, led by the earl of Salisbury, plotted to restore him to the throne. Their rebellion was crushed, but it convinced Bolingbroke, by now Henry IV, that he could nolonger allow Richard to live. Sometime in February the former king was put to death; by what means is not known. After a requiem mass at St. Paul's Cathedral, the body was obscurely interred at King's Langley, England. Earlyin Henry V's reign Richard was given honourable burial in the tomb that he had made for himself in Westminster Abbey.


Character and ideas

Richard articulated a radically new vision of kingship in England, rejecting the tradition of warrior monarchy epitomized by Edward III. Richard's kingship owed much to the ideas of the 13th-century writer Giles of Rome. Giles argued that all personal honour and privilege flowed from the king, whom the subjects should obey. Richard said the same about honour in hispatents of ennoblement, and he and his ministers likewise emphasized the need for obedience. Giles's influence on the king overlapped with that of Roman law. In the deposition articles, the king was alleged to have cited the Roman legal principle that “the laws were in his mouth...or alternatively in his breast.” However, Richard's political outlook also owed much to his religion. He was a man of deep piety who saw government as a burden placed on him by God. He believed it his duty to ensure the acceptability of his government to God. In order to win such acceptability, he took firm action against the English heresy of Lollardy. Indeed, the epitaph on his tomb expressed the pride that he took in “suppressing the heretics and scattering their friends.” He was devoted to the saints and delighted in reports of miracles, because they strengthened his faith. He showed particular devotion to the cult of St. Edward the Confessor, whose reputation for “peace” validated Richard's own search for “peace.” He also was strongly devoted to two other saints, St. Edmund and St. John the Baptist. All three saints are shown as his sponsors on that icon of Ricardian kingship, the Wilton Diptych.

Richard was a tall, vigorous man, handsome with fair hair, highly self-conscious, and much preoccupied with his self-image. There are indications that he had the characteristics of a narcissistic personality. The very public way in which he achieved his ends in and after 1397 can best be understood in terms of the narcissist's craving for recognition and outward success.

Noted events in his life were:

• Titles: King of England
Prince of Wales
Earl of Cornwall
Earl of Chester

Richard married Anne de Bohemia [18683] [MRIN: 6415], daughter of King/Emperor Charles de Bohemia IV [18686] and Unknown, in Jan 1382 in Westminster. Anne was born in 1366 and died in 1394 at age 28.

Richard next married Isabella de France [18684] [MRIN: 6416], daughter of Emperor/King Charles de France VI [18685] and Unknown, on 4 Nov 1396. Isabella was born in 1389 and died in 1409 at age 20.

113. Duke Lionel of Clarence [18454] was born on 29 Nov 1338 in Antwerp and died on 17 Oct 1368 in Alba, Itlay at age 29.

General Notes: born Nov. 29, 1338, Antwerp
died Oct. 17, 1368, Alba, Italy

Also called (1346–62) Earl Of Ulster second surviving son of King Edward III of England and ancestor of Edward IV.

Before he was four years of age Lionel was betrothed to Elizabeth (d. 1363), daughter and heiress of William de Burgh, earl of Ulster (d. 1333), and he entered nominally into possession of her great Irish inheritance. Having been named as his father's representative in England in 1345 and again in 1346, Lionel was created earl of Ulster and joined (in 1355) an expedition into France, but his chief energies were reserved for the affairs of Ireland. Appointed governor of that country, he landed at Dublin in September 1361. In November 1362 he was created duke of Clarence and in the following year his father made an abortive attempt to secure for him the succession to the crown of Scotland.

His efforts to secure an effective authority over his Irish lands were only moderately successful, and after holding a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed the celebrated Statute of Kilkenny in 1366, he threw up his task in disgust and returned to England. At Milan, on May 28, 1368, he married Violante, only daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Pavia, who brought him a rich dowry. Several months were then spent in festivities, during which Lionel was taken ill and died at Alba.

His only child, Philippa (1355–81), a daughter by his first wife, married in 1368 Edmund Mortimer (1352–81), 3rd earl of March, and through this union Clarence became an ancestor of Edward IV.

Lionel married Elizabeth de Burgh [18455] [MRIN: 6298]. Elizabeth died in 1363.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 137 F    i. Countess Philippa of Clarence [18456] was born on 16 Aug 1355 in Eltham Palace, Kent, England and died on 1 Jul 1381 at age 25.

Lionel next married Yolande Visconte [18657] [MRIN: 6402]. Yolande was born c1353 and died in 1386 at age 33.

114. Duke John of Lancaster "of Gaunt" [18463] was born in Mar 1340 in Abbey of St. Bavon, Ghent, Belgium and died on 3 Feb 1399 in London at age 58.

General Notes: born March 1340, Ghent
died Feb. 3, 1399, London

Also called (1342–62) earl of Richmond, or (from 1390) duc (duke) d'Aquitaine English prince, fourth but third surviving son of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut; he exercised a moderating influence in the political and constitutional struggles of the reign of his nephew Richard II. He was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century Lancastrian monarchs, Henry IV, V, and VI. The term Gaunt, a corruption of the name of his birthplace, Ghent, was never employed after he was three years old; it became the popularly accepted form of his name through its use in Shakespeare's play Richard II.

Through his first wife, Blanche (d. 1369), John, in 1362, acquired the duchy of Lancaster and the vast Lancastrian estates in England and Wales. From 1367 to 1374 he served as a commander in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) against France. On his return he obtained the chief influence with his father, but he had serious opponents among a group of powerful prelates who aspired to hold state offices. He countered their hostility by forming a curious alliance with the religious reformer John Wycliffe. Despite John's extreme unpopularity, he maintained his position after the accession of his ten-year-old nephew, Richard II, in 1377, and from 1381 to 1386 he mediated between the King's party and the opposition group led by John's younger brother, Thomas Woodstock, earl of Gloucester.

In 1386 John departed for Spain to pursue his claim to the kingship of Castile and Leon based upon his marriage to Constance of Castile in 1371. The expedition was a military failure. John renounced his claim in 1388, but he married his daughter, Catherine, to the young nobleman who eventually became King Henry III of Castile and Leon.

Meanwhile, in England, war had nearly broken out between the followers of King Richard II and the followers of Gloucester. John returned in 1389 and resumed his role as peacemaker.

His wife Constance died in 1394, and two years later he married his mistress, Catherine Swynford. In 1397 he obtained legitimization of the four children born to her before their marriage. This family, the Beauforts, played an important part in 15th-century politics. When John died in 1399, Richard II confiscated the Lancastrian estates, thereby preventing them from passing to John's son, Henry Bolingbroke. Henry then deposed Richard and in September 1399 ascended the throne as King Henry IV.

John married Katherine Swynford [18464] [MRIN: 6303] on 13 Jan 1396. Katherine was born in 1350 and died on 10 May 1403 at age 53.

Noted events in her life were:

• Mistress: Katherine was John's mistress before their marriage in 1396 and their children were later legitimized by the Pope.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 138 M    i. Earl of Somerset John Beaufort [18465] was born in 1373 and died on 16 Mar 1410 at age 37.

+ 139 M    ii. Cardinal Henry Beaufort of Winchester [18401] was born c1374 and died on 11 Apr 1447 in Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England at age 73.

   140 M    iii. Duke of Exeter Thomas Lancaster [18668] was born c1377 and died in 1427 at age 50.

Thomas married Margaret Neville [18669] [MRIN: 6409].

+ 141 F    iv. Joan de Beaufort [18508] was born in 1379 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou, France and died on 13 Nov 1445 in Howden, Yorkshire, England at age 66.

John next married Constance de Pedro (Castile) [18658] [MRIN: 6403], daughter of King Pedro Castile I [18659] and Unknown, in 1371. Constance died in 1394.

The child from this marriage was:

   142 F    i. Katherine Lancaster [18660] was born about 1372 and died in 1418 about age 46.

Katherine married King Enrique Castile III [18661] [MRIN: 6405]. Enrique was born in 1379 and died in 1406 at age 27.

John next married Blanche de Lancaster [18662] [MRIN: 6406]. Blanche was born in 1345 and died in 1369 at age 24.

Children from this marriage were:

   143 F    i. Philippa Lancaster [18663] died c1378.

Philippa married John of Portugal I [18664] [MRIN: 6407]. John was born in 1357 and died in 1433 at age 76.

   144 F    ii. Elizabeth Lancaster [18665] was born in 1363 and died in 1426 at age 63.

Elizabeth married Duke of Exeter John de Holland [18666] [MRIN: 6408]. John was born c1352 and died in 1400 at age 48.

+ 145 M    iii. King Henry Bolingbroke Lancaster IV [18667] was born on 2 Apr 1367 in Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England, died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminster Abbey, London at age 45, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

122. Thomas de Holand II [18979] was born about 1350 in Upholland, Lancashire, England and died on 25 Apr 1397 in Arundel Castle, Sussex, England about age 47.

Thomas married Alice FitzAlan [18578] [MRIN: 6364], daughter of Richard FitzAlan [18576] and Eleanor of Lancaster [18584], on 10 Apr 1364. Alice was born in 1352 in Arundel, Sussex, England and died on 17 May 1416 at age 64.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 146 M    i. Earl Edmund of Holland III [18579] was born on 6 Jan 1382 in Brockenhurst, Kent, England and died on 15 Sep 1408 in Isle de Brehant, Cotes-Du-Nord, France at age 26.

   147 F    ii. Margaret of Holland [19063] was born in 1385 and died on 31 Dec 1440 at age 55.

Margaret married Marquess John Beaufort [19064] [MRIN: 6550].

123. Richard FitzAlan [18071] was born in 1346 and died in 1397 at age 51.

Richard married Elizabeth de Bohun [18072] [MRIN: 6096], daughter of Earl William de Bohun [18073] and Elizabeth de Badlesmere [18074]. Elizabeth died in 1385.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 106)

124. Alice FitzAlan [18578] was born in 1352 in Arundel, Sussex, England and died on 17 May 1416 at age 64.

Alice married Thomas de Holand II [18979] [MRIN: 6364], son of Earl Thomas de Holand I [18978] and Countess Joan of Kent "The Fair Maid" [18977], on 10 Apr 1364. Thomas was born about 1350 in Upholland, Lancashire, England and died on 25 Apr 1397 in Arundel Castle, Sussex, England about age 47.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 122)

125. Henry de Beaumont [18585] was born in 1340 and died on 25 Jun 1369 at age 29.

Henry married Margaret De Vere [18586] [MRIN: 6368] about 1360. Margaret was born about 1344 and died on 15 Jun 1398 about age 54.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 148 M    i. John de Beaumont [18587] was born in 1361 and died on 9 Sep 1396 at age 35.

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126. Ann verch Gwilym [18108] .

Ann married Hywel ap Gruffudd Fab [18109] [MRIN: 6118].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 149 M    i. Hywel Fychan ap Hywel [18110] .

127. Margaret Poyntz [18221] .

Margaret married Unknown Newburgh [18222] [MRIN: 6172].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 150 M    i. John Newburgh [18223] .

128. Sir John Knyvet II [19091] was born about 1358 and died on 4 Dec 1418 in Mendleshom, Suffolk, England about age 60.

John married Margaret Knyvet [19092] [MRIN: 6563]. Margaret was born in 1355 and died after 1467.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 151 M    i. Sir Thomas Eychingham [19093] was born about 1401 in Etchingham, Sussex, England and died on 20 Jan 1483 about age 82.

129. Alice de Driby [18252] was born about 1340 and died on 12 Oct 1412 about age 72.

Alice married Sir Anketil Malory [18253] [MRIN: 6191] before 1375. Anketil was born about 1340 and died on 26 Mar 1393 in Kirkby Mallory, Leicestershire about age 53.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 152 F    i. Ela Malory [18254] .

130. Katherine de Stafford [18282] was born in 1340 in Tunbridge Castle, Staffordshire, England and died before 25 Dec 1361.

Katherine married Sir John de Sutton III [18283] [MRIN: 6208] on 25 Dec 1357. John was born about Nov 1338 and died in 1370 in France about age 32.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 153 M    i. Sir John de Sutton IV [18284] was born on 6 Dec 1361 in Coleshill, Arden, Warwickshire and died on 10 Mar 1396 at age 34.

131. Elizabeth FitzAlan [18069] was born about 1366 and died in 1425 about age 59.

Elizabeth married Robert Goushill [18068] [MRIN: 6094]. Robert died in 1403.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 154 F    i. Joan Goushill [18067] died after 1459.

Elizabeth next married Duke Thomas de Mowbray [18070] [MRIN: 6095]. Thomas was born on 22 Mar 1366 in Epworth, Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire and died on 22 Sep 1399 in Venice, Italy at age 33.

132. Joan FitzAlan [18371] was born after 1359.

Joan married Baron William de Beauchamp [18372] [MRIN: 6255]. William was born after 1330 and died on 8 May 1411.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 155 F    i. Joan de Beauchamp [18373] was born about 1400 and died in 1430 about age 30.

133. Alice FitzAlan [18400] was born about 1373.

Alice married Cardinal Henry Beaufort of Winchester [18401] [MRIN: 6272], son of Duke John of Lancaster "of Gaunt" [18463] and Katherine Swynford [18464]. Henry was born c1374 and died on 11 Apr 1447 in Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England at age 73.

General Notes: born c. 1374
died April 11, 1447, Winchester, Hampshire, Eng.

Cardinal and bishop of Winchester and a dominant figure in English politics throughout the first 43 years of the 15th century. From about 1435 until 1443 he controlled the government of the weak King Henry VI.

Beaufort's father was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of King Edward III, and his mother was Catherine Swynford. During the reign of his cousin King Richard II, he became chancellor of Oxford University (1397) and bishop of Lincoln (1398).

With the accession of his half brother, Henry IV, in 1399, Beaufort was guaranteed a prominent place in politics. In 1403 he became chancellor of England and a royal councillor. In the following year he was appointed bishop of Winchester, one of the richest sees in the country. He then resigned his chancellorship and led the opposition within the council to Henry IV's chief minister, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. When Beaufort's nephew and political ally became king as Henry V in 1413, Beaufort again received the chancellorship. In order to climb still higher, the ambitious bishop sought a position with the papacy. Pope Martin V made him a cardinal and papal legate in 1417, but the king, fearing that Beaufort would be an all too effective spokesman for papal policies, soon forced him to resign these ecclesiastical offices.

Upon the accession of the infant Henry VI in 1422, however, Beaufort's talents were allowed to flourish. Already wealthy, he enriched himself further by lending money to the insolvent crown at high interest rates. Beaufort's financing of the state solidifed his power; there was little his enemies could do against the man on whom the solvency of the government depended. Beaufort was made cardinal of St. Eusebius and papal legate in 1426, a move for which he was continually attacked by his uncle, Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, who criticized him for simultaneously holding high positions in church and state. But Beaufort survived Gloucester's sniping, and with the support of the young Henry VI, by the mid-1430s the government was firmly back in his hands. In 1435 and 1439 he attempted without success to negotiate an end to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between England and France, and in 1443 he retired from politics. Beaufort was arrogant, self-serving, and greedy to the point of rapacity, but his political and financial acumen were unrivaled in the England of his time. His career is authoritatively recounted in L.B. Radford's Henry Beaufort (1908).


The child from this marriage was:

+ 156 F    i. Jane Beaufort [18402] was born in 1392.

134. Lord Richard de Talbot VII [18325] was born about 1361 and died on 9 Sep 1396 in London, England about age 35.

Richard married Ankaret le Strange [18326] [MRIN: 6231] before 23 Aug 1383. Ankaret was born in 1361 and died on 1 Jun 1413 at age 52.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 157 F    i. Mary Talbot [18327] was born about 1383 and died on 13 Apr 1433 about age 50.

135. Henry VI Lancaster [20079] was born in 1421 and died in 1471 at age 50.

General Notes: born Dec. 6, 1421, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.
died May 21, 1471, London

King of England from 1422 to 1461 and from 1470 to 1471, a pious and studious recluse whose incapacity for government was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Henry succeeded his father, Henry V, on Sept. 1, 1422, and on the death (Oct. 21, 1422) of his maternal grandfather, the French king Charles VI, Henry was proclaimed king of France in accordance with the terms of a treaty made after Henry V's French victories.

Henry's minority was never officially ended, but from 1437 he was considered old enough to rule for himself, and his personality became a vital factor. There is evidence that he had been a headstrong and unruly boy, but he later became concerned only with religious observances and the planning of his educational foundations (Eton College in 1440–41, King's College, Cambridge, in 1441). Home politics were dominated by the rivalries of a series of overpowerful ministers — Humphrey, duke of Gloucester; Henry, Cardinal Beaufort; and William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk. After Suffolk's fall (1449) the contenders for power were the Lancastrian Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and Richard, duke of York, a cousin of the King whose claim to the throne, by strict primogeniture, was better than Henry's. Meanwhile, the English hold on France was steadily eroded; despite a truce—as part of which Henry married (April 1445) Margaret of Anjou, a niece of the French queen—Maine and Normandy were lost and by 1453 so were the remaining English-held lands in Guyenne.

Henry had a period of insanity (July 1453–December 1454), during which York was lord protector, but his hopes of ultimately succeeding Henry were shattered by the birth of Edward, prince of Wales, on Oct. 13, 1453. A return to power of Somerset in 1455 made war inevitable, and although he was killed at the first Battle of St. Albans (May 1455), Queen Margaret gradually undermined York's ascendancy, and fighting was renewed in 1459. After the Yorkists had captured Henry at Northampton (July 1460), it was agreed that Henry should remain king but recognize York, and not his own son Edward, as heir to the throne. Although York was killed at Wakefield (Dec. 30, 1460), and Henry was recaptured by the Lancastrians at the second Battle of St. Albans (Feb. 17, 1461), York's heir was proclaimed king as Edward IV in London on March 4. Routed at Towton in Yorkshire (March 29), Henry fled with his wife and son to Scotland, returning to England in 1464 to support an unsuccessful Lancastrian rising. He was eventually captured (July 1465) near Clitheroe in Lancashire and imprisoned in the Tower of London. A quarrel between Edward IV and Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, led Warwick to restore Henry to the throne in October 1470, and Edward fled abroad. But he soon returned, defeated and killed Warwick, and destroyed Queen Margaret's forces at Tewkesbury (May 4, 1471). The death of Prince Edward in that battle sealed Henry's fate, and he was murdered in the Tower of London soon afterward.

Henry married Margaret of Anjou [20080] [MRIN: 6827]. Margaret was born in 1429 and died in 1482 at age 53.

The child from this marriage was:

   158 M    i. Prince Edward of Wales [20081] was born in 1453 and died in 1471 at age 18.

137. Countess Philippa of Clarence [18456] was born on 16 Aug 1355 in Eltham Palace, Kent, England and died on 1 Jul 1381 at age 25.

Philippa married Earl Edmund Mortimer III [18457] [MRIN: 6299] in 1368 in Queen's Chapel, Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England. Edmund was born in Feb 1352 and died on 27 Dec 1381 in Shrewsbury at age 29.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 159 F    i. Elizabeth Mortimer [18458] was born on 12 Feb 1371 in Monmouthshire, England and died on 20 Apr 1417 at age 46.

138. Earl of Somerset John Beaufort [18465] was born in 1373 and died on 16 Mar 1410 at age 37.

John married Margaret of Holland [18466] [MRIN: 6304] on 23 Aug 1397. Margaret was born in 1375 and died on 31 Dec 1440 at age 65.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 160 F    i. Joan de Beaufort [18467] was born in 1398 in Westminster, Middlesex, England and died on 15 Jul 1445 in Dunbar Castle, East Lothian, Scotland at age 47.

139. Cardinal Henry Beaufort of Winchester [18401] was born c1374 and died on 11 Apr 1447 in Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England at age 73.

General Notes: born c. 1374
died April 11, 1447, Winchester, Hampshire, Eng.

Cardinal and bishop of Winchester and a dominant figure in English politics throughout the first 43 years of the 15th century. From about 1435 until 1443 he controlled the government of the weak King Henry VI.

Beaufort's father was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of King Edward III, and his mother was Catherine Swynford. During the reign of his cousin King Richard II, he became chancellor of Oxford University (1397) and bishop of Lincoln (1398).

With the accession of his half brother, Henry IV, in 1399, Beaufort was guaranteed a prominent place in politics. In 1403 he became chancellor of England and a royal councillor. In the following year he was appointed bishop of Winchester, one of the richest sees in the country. He then resigned his chancellorship and led the opposition within the council to Henry IV's chief minister, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. When Beaufort's nephew and political ally became king as Henry V in 1413, Beaufort again received the chancellorship. In order to climb still higher, the ambitious bishop sought a position with the papacy. Pope Martin V made him a cardinal and papal legate in 1417, but the king, fearing that Beaufort would be an all too effective spokesman for papal policies, soon forced him to resign these ecclesiastical offices.

Upon the accession of the infant Henry VI in 1422, however, Beaufort's talents were allowed to flourish. Already wealthy, he enriched himself further by lending money to the insolvent crown at high interest rates. Beaufort's financing of the state solidifed his power; there was little his enemies could do against the man on whom the solvency of the government depended. Beaufort was made cardinal of St. Eusebius and papal legate in 1426, a move for which he was continually attacked by his uncle, Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, who criticized him for simultaneously holding high positions in church and state. But Beaufort survived Gloucester's sniping, and with the support of the young Henry VI, by the mid-1430s the government was firmly back in his hands. In 1435 and 1439 he attempted without success to negotiate an end to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between England and France, and in 1443 he retired from politics. Beaufort was arrogant, self-serving, and greedy to the point of rapacity, but his political and financial acumen were unrivaled in the England of his time. His career is authoritatively recounted in L.B. Radford's Henry Beaufort (1908).

Henry married Alice FitzAlan [18400] [MRIN: 6272], daughter of Richard FitzAlan [18071] and Elizabeth de Bohun [18072]. Alice was born about 1373.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 133)

141. Joan de Beaufort [18508] was born in 1379 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou, France and died on 13 Nov 1445 in Howden, Yorkshire, England at age 66.

Joan married Robert de Ferrers [18509] [MRIN: 6327]. Robert was born in 1373 and died on 29 Nov 1396 at age 23.

Joan next married Ralph de Neville [18510] [MRIN: 6328] before 29 Nov 1396. Ralph was born in 1363 in Durham, England and died on 21 Oct 1425 in Durham, England at age 62.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 161 F    i. Eleanor de Neville [18462] was born c1396 in Raby, Durham, England and died in 1463 at age 67.

+ 162 M    ii. Baron George de Neville [18511] was born after 1400 and died on 30 Dec 1469.

+ 163 M    iii. Baron Edward de Neville [18513] was born in 1417 in Raby With Keverstone, Durham, England and died in 1476 at age 59.

145. King Henry Bolingbroke Lancaster IV [18667] was born on 2 Apr 1367 in Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England, died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminster Abbey, London at age 45, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

General Notes: born , April 3, 1366, Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, Eng.
died March 20, 1413, London

Also called (1377–97) Earl of Derby, or (1397–99) Duke of Hereford, by name Henry Bolingbroke, or Henry of Lancaster king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the House of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. At the same time he was unable to overcome the fiscal and administrative weaknesses that contributed to the eventual downfall of the Lancastrian dynasty.

Henry was the eldest surviving son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by his first wife, Blanche. Before becoming king he was known as Henry Bolingbroke, and he received from his cousin the titles earl of Derby (1377) and duke of Hereford (1397). During the opening years of the reign of King Richard II (ruled 1377–99), Henry remained in the background while his father ran the government. When Gaunt departed for an expedition to Spain in 1386, Henry entered politics as an opponent of the crown. He and Thomas Mowbray (later 1st duke of Norfolk) became the younger members of the group of five opposition leaders—known as the lords appellants—who in 1387–89 outlawed Richard's closest associates and forced the King to submit to their domination. Richard had just regained the upper hand when Gaunt returned to reconcile the King to his enemies. Bolingbroke then went on crusades into Lithuania (1390) and Prussia (1392). Meanwhile, Richard had not forgiven his past enmity. In 1398 the King took advantage of a quarrel between Bolingbroke and Norfolk to banish both men from the kingdom. The seizure of the Lancastrian estates by the crown upon John of Gaunt's death (February 1399) deprived Henry of his inheritance and gave him an excuse to invade England (July 1399) as a champion of the nobility. Richard surrendered to him in August; Bolingbroke's reign as King Henry IV began when Richard abdicated on Sept. 30, 1399.

Henry IV used his descent from King Henry III (ruled 1216–72) to justify his usurpation of the throne. Nevertheless, this claim did not convince those magnates who aspired to assert their authority at the crown's expense. During the first five years of his reign, Henry was attacked by a formidable array of domestic and foreign enemies. He quashed a conspiracy of Richard's supporters in January 1400. Eight months later the Welsh landowner Owen Glendower raised a national rebellion against oppressive English rule in Wales. Henry led a number of fruitless expeditions into Wales from 1400 to 1405, but his son, Prince Henry, had greater success in reasserting royal control over the region. Meanwhile, Glendower encouraged domestic resistance to Henry's rule by allying with the powerful Percy family—Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, and his son Sir Henry Percy, called Hotspur. Hotspur's brief uprising, the most serious challenge faced by Henry during his reign, ended when the King's forces killed the rebel in battle near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, in July 1403. In 1405 Henry had Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, and Richard Scrope, archbishop of York, executed for conspiring with Northumberland to raise another rebellion. Although the worst of Henry's political troubles were over, he then began to suffer from an affliction that his contemporaries believed to be leprosy—it may have been congenital syphilis. A quickly suppressed insurrection, led by Northumberland in 1408, was the last armed challenge to Henry's authority. Throughout these years the King had to combat border incursions by the Scots and ward off conflict with the French, who aided the Welsh rebels in 1405–06.

To finance these military activities, Henry was forced to rely on parliamentary grants. From 1401 to 1406 Parliament repeatedly accused him of fiscal mismanagement and gradually acquired certain precedent-setting powers over royal expenditures and appointments. As Henry's health deteriorated, a power struggle developed within his administration between his favorite, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, and a faction headed by Henry's Beaufort half brothers and Prince Henry. The latter group ousted Arundel from the chancellorship early in 1410, but they, in turn, fell from power in 1411. Henry then made an alliance with the French faction that was waging war against the Prince's Burgundian friends. As a consequence, tension between Henry and the Prince was high when Henry became totally incapacitated late in 1412. He died several months later, and the Prince succeeded as King Henry V.

Noted events in his life were:

• Titles: King of England - 30 September 1399 to 20 March 1413
Earl of Northampton and Hereford
Duke of Hereford
Duke of Lancaster
Earl of Leicester
Earl of Lincoln

Henry married Mary de Bohun [18688] [MRIN: 6419], daughter of Earl Humphrey de Bohun VIII [18075] and Princess Elizabeth Plantagenet [18076], before 10 Feb 1381 in Arundel, Sussex, England. Mary was born c1369 and died in 1394 at age 25.

General Notes: Eight children.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 94)

146. Earl Edmund of Holland III [18579] was born on 6 Jan 1382 in Brockenhurst, Kent, England and died on 15 Sep 1408 in Isle de Brehant, Cotes-Du-Nord, France at age 26.

General Notes: born 1374
died Jan. 7/8, 1400, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, Eng.

Thomas De Holand, prominent English noble in the reign of Richard II.

Son of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–97), he aided in the arrest and destruction of Richard II's enemies and was awarded with the dukedom of Surrey in 1397. In 1398 he was created marshal of England and given large estates, and, later in the same year, he was made the king's lieutenant in Ireland.

After Henry IV seized power in September 1399, Surrey, along with other advisers of the former king, was temporarily arrested. On November 6 he was deprived of his dukedom. He then joined in a conspiracy against Henry but was betrayed and, while in flight, was seized by a mob and beheaded.

Edmund married Lucia Visconti [18980] [MRIN: 6508]. Lucia died on 14 Apr 1424.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 164 F    i. Eleanor of Holland [18981] was born about 1405 in Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England and died in 1452 about age 47.

148. John de Beaumont [18587] was born in 1361 and died on 9 Sep 1396 at age 35.

John married Catherine Everingham [18588] [MRIN: 6369]. Catherine died in 1426.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 165 F    i. Elizabeth de Beaumont [18589] was born in 1389 in Falkingham, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1488 in Gainsborough, England at age 99.

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149. Hywel Fychan ap Hywel [18110] .

Hywel married Catrin verch Ieuan Llwyd [18111] [MRIN: 6119].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 166 M    i. Gwilym Gam ap Hywel Fychan [18139] .

150. John Newburgh [18223] .

John married.

His child was:

+ 167 M    i. John Newburgh [18224] .

151. Sir Thomas Eychingham [19093] was born about 1401 in Etchingham, Sussex, England and died on 20 Jan 1483 about age 82.

Thomas married Margaret West [19094] [MRIN: 6564] in 1448. Margaret was born in 1428 in Snitterfield, Warwickshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 168 F    i. Margaret Eychingham [19095] was born in 1443 in Echyngham, Sussex, England and died after 1482 in Middlesex, England.

152. Ela Malory [18254] .

Ela married Thomas de Greene [18255] [MRIN: 6192]. Thomas was born in Green's Norton, Northamptonshire.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 169 M    i. John Greene [18256] was born about 1468.

153. Sir John de Sutton IV [18284] was born on 6 Dec 1361 in Coleshill, Arden, Warwickshire and died on 10 Mar 1396 at age 34.

John married Alice de Despenser [18285] [MRIN: 6209]. Alice died in 1392.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 170 M    i. John de Sutton V [18286] was born in Feb 1380 and died on 28 Aug 1406 at age 26.

154. Joan Goushill [18067] died after 1459.

Joan married Sir Thomas Stanley [18066] [MRIN: 6093]. Thomas was born before 1405 in Lathom and Knowsley, England and died on 11 Feb 1459.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 171 F    i. Katherine Stanley [18065] was born in 1430 and died in 1498 at age 68.

155. Joan de Beauchamp [18373] was born about 1400 and died in 1430 about age 30.

Joan married Earl James "the White Earl" Butler IV [18374] [MRIN: 6256]. James was born about 1391 in Leicester, England and died on 23 Aug 1452 about age 61.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 172 F    i. Elizabeth Butler [18375] was born in 1420 and died on 8 Sep 1473 at age 53.

156. Jane Beaufort [18402] was born in 1392.

Jane married Sir Edward Stradling [18403] [MRIN: 6273]. Edward was born c1389 and died in 1451 at age 62.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 173 M    i. Sir Henry Stradling [18404] was born in 1423 and died in 1476 at age 53.

157. Mary Talbot [18327] was born about 1383 and died on 13 Apr 1433 about age 50.

Mary married Sir Thomas Greene III [18328] [MRIN: 6232]. Thomas was born in 1369 and died on 14 Dec 1417 at age 48.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 174 M    i. Sir Thomas Greene IV [18329] was born on 10 Feb 1399 and died on 18 Jan 1462 in Norton, Northampton, England at age 62.

159. Elizabeth Mortimer [18458] was born on 12 Feb 1371 in Monmouthshire, England and died on 20 Apr 1417 at age 46.

Elizabeth married Sir Thomas de Camoys [18459] [MRIN: 6300] cAug 1403. Thomas was born c1351 and died on 28 Mar 1421 at age 70.

Elizabeth next married Sir Henry de Percy "Hot Spur" [18460] [MRIN: 6301] in Dec 1379. Henry was born on 20 May 1364 and died on 21 Jul 1403 at age 39.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 175 M    i. Earl Henry de Percy VIII [18461] was born on 3 Feb 1393 and died on 23 May 1455 in Battle of St. Albans at age 62.

160. Joan de Beaufort [18467] was born in 1398 in Westminster, Middlesex, England and died on 15 Jul 1445 in Dunbar Castle, East Lothian, Scotland at age 47.

Joan married King James Stuart I [18468] [MRIN: 6305] in 1424 in Priory Church, St. Mary Overy, Southwark, Surrey, England. James was born in Dec 1394 in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, Scotland and died on 20 Feb 1437 in Monastry of the Friars, Perth at age 42.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 176 M    i. James Stuart II [18469] was born on 16 Oct 1413 in Holyroos, Edinburg and died on 3 Aug 1460 in Roxburg Castle at age 46.

   177 F    ii. Margaret Stuart [18637] died in 1445.

Margaret married King Louis de France XI [18649] [MRIN: 6398].

   178 F    iii. Isabella Stuart [18638] died in 1494.

Isabella married Duke Francis de Brittany I [18648] [MRIN: 6397].

   179 F    iv. Eleanor Stuart [18639] died in 1480.

Eleanor married Archduke Sigismund of Austria [18647] [MRIN: 6396].

   180 F    v. Joan Stuart [18640] died in 1486.

Joan married Earl James Douglas of Morton [18646] [MRIN: 6395].

   181 F    vi. Mary Stuart [18641] died in 1465.

Mary married Count Wolfert of Grandpre' [18645] [MRIN: 6394].

   182 F    vii. Annabella Stuart [18642] died in 1501.

Annabella married Louis of Savoy [18643] [MRIN: 6392].

Annabella next married Earl George Gordon of Huntly [18644] [MRIN: 6393].

Joan next married James Stewart "Black Knight" [18526] [MRIN: 6337] before 21 Sep 1439. James was born in 1383 in Lorne, Argyll, Scotland and died in 1448 at Sea at age 65.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 183 M    i. John Stewart [18527] was born c1440 in Balveny, Fife, Scotland and died on 15 Sep 1521 in Laighwood, Perth, Scotland at age 81.

161. Eleanor de Neville [18462] was born c1396 in Raby, Durham, England and died in 1463 at age 67.

Eleanor married Earl Henry de Percy VIII [18461] [MRIN: 6302], son of Sir Henry de Percy "Hot Spur" [18460] and Elizabeth Mortimer [18458]. Henry was born on 3 Feb 1393 and died on 23 May 1455 in Battle of St. Albans at age 62.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 184 M    i. Henry de Percy IX [18554] was born on 25 Jul 1421 and died on 29 Mar 1461 at age 39.

162. Baron George de Neville [18511] was born after 1400 and died on 30 Dec 1469.

George married Elizabeth de Beauchamp [18512] [MRIN: 6329] before 1436. Elizabeth was born in 1417.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 185 M    i. Sir Henry Neville [18506] was born c1437 in Latimer, Buckinghamshire, England and died on 26 Jul 1469 in Battle of Edgecote at age 32.

163. Baron Edward de Neville [18513] was born in 1417 in Raby With Keverstone, Durham, England and died in 1476 at age 59.

Edward married Catharine Howard [18507] [MRIN: 6326] on 15 Oct 1448. Catharine was born in 1414 and died on 18 Oct 1476 at age 62.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 186 F    i. Katherine Neville [18505] .

164. Eleanor of Holland [18981] was born about 1405 in Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England and died in 1452 about age 47.

Eleanor married Baron James Tuchet [18982] [MRIN: 6509] on 16 Mar 1429. James was born about 1398 in Stafford, England and died on 23 Sep 1459 in Battle of Blore Heath about age 61.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 187 F    i. Constance Tuchet [18983] was born about 1443.

165. Elizabeth de Beaumont [18589] was born in 1389 in Falkingham, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1488 in Gainsborough, England at age 99.

Elizabeth married Lord William de Botreaux [18590] [MRIN: 6370] before 1411. William was born on 20 Feb 1388 and died on 16 May 1462 at age 74.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 188 F    i. Baronesse Margaret de Botreaux [18591] was born in Somerset, England and died on 7 Feb 1477.

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166. Gwilym Gam ap Hywel Fychan [18139] .

Gwilym married Gwenllian verch Gwilym [18140] [MRIN: 6132].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 189 M    i. Hywel Melyn ap Gwilym Gam [18141] .

167. John Newburgh [18224] .

John married.

His child was:

+ 190 M    i. Thomas Newburgh [18225] .

168. Margaret Eychingham [19095] was born in 1443 in Echyngham, Sussex, England and died after 1482 in Middlesex, England.

Margaret married Sir William Blount [19096] [MRIN: 6565] in 1463. William was born in 1442 in Rock, Worcester, England and died in 1514 in Hunslow, Middlesex, England at age 72.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 191 F    i. Elizabeth Blount [19097] was born about 1471 in Rock, Worcester, England and died in 1514 in Hounslow, Middlesex, England about age 43.

169. John Greene [18256] was born about 1468.

John married.

His child was:

+ 192 M    i. Robert Greene [18257] was born in 1500 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset.

170. John de Sutton V [18286] was born in Feb 1380 and died on 28 Aug 1406 at age 26.

John married Constance le Blount [18287] [MRIN: 6210] before 10 Dec 1401. Constance was born after 1373 in Barton, Derbyshire, England and died on 23 Sep 1432 in Northampton, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 193 M    i. John de Sutton VI [18288] was born on 25 Dec 1400 in Barton, Derbyshire, England and died on 30 Sep 1487 at age 86.

171. Katherine Stanley [18065] was born in 1430 and died in 1498 at age 68.

Katherine married Sir John Savage [18064] [MRIN: 6092]. John was born in 1422 and died on 22 Nov 1495 at age 73.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 194 M    i. Christopher Savage [18062] died in 1513.

172. Elizabeth Butler [18375] was born in 1420 and died on 8 Sep 1473 at age 53.

Elizabeth married Earl John Talbot II [18376] [MRIN: 6257] about 1443. John was born about 1413 and died on 10 Jul 1460 in Northampton, England about age 47.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 195 F    i. Anne Talbot [18377] died in 1494.

173. Sir Henry Stradling [18404] was born in 1423 and died in 1476 at age 53.

Henry married Elizabeth Herbert [18405] [MRIN: 6274].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 196 M    i. Thomas Stradling [18406] was born in 1454 and died in 1480 at age 26.

174. Sir Thomas Greene IV [18329] was born on 10 Feb 1399 and died on 18 Jan 1462 in Norton, Northampton, England at age 62.

Thomas married Phillippa Ferrers [18330] [MRIN: 6233]. Phillippa was born about 1390 in Chartley, Straffordshire, England and died in 1458 in Norton, Northampton, England about age 68.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 197 F    i. Elizabeth Greene [18331] was born about 1420 in Norton, Northampton, England.

175. Earl Henry de Percy VIII [18461] was born on 3 Feb 1393 and died on 23 May 1455 in Battle of St. Albans at age 62.

Henry married Eleanor de Neville [18462] [MRIN: 6302], daughter of Ralph de Neville [18510] and Joan de Beaufort [18508]. Eleanor was born c1396 in Raby, Durham, England and died in 1463 at age 67.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 161)

176. James Stuart II [18469] was born on 16 Oct 1413 in Holyroos, Edinburg and died on 3 Aug 1460 in Roxburg Castle at age 46.

James married Maria van Gueldre [18470] [MRIN: 6306]. Maria was born in 1432 and died on 1 Dec 1463 at age 31.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 198 M    i. King James Stuart III [18471] was born on 10 Jul 1451 in Stirling Castle, Scotland and died on 11 Jun 1488 in Milltown, Bannockburn, Scotland at age 36.

183. John Stewart [18527] was born c1440 in Balveny, Fife, Scotland and died on 15 Sep 1521 in Laighwood, Perth, Scotland at age 81.

John married.

His child was:

+ 199 M    i. Earl John Stewart II [18528] was born about 1520.

184. Henry de Percy IX [18554] was born on 25 Jul 1421 and died on 29 Mar 1461 at age 39.

Henry married Eleanor Poynings [18555] [MRIN: 6352]. Eleanor was born c1422 and died in Feb 1483 at age 61.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 200 F    i. Margaret Percy [18556] was born c1447.

185. Sir Henry Neville [18506] was born c1437 in Latimer, Buckinghamshire, England and died on 26 Jul 1469 in Battle of Edgecote at age 32.

Henry married Joan Bourchier [18514] [MRIN: 6330] c1467. Joan was born in 1442 and died on 7 Oct 1470 at age 28.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 201 M    i. Richard Neville [18515] was born c1468 in North Riding, Yorkshire, England and died in Dec 1530 in Snape Castle, Yorkshire, England at age 62.

186. Katherine Neville [18505] .

Katherine married Robert Tanfield [18504] [MRIN: 6325]. Robert died after 1505.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 202 M    i. William Tanfield [18502] was born in 1489 and died in 1529 at age 40.

187. Constance Tuchet [18983] was born about 1443.

Constance married Sir Robert Whitney [18984] [MRIN: 6510] about 1464. Robert was born about 1436 in Whitney, Herefordshire, England.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 203 F    i. Joan (Jean) Whitney [19039] died in 1503.

+ 204 F    ii. Eleanor Whitney [18985] was born about 1467.

188. Baronesse Margaret de Botreaux [18591] was born in Somerset, England and died on 7 Feb 1477.

Margaret married Lord Robert Hungerford [18592] [MRIN: 6371] in 1419 in Somerset, England. Robert was born about 1400 in Fairleigh-Hungerford, Somersetshire, England and died on 18 May 1459 in Wiltshire, England about age 59.

Children from this marriage were:

   205 M    i. Robert Hungerford II [18593] was born about 1420 in Forley, Hungerford, Somerset, England and died on 18 May 1464 in Newcastle, Northumberland, England about age 44.

Robert married Alainor Molines [18594] [MRIN: 6372] before 5 Nov 1440 in Hampshire, England. Alainor was born on 11 Jun 1426 in Somerset, England and died in 1476 at age 50.

+ 206 F    ii. Alice Hungerford [18595] was born in 1426 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England.

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189. Hywel Melyn ap Gwilym Gam [18141] .

Hywel married.

His child was:

+ 207 M    i. Ieuan Gwyn ap Hywel Gam [18142] .

190. Thomas Newburgh [18225] .

Thomas married.

His child was:

+ 208 M    i. Walter Newburgh [18226] .

191. Elizabeth Blount [19097] was born about 1471 in Rock, Worcester, England and died in 1514 in Hounslow, Middlesex, England about age 43.

Elizabeth married Baron Andrew de Windsor [19098] [MRIN: 6566]. Andrew was born on 1 May 1467 in Stanwell Manor, Stanwell, Middlesex, England and died on 30 Mar 1543 at age 75.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 209 F    i. Edith Windsor [19099] was born in 1514.

192. Robert Greene [18257] was born in 1500 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset.

Robert married.

His child was:

+ 210 M    i. Richard Greene [18258] was born about 1530 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset and died on 3 May 1608 about age 78.

193. John de Sutton VI [18288] was born on 25 Dec 1400 in Barton, Derbyshire, England and died on 30 Sep 1487 at age 86.

John married Elizabeth Berkeley [18289] [MRIN: 6211] after 14 Mar 1421. Elizabeth died about 8 Dec 1478.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 211 F    i. Eleanor Sutton [18290] was born about 1441 and died in 1513 in Staffordshire about age 72.

194. Christopher Savage [18062] died in 1513.

Christopher married Anne Stanley [18063] [MRIN: 6091].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 212 M    i. Christopher Savage II [18060] was born about 1496 in Elmley Castle, Worcester and died in 1546 about age 50.

195. Anne Talbot [18377] died in 1494.

Anne married Unknown Vernon [18378] [MRIN: 6258].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 213 F    i. Elizabeth Vernon [18379] died in 1563.

196. Thomas Stradling [18406] was born in 1454 and died in 1480 at age 26.

Thomas married Janet Mathew [18407] [MRIN: 6275].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 214 F    i. Jane Stradling [18408] was born in 1477 and died in 1520 at age 43.

197. Elizabeth Greene [18331] was born about 1420 in Norton, Northampton, England.

Elizabeth married William Raleigh [18332] [MRIN: 6234] in 1440. William was born about 1415 in Thornborough, Warwickshire, England and died on 15 Oct 1460 about age 45.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 215 M    i. Sir Edward Raleigh [18333] was born about 1444 in Thornborough, Warwickshire, England and died before 20 Jun 1509 in Farneborough, Warwickshire, England.

198. King James Stuart III [18471] was born on 10 Jul 1451 in Stirling Castle, Scotland and died on 11 Jun 1488 in Milltown, Bannockburn, Scotland at age 36.

General Notes: born May 1452
died June 11, 1488, near Stirling, Stirling, Scot.


King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. A weak monarch, he was confronted with two major rebellions because he failed to win the respect of the nobility.

James received the crown at the age of eight upon the death of his father, King James II. Scotland was governed first by James's mother, Mary of Gueldres (d. 1463), and James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews (d. 1465), and then by a group of nobles headed by the Boyds of Kilmarnock, who seized the king in 1466. In 1469 James overthrew the Boyds and began to govern for himself. Unlike his father, he was, however, unable to restore strong central government after his long minority. He evidently offended his nobles by his interest in the arts and by taking artists for his favorites. In 1479 he arrested his brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany, and John, Earl of Mar, on suspicion of treason. Albany escaped to England, and in 1482 English troops entered Scotland and forced James to restore Albany to his domains. During this invasion dissident Scottish nobles hanged James's favorites. By March 1483 the king had recovered enough power to expel Albany.

Nevertheless, even without English aid to his discontented subjects, James was unable to ward off revolts. In 1488 two powerful border families, the Homes and the Hepburns, raised a rebellion and won to their cause his 15-year-old son, the future king James IV. James III was captured and killed after his defeat at the Battle of Sauchieburn, Stirling, on June 11.

James married Margarethe af Danmark [18472] [MRIN: 6307]. Margarethe was born on 23 Jun 1456 and died on 14 Jul 1486 at age 30.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 216 M    i. King James Stuart IV "Iron Belt" [18473] was born on 17 Mar 1473 and died on 9 Sep 1513 in Flodden Field, Northumberland at age 40.

199. Earl John Stewart II [18528] was born about 1520.

John married Janet Campbell [18529] [MRIN: 6339]. Janet died cFeb 1545.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 217 F    i. Elizabeth Stewart [18530] was born in Kintail, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland.

200. Margaret Percy [18556] was born c1447.

Margaret married Sir William Gascoigne III [18557] [MRIN: 6353].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 218 F    i. Elizabeth Gascoigne [18558] was born c1471 in Gawthorpe, Yorkshire, England and died in 1559 in Kyme Manor, Yorkshire, England at age 88.

201. Richard Neville [18515] was born c1468 in North Riding, Yorkshire, England and died in Dec 1530 in Snape Castle, Yorkshire, England at age 62.

Richard married Anne Stafford [18516] [MRIN: 6331] c1490. Anne was born c1472.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 219 F    i. Dorothy Neville [18517] .

202. William Tanfield [18502] was born in 1489 and died in 1529 at age 40.

William married Isabel Stavely [18503] [MRIN: 6324].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 220 M    i. Francis Tanfield Esq. [18500] was born c1508 in Gayton, Northamptonshire, England and died on 21 Nov 1558 at age 50.

203. Joan (Jean) Whitney [19039] died in 1503.

Joan married Unknown Vaughan [19040] [MRIN: 6536].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 221 F    i. Elizabeth Vaughan [19041] was born in 1470.

204. Eleanor Whitney [18985] was born about 1467.

Eleanor married John Puleston [18986] [MRIN: 6511]. John was born c1485 and died c1523 at age 38.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 222 M    i. Sir John Puleston [18987] .

206. Alice Hungerford [18595] was born in 1426 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England.

Alice married John White II [18596] [MRIN: 6373] in 1452 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England. John was born in 1422 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England and died in 1462 at age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 223 M    i. Sir Robert White II [18597] was born about 1446 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England and died on 4 Aug 1513 about age 67.

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207. Ieuan Gwyn ap Hywel Gam [18142] .

Ieuan married Mabel Cradock [18143] [MRIN: 6134].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 224 M    i. Jenkin ap Euan Gwyn [18144] .

208. Walter Newburgh [18226] .

Walter married.

His child was:

+ 225 M    i. Richard Newborough [18227] .

209. Edith Windsor [19099] was born in 1514.

Edith married George Ludlow Esq. [19100] [MRIN: 6567]. George died in 1580.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 226 M    i. Thomas Ludlow [19101] was born in 1550, died in 1607 at age 57, and was buried on 25 Nov 1607.

210. Richard Greene [18258] was born about 1530 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset and died on 3 May 1608 about age 78.

Richard married.

His child was:

+ 227 M    i. Richard Greene II [18259] was born in 1560 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset and died in 1617 in Salisbury, Wiltshire at age 57.

211. Eleanor Sutton [18290] was born about 1441 and died in 1513 in Staffordshire about age 72.

Eleanor married Henry de Beaumont IV [18291] [MRIN: 6212]. Henry was born about 1440 in Wednesbury, Stafforshire & Thorpe-in-Balne, Yorkshire and died on 16 Nov 1471 about age 31.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 228 F    i. Constance de Beaumont [18292] was born about 1467.

212. Christopher Savage II [18060] was born about 1496 in Elmley Castle, Worcester and died in 1546 about age 50.

Christopher married Anne Lygon [18061] [MRIN: 6090].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 229 M    i. Francis Savage Esq. [18058] .

213. Elizabeth Vernon [18379] died in 1563.

Elizabeth married Unknown Corbet [18380] [MRIN: 6259].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 230 F    i. Dorothy Corbet [18381] .

214. Jane Stradling [18408] was born in 1477 and died in 1520 at age 43.

Jane married Sir William Griffith II [18409] [MRIN: 6276]. William was born c1475 in Penrhyn Castle, Caernarvonshire, Wales and died in 1531 at age 56.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 231 F    i. Dorothy Griffith [18410] was born about 1507 in Richley, Anglesey, Wales.

215. Sir Edward Raleigh [18333] was born about 1444 in Thornborough, Warwickshire, England and died before 20 Jun 1509 in Farneborough, Warwickshire, England.

Edward married Margaret Verney [18334] [MRIN: 6235] in 1467. Margaret was born about 1445 in London, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 232 M    i. Edward Raleigh [18335] was born about 1473 in Farneborough, Warwickshire, England.

216. King James Stuart IV "Iron Belt" [18473] was born on 17 Mar 1473 and died on 9 Sep 1513 in Flodden Field, Northumberland at age 40.

General Notes: born March 17, 1473
died Sept. 9, 1513, near Branxton, Northumberland, Eng.


King of Scotland from 1488 to 1513. An energetic and popular ruler, he unified Scotland under royal control, strengthened royal finances, and improved Scotland's position in European politics.

James succeeded to the throne after his father, James III, was killed in a battle against rebels on June 11, 1488. The 15-year-old monarch immediately began to take an active part in government. He extended his authority to the sparsely populated areas of western and northern Scotland and by 1493 had humbled the last lord of the Isles.

Although his reign was internally peaceful, it was disturbed by wars with England. Breaking a truce with England in 1495, James prepared an invasion in support of Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the English throne. The war was confined to a few border forays, and a seven-year peace was negotiated in December 1497, though border raids continued. Relations between England and Scotland were further stabilized in 1503, when James married Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of the English king Henry VII; this match resulted, a century later, in the accession of James's great-grandson, the Stuart monarch James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as King James I.

James IV's growing prestige enabled him to negotiate as an equal with the rulers of continental Europe, but his position was weakened as he came into conflict with King Henry VIII of England (ruled 1509–47). In 1512 James allied with France against England and the major continental powers. When Henry invaded France in 1513, James decided, against the counsel of his advisers, to aid his ally by advancing into England. He captured four castles in northern England in August 1513, but his army was disastrously defeated at the Battle of Flodden, near Branxton, on Sept. 9, 1513. The king was killed while fighting on foot, and most of his nobles perished. James left one legitimate child, his successor, James V (ruled 1513–42); in addition, he had many illegitimate children, several of whom became prominent figures in Scotland.

True to the ideal of the Renaissance prince, James strove to make his court a center of refinement and learning. He patronized literature, licensed Scotland's first printers, and improved education.

James married Margaret Drummond [18474] [MRIN: 6308]. Margaret died in May 1502.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 233 F    i. Margaret Stewart [18475] was born in 1497.

217. Elizabeth Stewart [18530] was born in Kintail, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland.

Elizabeth married Kenneth Mackenzie [18531] [MRIN: 6340] in 1538. Kenneth was born c1513 in Kintail, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland and died on 6 Jun 1568 in Chanonry Point at age 55.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 234 M    i. Colin Mackenzie [18532] was born before 1541 in Kintail, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland and died on 14 Jun 1594 in Redcastle.

218. Elizabeth Gascoigne [18558] was born c1471 in Gawthorpe, Yorkshire, England and died in 1559 in Kyme Manor, Yorkshire, England at age 88.

Elizabeth married Baron George Tailboys [18559] [MRIN: 6354] cApr 1493. George was born c1467 in Kyme Manor, Yorkshire, England and died on 21 Sep 1538 at age 71.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 235 F    i. Ann Tailboys [18560] .

219. Dorothy Neville [18517] .

Dorothy married Sir John Dawney [18518] [MRIN: 6332].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 236 F    i. Anne Dawney [18519] .

220. Francis Tanfield Esq. [18500] was born c1508 in Gayton, Northamptonshire, England and died on 21 Nov 1558 at age 50.

Francis married Bridget Cave [18501] [MRIN: 6323]. Bridget died on 20 Jun 1583.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 237 F    i. Anne Tanfield [18499] .

221. Elizabeth Vaughan [19041] was born in 1470.

Elizabeth married Unknown Morgan [19042] [MRIN: 6537].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 238 M    i. Rowland Morgan [19043] was born in 1498 and died in 1577 at age 79.

222. Sir John Puleston [18987] .

John married Gainor ferch Robert [18988] [MRIN: 6512].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 239 F    i. Jane Puleston [18989] .

223. Sir Robert White II [18597] was born about 1446 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England and died on 4 Aug 1513 about age 67.

Robert married Margaret Gaynsford [18598] [MRIN: 6374] in 1467 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England. Margaret was born in Swanborne, Hampshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 240 M    i. Robert White III [18599] was born about 1475 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England.

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224. Jenkin ap Euan Gwyn [18144] .

Jenkin married Jonet verch Thomas [18145] [MRIN: 6135].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 241 M    i. Owain ap Jenkin [18146] .

225. Richard Newborough [18227] .

Richard married.

His child was:

+ 242 M    i. Richard Newberry [18228] .

226. Thomas Ludlow [19101] was born in 1550, died in 1607 at age 57, and was buried on 25 Nov 1607.

Thomas married Jane Pyle [19102] [MRIN: 6568].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 243 M    i. Gabriel Ludlow [19103] was born in 1587 and died after 1639.

227. Richard Greene II [18259] was born in 1560 in Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, Dorset and died in 1617 in Salisbury, Wiltshire at age 57.

Richard married Mary Hooker [18260] [MRIN: 6196]. Mary was born about 1565 in Salisbury, Wiltshire.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 244 F    i. Rachel Greene [18261] was born in 1596 and died on 13 Nov 1656 in Gillingham. Dorset at age 60.

228. Constance de Beaumont [18292] was born about 1467.

Constance married John Mitton [18293] [MRIN: 6213].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 245 F    i. Joyce Mitton [18294] was born in 1487.

229. Francis Savage Esq. [18058] .

Francis married Anne Sheldon [18059] [MRIN: 6089].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 246 M    i. Anthony Savage [18056] .

230. Dorothy Corbet [18381] .

Dorothy married Richard Mainwaring [18382] [MRIN: 6260]. Richard was born about 1494 and died in 1558 about age 64.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 247 M    i. Arthur Mainwaring [18383] was born about 1516 and died in 1590 about age 74.

231. Dorothy Griffith [18410] was born about 1507 in Richley, Anglesey, Wales.

Dorothy married William Wynn Williams Esq. [18411] [MRIN: 6277]. William was born c1503 in Cwchwillian, Llewchwedd Uchav, Caernarvonshire, Wales.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 248 F    i. Jane Williams [18412] .

232. Edward Raleigh [18335] was born about 1473 in Farneborough, Warwickshire, England.

Edward married Anne Chamberlayne [18336] [MRIN: 6236]. Anne was born about 1478 in Shirburn, Oxfordshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 249 F    i. Bridget Raleigh [18337] was born about 1506 in Cannons Ashby, Northampton, England and died on 6 Jan 1558 about age 52.

233. Margaret Stewart [18475] was born in 1497.

Margaret married John Gordon [18476] [MRIN: 6309] in Nov 1512. John died on 5 Dec 1517.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 250 M    i. Earl George Gordon [18477] was born in 1513 and died on 22 Oct 1562 at age 49.

234. Colin Mackenzie [18532] was born before 1541 in Kintail, Ross & Cromarty, Scotland and died on 14 Jun 1594 in Redcastle.

Colin married Mary Mackenzie [18533] [MRIN: 6341].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 251 M    i. Alexander Mackenzie [18534] .

235. Ann Tailboys [18560] .

Ann married Edward Dymoke [18561] [MRIN: 6355]. Edward was born in 1508 in Scrivelsby Manor, Lincolnshire, England and died on 16 Sep 1566 in Scrivelsby Manor, Lincolnshire, England at age 58.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 252 F    i. Frances Dymoke [18562] was born c1550 in Scrivelsby Manor, Lincolnshire, England and died c1611 in Hayneshill Manor, Bershire, England at age 61.

236. Anne Dawney [18519] .

Anne married George Conyers [18520] [MRIN: 6333].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 253 M    i. Sir John Conyers [18521] .

237. Anne Tanfield [18499] .

Anne married Clement Vincent Esq. [18498] [MRIN: 6322].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 254 F    i. Elizabeth Vincent [18497] .

238. Rowland Morgan [19043] was born in 1498 and died in 1577 at age 79.

Rowland married.

His child was:

+ 255 M    i. Thomas Morgan [19044] was born in 1534 and died in 1603 at age 69.

239. Jane Puleston [18989] .

Jane married Rhys Thomas Esq. [18990] [MRIN: 6513]. Rhys died after 1584.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 256 F    i. Gaynor Thomas [18991] .

240. Robert White III [18599] was born about 1475 in Swanborne, Hampshire, England.

Robert married Elizabeth Inglefield [18600] [MRIN: 6375] in 1489 in Marriot, Somerset, England. Elizabeth was born about 1475 in Southamborrow, Southampton, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 257 M    i. Thomas White [18601] was born about 1490 in Marriot, Somerset, England and died before 1549 in Martock, Somerset, England.

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241. Owain ap Jenkin [18146] .

Owain married Alice ferch John [18147] [MRIN: 6136].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 258 M    i. Gruffydd ap Owain [18148] .

242. Richard Newberry [18228] .

Richard married.

His child was:

+ 259 M    i. Thomas Newberry [18229] died in Dec 1635.

243. Gabriel Ludlow [19103] was born in 1587 and died after 1639.

Gabriel married Phyllis Unknown [19104] [MRIN: 6569]. Phyllis died on 18 Dec 1657.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 260 F    i. Sarah Ludlow [19105] was born in 1635 and died in 1668 at age 33.

244. Rachel Greene [18261] was born in 1596 and died on 13 Nov 1656 in Gillingham. Dorset at age 60.

Rachel married Richard Perne [18262] [MRIN: 6197].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 261 F    i. Rachel Perne [18263] .

245. Joyce Mitton [18294] was born in 1487.

Joyce married John Harpersfield [18295] [MRIN: 6214].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 262 M    i. Edward Harpersfield [18296] .

246. Anthony Savage [18056] .

Anthony married Elizabeth Hall [18057] [MRIN: 6088].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 263 M    i. Anthony Savage [18054] died on 5 Jun 1695.

247. Arthur Mainwaring [18383] was born about 1516 and died in 1590 about age 74.

Arthur married.

His child was:

+ 264 F    i. Mary Mainwaring [18384] was born about 1541 and died in 1578 about age 37.

248. Jane Williams [18412] .

Jane married William Coytmore [18413] [MRIN: 6278].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 265 M    i. Capt. Rowland Coytmore [18414] was born c1565 and died cNov 1626 at age 61.

249. Bridget Raleigh [18337] was born about 1506 in Cannons Ashby, Northampton, England and died on 6 Jan 1558 about age 52.

Bridget married Sir John Cope [18338] [MRIN: 6237]. John was born about 1504 in Cannons Ashby, Northampton, England and died on 22 Jan 1558 about age 54.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 266 F    i. Elizabeth Cope [18339] was born about 1529 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 30 Sep 1584 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England about age 55.

250. Earl George Gordon [18477] was born in 1513 and died on 22 Oct 1562 at age 49.

George married Elizabeth Keith [18478] [MRIN: 6310]. Elizabeth died after 1562.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 267 F    i. Lady Elizabeth Gordon [18479] was born c1540 in Huntley, Aberdeenshire, Scotland and died in 1557 in Belvany, Scotland at age 17.

251. Alexander Mackenzie [18534] .

Alexander married Christian Munro [18535] [MRIN: 6342].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 268 M    i. Kenneth Mackenzie [18536] .

252. Frances Dymoke [18562] was born c1550 in Scrivelsby Manor, Lincolnshire, England and died c1611 in Hayneshill Manor, Bershire, England at age 61.

Frances married Sir Thomas Windebank [18563] [MRIN: 6356] on 20 Aug 1556 in Scrivelsby Manor, Lincolnshire, England. Thomas was born c1532 in Haines Hillhurst, Berkshire, England and died on 24 Oct 1607 in Hayneshill Manor, Bershire, England at age 75.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 269 F    i. Mildred Windebank [18564] was born c1584 in England and died c1630 in Virginia at age 46.

253. Sir John Conyers [18521] .

John married.

His child was:

+ 270 F    i. Eleanor Conyers [18522] .

254. Elizabeth Vincent [18497] .

Elizabeth married Richard Lane [18496] [MRIN: 6321].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 271 F    i. Dorothy Lane [16048] was born in Sep 1589 in Courteenhall, Bicester, Oxfordshire, England.

255. Thomas Morgan [19044] was born in 1534 and died in 1603 at age 69.

Thomas married.

His child was:

+ 272 M    i. Sir William Morgan [19045] was born in 1560 and died in 1653 at age 93.

256. Gaynor Thomas [18991] .

Gaynor married Unknown Pugh [18993] [MRIN: 6514].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 273 F    i. Elizabeth Pugh [18992] .

257. Thomas White [18601] was born about 1490 in Marriot, Somerset, England and died before 1549 in Martock, Somerset, England.

Thomas married Agnes White [18602] [MRIN: 6376] in 1515 in Marriot, Somerset, England. Agnes was born about 1495 in Marriot, Somerset, England and died before 1549 in Hill Farrance, Somerset, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 274 M    i. Richard White [18603] was born about 1519 in Marriott, Somerset, England and died on 6 May 1578 in Hill Farrance, Somerset, England about age 59.

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258. Gruffydd ap Owain [18148] .

Gruffydd married Anne Berry [18149] [MRIN: 6137].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 275 M    i. Philip Bowen [18150] .

259. Thomas Newberry [18229] died in Dec 1635.

Thomas married Jane Unknown [18230] [MRIN: 6179] in 1630.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 276 F    i. Rebecca Newberry [18231] .

260. Sarah Ludlow [19105] was born in 1635 and died in 1668 at age 33.

Sarah married John Carter [19106] [MRIN: 6570]. John died on 10 Jun 1696.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 277 M    i. Col. Robert Carter [19107] was born about 1663 and died in 1732 about age 69.

261. Rachel Perne [18263] .

Rachel married Edward Rawson [18264] [MRIN: 6198]. Edward was born in 1615 in England and died in 1693 in Massachusetts at age 78.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 278 M    i. Rev. Grindall Rawson [18265] was born on 23 Jan 1659 and died on 6 Feb 1715 at age 56.

262. Edward Harpersfield [18296] .

Edward married.

His child was:

+ 279 F    i. Katherine Mitton [18297] was born about 1530.

263. Anthony Savage [18054] died on 5 Jun 1695.

Anthony married Alice Stafford [18055] [MRIN: 6087]. Alice was born in 1610 in Glouchester County, Virginia.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 280 F    i. Alice Savage [18046] died in 1701.

264. Mary Mainwaring [18384] was born about 1541 and died in 1578 about age 37.

Mary married Richard Cotton [18385] [MRIN: 6262]. Richard was born in 1540.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 281 F    i. Frances Cotton [18386] was born in 1573.

265. Capt. Rowland Coytmore [18414] was born c1565 and died cNov 1626 at age 61.

Rowland married Katherine Miles [18415] [MRIN: 6279] on 23 Dec 1610 in Harwich, Essex, England. Katherine was born c1592 and died on 28 Nov 1659 in Charlestown, Massachusetts at age 67.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 282 F    i. Elizabeth Coytmore [18416] was born c1617 and died cJan 1649 in Boston, Massachusetts at age 32.

266. Elizabeth Cope [18339] was born about 1529 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 30 Sep 1584 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England about age 55.

Elizabeth married John Dryden [18340] [MRIN: 6238] on 20 Dec 1553 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England. John was born about 1524 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 30 Sep 1584 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England about age 60.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 283 F    i. Bridget Dryden [18341] was born about 1563 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 2 Apr 1645 in Berkhamsted, Hartford, England about age 82.

267. Lady Elizabeth Gordon [18479] was born c1540 in Huntley, Aberdeenshire, Scotland and died in 1557 in Belvany, Scotland at age 17.

Elizabeth married Earl John Stewart [18480] [MRIN: 6311]. John was born c1545 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland and died on 24 Apr 1579 in St. Giles, Edinburgh, Scotland at age 34.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 284 F    i. Lady Elizabeth Stewart [18481] was born c1558 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland and died in Sep 1595 at age 37.

268. Kenneth Mackenzie [18536] .

Kenneth married Jean Chisolm [18537] [MRIN: 6343].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 285 F    i. Jean Mackenzie [18538] .

269. Mildred Windebank [18564] was born c1584 in England and died c1630 in Virginia at age 46.

Mildred married Robert Reade Esq. [18565] [MRIN: 6357] on 31 Jul 1600 in St. Martin, Westminster, Lindon. Robert was born in 1551 in Linkenholt Manor, Hampshire, England and died after 10 Dec 1626 in Linkenholt Manor, Hampshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 286 M    i. Col. George Reade [18566] was born on 25 Oct 1608 in Linkenholt Manor, Hampshire, England and died cOct 1674 in Gloucester County, Virginia at age 66.

270. Eleanor Conyers [18522] .

Eleanor married Lancelot Strother [18523] [MRIN: 6335].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 287 M    i. William Strother [18524] .

271. Dorothy Lane [16048] was born in Sep 1589 in Courteenhall, Bicester, Oxfordshire, England.

Dorothy married William Randolph [16047] [MRIN: 5326], son of Robert (Randoll) Randolph [16287] and Rose Roberts [16288], on 30 Mar 1619. William was born on 7 Nov 1577 in Little Houghton, Northhamptonshire, Canterbury, England and died about 1657 about age 80.

Children from this marriage were:

   288 M    i. John Randolph [16049] was born in Feb 1620 in Little Houghton, Northhamptonshire, Canterbury, England.

John married Dorothy Atterbury [16326] [MRIN: 5423], daughter of Lewis Atterbury [16327] and Unknown, in Oct 1642 in Milton Malson, England. Dorothy was born about 1622 and died in Apr 1680 about age 58.

+ 289 M    ii. Sir Richard Randolph [15914] was born on 22 Feb 1621 in Morton Hall, Morrell Parish, Warwickshire, England and died in May 1678 in Dublin, Ireland at age 57.

+ 290 M    iii. Henry Randolph [16050] was born in Nov 1623 in Little Houghton, Northhamptonshire, Canterbury, England and died about 1673 in Henrico County, Virginia about age 50.

   291 F    iv. Anne Randolph [16051] was born in Feb 1626 in Houghton Parva, Northamptonshire, England.

   292 M    v. George Randolph [16052] was born in Jul 1627 in Houghton Parva, Northamptonshire, England and died in Jun 1645 in Harrington, Northamptonshire, England at age 17.

   293 F    vi. Margaret Randolph [16053] was born in Jul 1627 in Houghton Parva, Northamptonshire, England.

Margaret married Roger Philips [16328] [MRIN: 5425].

   294 F    vii. Judith Randolph [16054] was born in Aug 1630 in Houghton Parva, Northamptonshire, England.

Judith married Henry Welton [16329] [MRIN: 5426].

272. Sir William Morgan [19045] was born in 1560 and died in 1653 at age 93.

William married.

His child was:

+ 295 F    i. Elizabeth Morgan [19046] was born in 1583 and died in 1638 at age 55.

273. Elizabeth Pugh [18992] .

Elizabeth married Unknown Owen [18994] [MRIN: 6515].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 296 M    i. Thomas Owen [18995] .

274. Richard White [18603] was born about 1519 in Marriott, Somerset, England and died on 6 May 1578 in Hill Farrance, Somerset, England about age 59.

Richard married Helen Kirston [18604] [MRIN: 6377] in 1540 in Somerset, England. Helen was born about 1523 in Hill Farrance, Somerset, England and died on 22 Aug 1596 in Messing, Essex, England about age 73.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 297 M    i. Robert White IV [18605] was born about 1542 in South Petherton, Somerset, England and died on 7 Sep 1600 in Essex, England about age 58.

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275. Philip Bowen [18150] .

Philip married Elsbeth Vaughan [18151] [MRIN: 6138].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 298 M    i. Francis Bowen [18152] .

276. Rebecca Newberry [18231] .

Rebecca married Rev. John Russell [18232] [MRIN: 6180] in 1651. John was born in 1625 in England and died on 20 Dec 1692 in Hadley, Massachusetts at age 67.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 299 M    i. Rev. Samuel Russell [18233] was born on 4 Nov 1660 in Hadley, Massachusetts and died on 24 Jun 1731 in Branford, New Haven, CT at age 70.

277. Col. Robert Carter [19107] was born about 1663 and died in 1732 about age 69.

Robert married Elizabeth Landon [19108] [MRIN: 6571] about 1701. Elizabeth was born about 1684 and died on 3 Jul 1719 about age 35.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 300 F    i. Anne Carter [19109] was born in 1702 and died in 1743 at age 41.

278. Rev. Grindall Rawson [18265] was born on 23 Jan 1659 and died on 6 Feb 1715 at age 56.

Grindall married Susanna Wilson [18266] [MRIN: 6199] on 30 Aug 1682. Susanna was born on 1 Dec 1664 and died in Jul 1748 at age 83.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 301 M    i. Edmund Rawson [18267] was born on 8 Jul 1689 and died on 20 May 1765 at age 75.

279. Katherine Mitton [18297] was born about 1530.

Katherine married Unknown Marshall [18298] [MRIN: 6216].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 302 F    i. Elizabeth Marshall [18299] died in 1640.

280. Alice Savage [18046] died in 1701.

Alice married Francis Thornton [18045] [MRIN: 6083]. Francis was born in 1651 and died in 1726 at age 75.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 303 F    i. Margaret Thornton [18028] was born on 2 Apr 1678 and died after 1727.

+ 304 F    ii. Elizabeth Thornton [18047] was born on 3 Jan 1674 in Glouchester County, Virginia and died in 1732 at age 58.

281. Frances Cotton [18386] was born in 1573.

Frances married George Abell [18387] [MRIN: 6263]. George was born about 1561.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 305 M    i. Robert Abell III [18388] died in 1663.

282. Elizabeth Coytmore [18416] was born c1617 and died cJan 1649 in Boston, Massachusetts at age 32.

Elizabeth married Capt. William Tyng [18417] [MRIN: 6280]. William was born c1605 and died on 18 Jan 1653 in Braintree, Massachusetts at age 48.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 306 F    i. Anna Tyng [18418] was born on 6 Jan 1640 in Boston, Massachusetts and died on 5 Aug 1709 in Milton, Massachusetts at age 69.

283. Bridget Dryden [18341] was born about 1563 in Canons Ashby Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 2 Apr 1645 in Berkhamsted, Hartford, England about age 82.

Bridget married Rev. Francis Marbury [18342] [MRIN: 6239] about 1587 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England. Francis was born about 1561 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England and died before 14 Feb 1611 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 307 F    i. Anne Marbury [18343] was born on 20 Jul 1591 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England and died on 20 Aug 1643 in Pelham Bay, Long Island, New York at age 52.

284. Lady Elizabeth Stewart [18481] was born c1558 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland and died in Sep 1595 at age 37.

Elizabeth married Hugh Fraser [18482] [MRIN: 6312]. Hugh was born in 1544.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 308 F    i. Margaret Fraser [18483] was born c1573 in Bunchrew, Invernesshire, Scotland.

285. Jean Mackenzie [18538] .

Jean married Alexander Baillie [18539] [MRIN: 6344].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 309 M    i. John Baillie [18540] .

286. Col. George Reade [18566] was born on 25 Oct 1608 in Linkenholt Manor, Hampshire, England and died cOct 1674 in Gloucester County, Virginia at age 66.

George married Elizabeth Martiau [18567] [MRIN: 6358] in 1641 in Yorktown, Virginia. Elizabeth was born in 1615 in England and died in 1686 in Yorktown, Virginia at age 71.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 310 F    i. Mildred Reade [18568] was born on 2 Oct 1643 in Plantation Now, Williamsburg, Virginia and died on 20 Oct 1686 in Cumberland, Virginia at age 43.

287. William Strother [18524] .

William married Elizabeth Unknown [18525] [MRIN: 6336].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 311 M    i. William Strother [18029] died on 4 Nov 1702.

289. Sir Richard Randolph [15914] was born on 22 Feb 1621 in Morton Hall, Morrell Parish, Warwickshire, England and died in May 1678 in Dublin, Ireland at age 57.

General Notes: Resided at Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

Richard married Elizabeth Ryland [15913] [MRIN: 4335], daughter of John Ryland [16330] and Unknown, about 1647 in England.

Children from this marriage were:

   312 M    i. Richard Randolph [16036] .

   313 F    ii. Dorothy Randolph [16038] was born in Mar 1647.

   314 F    iii. Mary Randolph [23660] was born in Nov 1648 in Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

Mary married Capt. John Stith [23659] [MRIN: 8022], son of Maj. John Stith [23587] and Jane Unknown [23588].

+ 315 M    iv. Col. William Randolph [13028] was born in Oct 1650 in Moreton Morrell Parish, Warwickshire, England, died on 21 Apr 1711 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 60, and was buried in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

   316 M    v. Thomas Randolph [16039] was born in Feb 1652 in Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

   317 M    vi. John Randolph [16040] was born in Jul 1653 in Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

   318 F    vii. Elizabeth Randolph [16041] was born in Dec 1655 in Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

   319 F    viii. Margaret Randolph [16042] was born in Feb 1657 in Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, England.

290. Henry Randolph [16050] was born in Nov 1623 in Little Houghton, Northhamptonshire, Canterbury, England and died about 1673 in Henrico County, Virginia about age 50.

General Notes: Henry Randolph was born in England in 1623 and came to Virginia in 1642, about the time Sir William Berkeley came to the Virginia's Governor. Henry married Judith Soane, daughter of Henry Soane, speaker of the House of Burgesses. Randolph was also Clerk of Henrico County from about 1656 and of the House of Burgesses from 1660 until shortly before his death in 1673. He went back to England in 1669 but became homesick for Virginia and returned to spend his last days there.

Henry married Elizabeth Unknown [16065] [MRIN: 5329] on 12 Oct 1652 in Virginia.

The child from this marriage was:

   320 M    i. William Randolph [16067] .

Henry next married Judith Soane [16063] [MRIN: 5328], daughter of Henry Soane [16091] and Unknown, on 12 Dec 1661.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 321 M    i. Henry Randolph [16064] was born in Jan 1665 and died on 26 Feb 1693 at age 28.

295. Elizabeth Morgan [19046] was born in 1583 and died in 1638 at age 55.

Elizabeth married Unknown Morgan [19047] [MRIN: 6541].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 322 M    i. James Morgan [19048] was born c1607 in Landaff, Glamorgan, Wales and died in 1685 in Groton, New London, CT at age 78.

296. Thomas Owen [18995] .

Thomas married.

His child was:

+ 323 M    i. Harry Thomas Owen [18996] .

297. Robert White IV [18605] was born about 1542 in South Petherton, Somerset, England and died on 7 Sep 1600 in Essex, England about age 58.

Robert married Alice Wright [18606] [MRIN: 6378] in 1561 in South Petherton, Somerset, England. Alice was born in 1542 in Soham, Cambridge, England and died on 22 Aug 1596 in South Petherton, Somerset, England at age 54.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 324 M    i. Robert White V [18607] was born on 17 May 1560 in Shalford, Essex, England and died about 17 Jun 1617 in Messing, Essex, England about age 57.

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298. Francis Bowen [18152] .

Francis married Ellen Franklyn [18153] [MRIN: 6139].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 325 M    i. Griffith Bowen [18154] was born c1600 and died c1675 at age 75.

299. Rev. Samuel Russell [18233] was born on 4 Nov 1660 in Hadley, Massachusetts and died on 24 Jun 1731 in Branford, New Haven, CT at age 70.

Samuel married Abigail Whiting [18234] [MRIN: 6181] about 1686. Abigail was born about 1665 and died on 7 May 1733 about age 68.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 326 M    i. Col. John Russell [18235] was born on 24 Jan 1687 in Branford, New Haven, CT and died on 4 Jul 1757 in New Haven, CT at age 70.

300. Anne Carter [19109] was born in 1702 and died in 1743 at age 41.

Anne married Benjamin Harrison IV [16341] [MRIN: 5438] about 1722. Benjamin was born in 1693 and died in 1745 at age 52.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 327 F    i. Anne Carlin Harrison [16340] was born in 1713.

+ 328 M    ii. Benjamin Harrison [19077] was born in 1726 and died in 1791 at age 65.

301. Edmund Rawson [18267] was born on 8 Jul 1689 and died on 20 May 1765 at age 75.

Edmund married Elizabeth Hayward [18268] [MRIN: 6200] on 22 May 1717. Elizabeth was born on 16 Apr 1683 and died on 15 Jun 1759 at age 76.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 329 M    i. Abner Rawson [18269] was born on 27 Apr 1721 in Uxbridge, Massachusetts and died on 14 Nov 1794 in Uxbridge, Massachusetts at age 73.

302. Elizabeth Marshall [18299] died in 1640.

Elizabeth married Thomas Lewis [18300] [MRIN: 6217]. Thomas was born about 1590 and died in 1640 about age 50.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 330 F    i. Judith Lewis [18301] was born about 1618.

303. Margaret Thornton [18028] was born on 2 Apr 1678 and died after 1727.

Margaret married William Strother [18027] [MRIN: 6076], son of William Strother [18029] and Dorothy Unknown [18030]. William was born about 1665 and died on 26 Jul 1726 about age 61.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 331 M    i. Francis Strother [18025] died in 1752.

304. Elizabeth Thornton [18047] was born on 3 Jan 1674 in Glouchester County, Virginia and died in 1732 at age 58.

Elizabeth married Edwin Conway [18048] [MRIN: 6084] in 1695. Edwin was born about 1640 in Worchester County, England and died in Aug 1698 in Richmond County, Virginia about age 58.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 332 M    i. Francis Conway [18049] was born in 1696 in Lancaster County, Virginia and died in 1760 at age 64.

305. Robert Abell III [18388] died in 1663.

Robert married.

His child was:

+ 333 M    i. Caleb Abell [18389] .

306. Anna Tyng [18418] was born on 6 Jan 1640 in Boston, Massachusetts and died on 5 Aug 1709 in Milton, Massachusetts at age 69.

Anna married Rev. Thomas Shepard II [18419] [MRIN: 6281]. Thomas was born in 1635 and died in 1677 at age 42.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 334 F    i. Anna Shepard [18420] was born in 1663 and died in 1708 at age 45.

+ 335 M    ii. Thomas Shepard [18433] .

307. Anne Marbury [18343] was born on 20 Jul 1591 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England and died on 20 Aug 1643 in Pelham Bay, Long Island, New York at age 52.

Anne married William Hutchinson [18344] [MRIN: 6240] on 9 Aug 1612 in St. Martin Vintry, London, England. William was born on 14 Aug 1586 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1642 in Boston, Massachusetts at age 56.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 336 M    i. Edward Hutchinson [18345] was born before 28 May 1613, was christened on 28 May 1613 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, and died on 10 Aug 1675 in Boston, Massachusetts.

308. Margaret Fraser [18483] was born c1573 in Bunchrew, Invernesshire, Scotland.

Margaret married James Cumming [18484] [MRIN: 6313].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 337 F    i. Janet Cumming [18485] .

309. John Baillie [18540] .

John married Jean Unknown [18541] [MRIN: 6345].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 338 M    i. Kenneth Baillie [18542] .

310. Mildred Reade [18568] was born on 2 Oct 1643 in Plantation Now, Williamsburg, Virginia and died on 20 Oct 1686 in Cumberland, Virginia at age 43.

Mildred married Col. Augustin Warner [18569] [MRIN: 6359] about 1670 in York County, Virginia. Augustin was born on 3 Jun 1642 in Warner Hall, York County, Virginia and died on 19 Jun 1681 in Warner Hall, Gloucester County, Virginia at age 39.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 339 F    i. Mildred Warner [18570] was born about 1671 in Fredricksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia and died on 26 Mar 1701 in Whitehaven, Cumberland, England about age 30.

311. William Strother [18029] died on 4 Nov 1702.

William married Dorothy Unknown [18030] [MRIN: 6077].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 340 M    i. William Strother [18027] was born about 1665 and died on 26 Jul 1726 about age 61.

315. Col. William Randolph [13028] was born in Oct 1650 in Moreton Morrell Parish, Warwickshire, England, died on 21 Apr 1711 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 60, and was buried in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

General Notes: The Randolph family in Virginia is commonly traced to William Randolph of Turkey Island, son of Sir Richard Randolph of Morton Hall, Warwickshire, who came to Virginia in 1673. William Randolph of Turkey Island married Mary Isham, granddaughter of Sir Henry Isham of Braunston, Northamptonshire. Her sister Anne Isham married Francis Eppes in Virginia. The Ishams and Randolphs intermarried in both England and Virginia.

Was a member of the House of Burgesses, the Council of Virginia and was Attorney General between 1696 and 1697. Speaker of the House in 1698 Virginia.

William married Mary Isham [15816] [MRIN: 4326], daughter of Henry Isham [15880] and Catherine Banks [15949], in 1678. Mary was born in 1659 in Bermuda Hundred, Chesterfield County, Virginia and died on 25 Dec 1735 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 76.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 341 F    i. Elizabeth Randolph [13027] was born in 1680 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 22 Jan 1719 in Virginia at age 39.

+ 342 M    ii. Col. William Randolph Jr. [15915] was born on 1 Nov 1681 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia, died on 19 Oct 1742 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 60, and was buried in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

+ 343 M    iii. Thomas Randolph [15950] was born on 3 Feb 1682 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 21 Oct 1729 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia at age 47.

+ 344 M    iv. Isham Randolph [15908] was born in Dec 1684 in Dungeness, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 2 Nov 1742 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 57.

   345 M    v. Henry Randolph [15951] was born about 1687.

+ 346 M    vi. Col. Richard Randolph [15906] was born in May 1690 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 17 Dec 1748 in Curles Neck Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 58.

+ 347 F    vii. Mary Randolph [15953] was born in 1692 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

+ 348 M    viii. John Randolph [15904] was born in Apr 1693 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 2 Mar 1737 in Williamsburg, Virginia at age 43.

+ 349 M    ix. Edward Randolph [15879] was born in Oct 1697 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

321. Henry Randolph [16064] was born in Jan 1665 and died on 26 Feb 1693 at age 28.

Henry married Sarah Swann [16068] [MRIN: 5330].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 350 M    i. Henry Randolph [16069] was born in Jan 1689 and died in Aug 1726 in Henrico County, Virginia at age 37.

322. James Morgan [19048] was born c1607 in Landaff, Glamorgan, Wales and died in 1685 in Groton, New London, CT at age 78.

James married Margaret Hill [19049] [MRIN: 6542] on 6 Aug 1640 in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Margaret was born on 16 Jun 1610 in Great Burstead, Billericay, Essex, England and died on 28 Apr 1690 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut at age 79.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 351 F    i. Hannah Morgan [19050] was born on 18 May 1642 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died on 12 Dec 1706 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut at age 64.

323. Harry Thomas Owen [18996] .

Harry married.

His child was:

+ 352 M    i. Hugh Harry [18997] .

324. Robert White V [18607] was born on 17 May 1560 in Shalford, Essex, England and died about 17 Jun 1617 in Messing, Essex, England about age 57.

Robert married Bridget Allgar [18608] [MRIN: 6379] on 24 Jun 1585 in Shalford, Essex, England. Bridget was born on 11 Mar 1561 in Shalford, Essex, England and died after 24 Jun 1605.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 353 F    i. Anna Rosanna White [18609] was born on 13 Jul 1600 in Messing, Essex, England and died on 21 Apr 1648 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT at age 47.

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325. Griffith Bowen [18154] was born c1600 and died c1675 at age 75.

Griffith married Margaret Fleming [18155] [MRIN: 6140] in 1627.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 354 M    i. Henry Bowen [18156] was born in Apr 1633 and died on 13 Mar 1724 at age 90.

326. Col. John Russell [18235] was born on 24 Jan 1687 in Branford, New Haven, CT and died on 4 Jul 1757 in New Haven, CT at age 70.

John married Sarah Towbridge [18236] [MRIN: 6182] on 17 Dec 1707 in New Haven, CT. Sarah was born on 26 Nov 1686 in New Haven, CT and died on 15 Jun 1757 in New Haven, CT at age 70.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 355 F    i. Rebecca Russell [18237] was born on 6 Feb 1723 in New Haven, CT and died on 27 May 1773 in New Haven, CT at age 50.

327. Anne Carlin Harrison [16340] was born in 1713.

Anne married William Randolph [16035] [MRIN: 5437], son of Col. William Randolph Jr. [15915] and Elizabeth Peyton Beverley [15916], in 1735 in Virginia. William was born in 1711 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died in 1761 at age 50.

General Notes: Member of the House of Burgesses, Virginia from 1758 to 1761.

Residence at "Wilton", Henrico County, Virginia.


Children from this marriage were:

   356 M    i. Peyton Randolph [16342] was born in 1750.

   357 M    ii. William Randolph [19110] .

   358 M    iii. Peter Randolph [19111] .

   359 M    iv. Harrison Randolph [19112] .

   360 M    v. Benjamin Randolph [19113] .

   361 F    vi. Mary Randolph [19114] .

   362 F    vii. Anne Randolph [19115] .

   363 F    viii. Elizabeth Randolph [19116] .

   364 F    ix. Lucy Randolph [19117] .

328. Benjamin Harrison [19077] was born in 1726 and died in 1791 at age 65.

Benjamin married Elizabeth Bassett [19078] [MRIN: 6556]. Elizabeth was born in 1730 and died in 1792 at age 62.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 365 M    i. 9th President William Henry Harrison [19079] was born on 9 Feb 1773 in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia and died on 4 Apr 1841 in White House, Washington D. C. at age 68.

329. Abner Rawson [18269] was born on 27 Apr 1721 in Uxbridge, Massachusetts and died on 14 Nov 1794 in Uxbridge, Massachusetts at age 73.

Abner married Mary Allen [18270] [MRIN: 6201] on 17 May 1745 in Medway, Massachusetts. Mary was born on 22 Jul 1722 in Medway, Massachusetts and died on 10 Aug 1790 in Uxbridge, Massachusetts at age 68.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 366 F    i. Rhoda Rawson [18271] was born on 4 Oct 1749 and died on 9 Jun 1827 at age 77.

330. Judith Lewis [18301] was born about 1618.

Judith married James Gibbons [18302] [MRIN: 6218].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 367 F    i. Hannah Gibbons [18303] .

331. Francis Strother [18025] died in 1752.

Francis married Susannah Dabney [18026] [MRIN: 6075]. Susannah died after 1752.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 368 M    i. William Strother [18011] was born about 1725 and died about 1808 about age 83.

332. Francis Conway [18049] was born in 1696 in Lancaster County, Virginia and died in 1760 at age 64.

Francis married Rebecca Catlett [18050] [MRIN: 6085] about 1725. Rebecca was born about 1700 and died in 1760 about age 60.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 369 F    i. Eleanor Rose Conway [18051] was born in 1731 and died in 1829 at age 98.

333. Caleb Abell [18389] .

Caleb married.

His child was:

+ 370 F    i. Experience Abell [18390] was born in 1674 and died in 1763 at age 89.

334. Anna Shepard [18420] was born in 1663 and died in 1708 at age 45.

Anna married Daniel Quincy [18421] [MRIN: 6282]. Daniel was born in 1650 and died in 1690 at age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 371 M    i. Col. John Quincy [18422] was born in 1689 and died in 1767 at age 78.

335. Thomas Shepard [18433] .

Thomas married Mary Anderson [18434] [MRIN: 6287]. Mary died in 1717.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 372 F    i. Anna Shepard [18435] was born on 30 Jan 1684 and died on 7 May 1735 at age 51.

336. Edward Hutchinson [18345] was born before 28 May 1613, was christened on 28 May 1613 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, and died on 10 Aug 1675 in Boston, Massachusetts.

Edward married Catherine Hamby [18346] [MRIN: 6241]. Catherine was born on 19 Oct 1615.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 373 M    i. Elijah Hutchinson [18347] was born in 1641 and died in 1717 at age 76.

337. Janet Cumming [18485] .

Janet married Unknown Munro [18486] [MRIN: 6314].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 374 F    i. Agnes Munro [18487] .

338. Kenneth Baillie [18542] .

Kenneth married Elizabeth Mackay [18543] [MRIN: 6346].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 375 F    i. Ann Elizabeth Baillie [18544] .

339. Mildred Warner [18570] was born about 1671 in Fredricksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia and died on 26 Mar 1701 in Whitehaven, Cumberland, England about age 30.

Mildred married Capt. Laurence Washington [18571] [MRIN: 6360], son of John Washington [20139] and Anne Pope [20140], about 1689 in Virginia. Laurence was born on 1 Sep 1659 in Pope's Creek, Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 1 Feb 1698 in Warner Hall, Gloucester County, Virginia at age 38.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 376 M    i. Capt. Augustin Washington [18572] was born c1693 in Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 12 Apr 1743 in Ferry Farm, King George County, Virginia at age 50.

340. William Strother [18027] was born about 1665 and died on 26 Jul 1726 about age 61.

William married Margaret Thornton [18028] [MRIN: 6076], daughter of Francis Thornton [18045] and Alice Savage [18046]. Margaret was born on 2 Apr 1678 and died after 1727.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 303)

341. Elizabeth Randolph [13027] was born in 1680 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 22 Jan 1719 in Virginia at age 39.

Elizabeth married Richard Bland [13024] [MRIN: 4325], son of Theodorick Bland [15819] and Anne Bennett [13030], in 1701 in Henrico County, Virginia. Richard was born on 11 Aug 1665 in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia, died on 6 Apr 1720 in Prince George, Virginia at age 54, and was buried in Westover, Charles City County, Virginia.

General Notes: Held residence at "Jordan's Point" in Prince George City County, Virginia. A member of the House of Burgesses in Virginia; resided at times in Williamsburg, Virginia. Left a will that was proved on April 12, 1720.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 377 F    i. Mary Bland [13047] was born on 21 Aug 1704 in Prince George, Virginia and died in 1764 in Virginia at age 60.

+ 378 F    ii. Elizabeth Bland [13048] was born on 29 May 1705 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

+ 379 M    iii. Theodorick Bland [34307] was born on 2 Dec 1708 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in May 1790 in Amelia County, Virginia at age 81.

+ 380 M    iv. Lt. Richard Bland [13046] was born on 6 May 1710 and died on 26 Oct 1776 at age 66.

+ 381 F    v. Anna Bland [15872] was born on 25 Feb 1712.

342. Col. William Randolph Jr. [15915] was born on 1 Nov 1681 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia, died on 19 Oct 1742 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 60, and was buried in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

General Notes: Resided at Chatesworth, Henrico County, Virginia. Also resided at Turkey Island Plantation, Virginia. Was Clerk of the County from 1710 to 1720 in Henrico County, Virginia; a member of the House of Burgesses 1718, 1720-1726; was Treasurer of the Colony in 1737; Royal Councillar of State in 1737 Virginia.

William married Elizabeth Peyton Beverley [15916] [MRIN: 5303], daughter of Col. Peter Beverley [16348] and Elizabeth Peyton [16349], on 22 Jun 1709. Elizabeth was born in Jan 1691 in Virginia and died on 26 Dec 1723 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 32.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 382 M    i. William Randolph [16035] was born in 1711 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died in 1761 at age 50.

   383 M    ii. Beverley Randolph [16333] was born in 1713 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died in Jan 1713.

General Notes: Justice of the Peace for Henrico County, Virginia; member of the House of Burgesses 1748-1751.

Beverley married Elizabeth Lightfoot [16334] [MRIN: 5430], daughter of Francis Lightfoot [16335] and Elizabeth Unknown [16336], in Dec 1737.

+ 384 F    iii. Elizabeth Randolph [16031] was born in Oct 1715.

+ 385 M    iv. Col. Peter Randolph [16034] was born in Oct 1717 and died in Jul 1767 in Chatesworth, Henrico County, Virginia at age 49.

   386 F    v. Mary Randolph [16032] was born in Jul 1719.

General Notes: Residence at "Cool Water", Hanover County, Virginia.

Mary married John Price Jr. [16339] [MRIN: 5436], son of John Price [15954] and Jane Cannon [16055]. John was born in Wales.

343. Thomas Randolph [15950] was born on 3 Feb 1682 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 21 Oct 1729 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia at age 47.

General Notes: Colonel Thomas Randolph.

Thomas married Judith Fleming [15978] [MRIN: 5319], daughter of Charles Fleming [16343] and Susan Tarleton [16344], on 16 Oct 1712 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 387 M    i. Col. William Randolph [15979] was born in 1713 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died in Sep 1745 in Virginia at age 32.

   388 F    ii. Mary Isham Randolph [15980] .

Mary married Rev. James Keith [16345] [MRIN: 5439] in 1730. James was born in 1696 in Petershead, Scotland and died in 1753 in Fauquier County, Virginia at age 57.

+ 389 F    iii. Judith Randolph [15981] .

344. Isham Randolph [15908] was born in Dec 1684 in Dungeness, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 2 Nov 1742 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 57.

General Notes: Adjutant General Isham Randolph. Member of the House of Burgesses 1740.

Isham married Jane Rogers [15909] [MRIN: 5280] on 25 Jul 1718 in White Chapel, Middlesex, London, England.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 390 F    i. Jane Randolph [15910] was born in 1720 in London, England and died in 1776 at age 56.

   391 M    ii. Isham Randolph [15986] .

   392 M    iii. William Randolph [15987] .

+ 393 M    iv. Thomas Isham Randolph [15988] .

   394 F    v. Mary Randolph [15989] .

   395 F    vi. Elizabeth Randolph [15990] .

   396 F    vii. Dorothy Randolph [15991] .

   397 F    viii. Anne Randolph [15992] .

+ 398 F    ix. Susannah Randolph [15993] .

346. Col. Richard Randolph [15906] was born in May 1690 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 17 Dec 1748 in Curles Neck Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia at age 58.

General Notes: Treasurer of the Colony of Virginia and member of the House of Burgesses in 1740 Virginia.

Richard married Jane Bolling [15907] [MRIN: 5279], daughter of Col. John Bolling [23613] and Mary Kennon [16332], about 1714. Jane was born in 1703 and died in 1766 at age 63.

Children from this marriage were:

   399 M    i. Ryland Randolph [16005] .

   400 F    ii. Elizabeth Randolph [16006] .

Elizabeth married Roland Richard Kidder Meade [34243] [MRIN: 11603].

+ 401 M    iii. Richard Randolph [16002] was born about 1715 in Curles Neck Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 6 Jun 1786 about age 71.

+ 402 F    iv. Mary Randolph [16004] was born on 21 Nov 1727 and died on 5 Nov 1781 at age 53.

+ 403 F    v. Jane Randolph [16003] was born about 1730.

+ 404 M    vi. Brett Randolph [15945] was born about 1732 in England and died about 1759 in England about age 27.

+ 405 M    vii. John Randolph [15960] was born about 1742 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in Oct 1775 about age 33.

347. Mary Randolph [15953] was born in 1692 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

Mary married John Stith [15955] [MRIN: 5304], son of Lt. John Stith [34174] and Jane Unknown [34175], in 1712.

General Notes: Captain John Stith.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 406 M    i. Rev. William Stith [34173] .

+ 407 M    ii. John Stith [15957] .

+ 408 F    iii. Mary Randolph Stith [15958] .

348. John Randolph [15904] was born in Apr 1693 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 2 Mar 1737 in Williamsburg, Virginia at age 43.

John married Susanna Beverley [15905] [MRIN: 5278], daughter of Col. Peter Beverley [16348] and Elizabeth Peyton [16349], about 1718. Susanna was born in 1690 and died in 1768 at age 78.

Children from this marriage were:

   409 M    i. Beverley Randolph [15994] was born about 1719.

Beverley married Sarah Wormeley [34179] [MRIN: 11574], daughter of John Wormeley [34180] and Elizabeth Unknown [34181].

   410 M    ii. Peyton Randolph [15995] was born in 1721 in Williamsburg, Virginia, died on 22 Oct 1775 in Philadelphia at age 54, and was buried in William And Mary College, Virginia.

General Notes: born 1721, Williamsburg, Va. [U.S.]
died Oct. 22, 1775, Philadelphia, Pa.

First president of the U.S. Continental Congress.

Randolph was educated at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., and became a member of the Virginia bar in 1744. Four years later, in recognition of his stature as a lawyer, he was appointed king's attorney for Virginia. The same year, he was elected to Virginia's House of Burgesses, where he served almost continuously until the time of his death. A member of the colonial aristocracy, he regarded himself as a spokesman for both thecrown and his fellow Virginians.

Randolph was opposed to the colonists' radical response to the Stamp Act. Looked to for leadership during the pre-Revolutionary disputes with England, he played a moderating and cautious role. But his patriotism was never in question, and he became more radical over time. By 1773 he was serving as chairman of the Virginia Committee of Correspondence.

In 1774 Randolph led the seven Virginia delegates to the first session of the Continental Congress. There he was elected president of the Congress, but in 1775 he suffered a stroke while in Philadelphia and died. John Hancock, whose views were far more radical, succeeded him as president.

-------

Born the second son of Sir John and Lady Susannah Randolph. His first name was the maiden name of his maternal grandmother. The surname Randolph identified him with the powerful 18th century Virginia clan. When he was three or four years old, the family moved into the imposing wooden structure on Market Square now known as the Peyton Randolph House. His father, among Virginia's most distinguished attorney's, Speaker of the House of Burgesses, and a wealthy man, died when Peyton was 16, leaving the house and other property for him in trust with his mother. The will also gave him his father's extensive library in the hope he would "betake himself to the study of law."

He attended the College of William and Mary, then the law school at London's Inn of Court. He entered the Middle Temple on October 13, 1739 and took a place at the bar February 10, 1743. On returning to Williamsburg he was appointed the colony's attorney general by Governor William Gooch, May 7, 1744.

He married Betty Harrison March 8, 1746.

1747 - vestryman Bruton Parish Church
1748 - Representative to the House of Burgesses
1749 - Justice of the Peace
1755 - House of Burgesses
1757 - College of William and Mary Board Member
1766 - Elected Speaker of the House of Burgesses defeating Richard Henry Lee.

A result of the Stamp Act found Peyton Randolph joining the revolutionary movement. Supported, along with George Washington, a ban on the importation to Virginia of any British goods. Along with Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison and Edmund Pendleton, formed a committee of delegates to Congress.

Peyton Randolph was chairman of the Second Virginia Convention in Richmond when Patrick Henry made his famous, "give me liberty or give me death" speech. The British sought to capture and hang him. On Sunday, October 23, 1775, after a session of the Third Virginia Convention, he choked and died in Philadelphia.
-------

Peyton Randolph
(Born 1721, died 1775)
When he returned to Williamsburg after presiding over the Continental Congress in 1775, Peyton Randolph was on the black list of patriots the redcoats proposed to arrest and hang. The city's volunteer company of militia offered him its protection in an address that concluded: "MAY HEAVEN GRANT YOU LONG TO LIVE THE FATHER OF YOUR COUNTRY, AND THE FRIEND TO FREEDOM AND HUMANITY!"

If his friend George Washington succeeded him to the title of America's patrimonial honors, Randolph nevertheless did as much as any Virginian to bring the new nation into the world. He presided over every important Virginia assembly in the years leading to the Revolution, was among the first of the colony's great men to oppose the Stamp Act, chaired the first meeting of the delegates of 13 colonies at Philadelphia in 1774, and chaired the second in 1775.

He had been born 54 years before--probably in Williamsburg--the second son of Sir John and Lady Susannah Randolph. His first name was his maternal grandmother's maiden name, just as his older brother Beverley's was their mother's. The surname Randolph identified him as a scion of 18th-century Virginia's most powerful clan.

When he was three or four years old, the family moved into the imposing wooden home on Market Square now known as the Peyton Randolph House. His father, among Virginia's most distinguished attorneys, Speaker of the House of Burgesses, and a wealthy man, died when Peyton was 16, leaving the house and other property for him in trust with his mother. The will also gave Peyton his father's extensive library in the hope he would "betake himself to the study of law." By then, he had a brother John and a sister Mary.

Attentive to his father's wishes, he attended the College of William and Mary, then learned the law in London's Inns of Court. He entered the Middle Temple on October 13, 1739, and took a place at the bar February 10, 1743. Returning to Williamsburg, he was appointed the colony's attorney general by Governor William Gooch on May 7, 1744. His father had filled the office before him, and his brother would assume the role after.

When he turned 24, Randolph reached the age set for his inheritance. On March 8, 1746, he married Betty Harrison, and on July 21 (more than two years after his return), he qualified himself for the private practice of law in York County.

His cousin Thomas Jefferson may have shed some light on the delay in a character sketch he wrote of Randolph years later. "He was indeed a most excellent man," Jefferson said, but "heavy and inert in body, he was rather too indolent and careless for business."

He was, as well, occupied with myriad public duties. In 1747 he became a vestryman of Bruton Parish Church, in 1748 Williamsburg's representative in the house of Burgesses, and in 1749 a justice of the peace. He returned to the House in 1752 as the burgess for the college, and on December 15, 1753, the house hired him as its special agent for some ticklish business in London.

Soon after he arrived in Virginia in 1751, Governor Robert Dinwiddie had begun to exercise a right no governor had before: the imposition of a fee for certifying land patents. For his signature, Dinwiddie demanded a pistol, a Spanish coin worth about 20 shillings. Regarding the fee as an unauthorized tax, Virginians objected, though to no result.

Peyton Randolph was dispatched to England as the house's agent, with directions to go over the governor's head. But as attorney general, it was his duty to represent the interests of the Crown, of which Dinwiddie was the principal representative in Virginia. Randolph was attacking the right of the governor he was appointed to defend.

The governor refused to give Peyton Randolph permission to leave the colony, but he left anyway. In London, he had to answer for his action, and he was ousted from the attorney general's office. Dinwiddie had already named George Wythe as acting attorney general in Randolph's place.

Nevertheless, the London officials pointedly suggested that Dinwiddie reconsider his fee and said that they would have no objection to Peyton Randolph's reinstatement if he apologized. So he did, and subsequently resumed office soon after his return to Williamsburg.

Reelected burgess for the college in 1755, he involved himself the next year in a somewhat ludicrous, though harmless, attempt to promote morale during the French and Indian War. With other prominent men, he formed the Associators, a group to raise and pay bounties for private troops to join the regular force at Winchester. George Washington, in charge of the fort there, wasn't sure what he would do with the untrained men if they arrived. Not enough came, however, to cause any inconvenience.

In 1757, Randolph joined the college's board, and he served as a rector for one year. He was reelected burgess for Williamsburg in 1761, and thus entered the phase of his life that thrust him into a leadership role in the Revolution.

Word of Parliament's intended Stamp Act brought Virginians and their burgesses into conflict with the Crown itself in 1764. Peyton Randolph was appointed chairman of a committee to draft protests to the king, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons maintaining the colony's exclusive right of self-taxation.

The responsibility put him at odds with Patrick Henry, the Virginian most noted for opposition to the tax. At the end of the legislative session in 1765, Henry, a freshman, introduced seven resolutions against the act. Peyton Randolph, George Wythe, and others thought that Henry's resolutions added nothing to the colony's case and that their consideration was improper until the colony had a reply to its earlier protests.

In the final days of the session, after many opponents had left the city, Patrick Henry introduced his measures and made his "Caesar-Brutus" speech. Peyton Randolph, though not yet Speaker, was presiding. When Speaker John Robinson resumed the chair the following day (May 30), Henry carried five of his resolves by a single ballot. A tie would have allowed Robinson to cast the deciding "nay." Jefferson, standing at the chamber door, said Peyton Randolph emerged saying, "By God, I would have given one hundred guineas for a single vote."

Patrick Henry left town, and the next day his fifth (and most radical) resolution was expunged by the burgesses who remained. Nevertheless, it was reprinted with the others in newspapers across the colonies as if it stood.

Peyton Randolph was elected Speaker on November 6, 1766, succeeding the deceased Robinson and defeating Richard Henry Lee. Peyton's brother John succeeded him as attorney general the following June. By now the brothers had begun to disagree politically; John's conservatism would take him to England in 1775 while Peyton joined the rebellion.

Another set of Patrick Henry's resolves, against the Townshend Duties, came before the House in May 1769. This time Peyton Randolph approved their passage, but Governor Botetourt did not. He dissolved the assembly. The "former representatives of the people," as they called themselves, met the next day at the Raleigh Tavern with Speaker Peyton Randolph in the chair. They adopted a compact drafted by George Mason and introduced by George Washington against the importation of British goods. Speaker Randolph was the first to sign.

When the new legislature met in the winter, the governor was pleased to announce the repeal of all of the Townshend Duties, except the small one on tea. Legislative attention turned to other, calmer affairs. The next summer Peyton Randolph became chairman of the building committee for the Public Hospital.

Tempers flared again in 1773, when Great Britain proposed to transport a band of Rhode Island smugglers to England for trial. The implications for Virginia were troublesome, and the burgesses appointed a standing Committee of Correspondence and Inquiry with Speaker Peyton Randolph as chairman. The following May brought word of the closing of the port of Boston in retaliation for its Tea Party.

On May 24, 1774, Robert Carter Nicholas introduced a resolution drafted by Thomas Jefferson that read:

"This House, being deeply impressed with apprehension of the great dangers, to be derived to British America, from the hostile Invasion of the City of Boston, in our Sister Colony of Massachusetts bay, whose commerce and harbor are, on the first Day of June next, to be stopped by an Armed force, deem it highly necessary that the said first day of June be set apart, by the Members of this House, as a day of Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer, devoutly to implore the divine interposition for averting the heavy Calamity which threatens destruction to our Civil Rights, and the Evils of civil War; to give us one heart and one Mind to firmly oppose, by all just and proper means, every injury to American Rights; and that the Minds of his Majesty and his parliament, may be inspired from above with Wisdom, Moderation, and Justice, to remove from the loyal People of America, all cause of danger, from a continued pursuit of Measure, pregnant with their ruin."

It was adopted.

Governor Dunmore summoned the house on May 26 and told Peyton Randolph: "Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of Burgesses, I have in my hand a paper published by order of your House, conceived in such terms as reflect highly upon His Majesty and the Parliament of Great Britain, which makes it necessary for me to dissolve you; and you are accordingly dissolved."

On May 27, 1775, 89 burgesses gathered again at the Raleigh Tavern to form another non importation association, and the following day the Committee of Correspondence proposed a Continental Congress. Twenty-five burgesses met at Peyton Randolph's house on May 30 and scheduled a state convention to be held on August 1 to consider a proposal from Boston for a ban on exports to England.

Peyton Randolph led the community to Bruton Parish Church on June 1 to pray for Boston, and soon he was organizing a Williamsburg drive to send provisions and cash for its relief. The First Virginia Convention approved the export ban and elected as delegates to the Congress Peyton Randolph, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison, and Edmund Pendleton.

On August 18, 1774, before he left Williamsburg, Peyton Randolph wrote his will, leaving his property to the use of his wife for life. They had no children. The property was to be auctioned after her death and the proceeds divided among Randolph's heirs.

When Congress convened in Philadelphia on September 5, Thomas Lynch of South Carolina nominated Peyton Randolph to be chairman. He was elected by unanimous vote. Delegate Silas Deane wrote Mrs. Deane: "Designed by nature for the business, of an affable, open and majestic deportment, large in size, though not out of proportion, he commands respect and esteem by his very aspect, independent of the high character he sustains."

In October 1774, Peyton Randolph returned to Williamsburg to preside at an impending meeting of the house. Repeatedly postponed, it did not meet until the following June. Nonetheless, on November 9 Peyton Randolph accepted a copy of the Continental Association banning trade with England signed by nearly 500 merchants gathered in Williamsburg.

Peyton Randolph was in the chair again at the Second Virginia Convention in Richmond on March 23 when Patrick Henry rose and made his "Liberty or Death" speech in favor of the formation of a statewide militia. In reaction Governor Dunmore removed the gunpowder from Williamsburg's Magazine on April 21. Alerted to the theft, a mob gathered at the Courthouse. Peyton Randolph was one of the leaders who persuaded the crowd to disperse and averted violence.

Peyton Randolph led the Virginia delegation to the Second Continental Congress in May 1775, and he again took the chair. General Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in America, had been issued blank warrants for the execution of rebel leaders and a list of names with which to fill them. Peyton Randolph's name was on the list. He returned to Williamsburg under guard, and the town bells pealed to announce his safe arrival. The militia escorted him to his house and pledged to guarantee his safety.

The Third Virginia Convention reelected its speaker to Congress in July 1775, and Randolph left for Philadelphia in late August or early September. By this time, John Hancock had succeeded him to its chair.

About 8 p.m. on Sunday, October 23, Peyton Randolph began to choke, a side of his face contorted, and he died of an "apoplectic stroke." He was buried that Tuesday at Christ's Church in Philadelphia. His nephew, Edmund Randolph, brought his remains to Williamsburg in 1776, and he was interred in the family crypt in the Chapel at the College of William and Mary on November 26.

Peyton Randolph's estate was auctioned on February 19, 1783, after Betty Randolph's death. Thomas Jefferson bought his books. Among them were bound records dating to Virginia's earliest days that still are consulted by historians. Added to the collection at Monticello that Jefferson sold to the federal government years later, they became part of the core of the Library of Congress.

Courtesy of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation




Peyton married Elizabeth "Betty" Harrison [19118] [MRIN: 6572] on 8 Mar 1746. Elizabeth died about 1783.

+ 411 M    iii. John Randolph [15996] was born in 1727 in Virginia and died on 30 Jun 1784 in London, England at age 57.

+ 412 F    iv. Mary Randolph [15997] .

349. Edward Randolph [15879] was born in Oct 1697 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia.

General Notes: Edward Randolph.

Elizabeth Graves may have been Elizabeth Graves-Grosvener of Bristol, England. She married Edward Randolph in 1717 or 1718. Edward was born 1697 in Turkey Island, Henrico Co., VA, and lived in Bremo, VA. His parents were Col. William Randolph, born Oct. 1651 in Yorkshire, England, and Mary Isham, born 1660 in Bermuda Hundred, Henrico Co., VA. William Randolph emigrated from England in 1669. William Randolph's parents were Richard and Elizabeth Ryland Randolph and his grandfather was William Randolph of Sussex, England.

"Edward lived in England and was Captain of a ship captivated at a launch at Gravesend. Miss Graves, and heiress of 10,000 whom he married. Older member of family, contemporary with his grandmother who was a granddaughter of Mrs. Randolph said Grosvener Square (in London) was associated with Mrs. Randolph's name, and an old aunt, a childless widow and the repository of all family tradition and heirlooms, and an almost daily companion for 50 years, urged the giving of this name Grosvener to the writer's (Bishop Meade) youngest brother to preserve it in family history. She always spoke of Mrs. Randolph as an heiress, and either a Quakeress or of Quaker sympathies and so much opposed to negro slaves that she never came to Virginia."

Edward married.

His child was:

+ 413 F    i. Elizabeth Randolph [15975] .

Edward married Elizabeth Graves [15972] [MRIN: 5318] about 1715. Elizabeth was born in Briston, England.

Children from this marriage were:

   414 M    i. Joseph Randolph [15973] .

+ 415 M    ii. Edward Randolph [15974] .

+ 416 F    iii. Elizabeth Randolph [15975] .

   417 F    iv. Mary Randolph [15976] .

Mary married Rev. Robert Yates [23564] [MRIN: 7967].

   418 F    v. Catherine Randolph [15977] .

350. Henry Randolph [16069] was born in Jan 1689 and died in Aug 1726 in Henrico County, Virginia at age 37.

Henry married Elizabeth Eppes [16070] [MRIN: 5331] on 29 Mar 1714 in Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   419 F    i. Sarah Randolph [16071] .

   420 F    ii. Anne Randolph [16072] .

+ 421 M    iii. Henry Randolph [16073] was born in Feb 1721 in Henrico County, Virginia and died in Apr 1771 at age 50.

   422 M    iv. Francis Randolph [16074] .

   423 F    v. Grief Randolph [16075] .

   424 F    vi. Mourning Randolph [16076] .

351. Hannah Morgan [19050] was born on 18 May 1642 in Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died on 12 Dec 1706 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut at age 64.

Hannah married Nehemiah Royce [19051] [MRIN: 6543] on 20 Nov 1660 in New Haven, CT. Nehemiah was born c1636 and died on 7 Nov 1706 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut at age 70.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 425 F    i. Lydia Royce [19052] was born on 28 May 1680 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut and died c1750 at age 70.

352. Hugh Harry [18997] .

Hugh married Elizabeth Brinton [18998] [MRIN: 6518].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 426 M    i. John Harry [18999] .

353. Anna Rosanna White [18609] was born on 13 Jul 1600 in Messing, Essex, England and died on 21 Apr 1648 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT at age 47.

Anna married John Porter [18610] [MRIN: 6380] on 18 Oct 1620 in Messing, Essex, England. John was born about 21 Jun 1594 in Felsted, Essex, England and died on 21 Apr 1648 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT about age 53.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 427 F    i. Mary Porter [18611] was born about 1638 in Felstead, Essex, England and died on 16 Dec 1681 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT about age 43.

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354. Henry Bowen [18156] was born in Apr 1633 and died on 13 Mar 1724 at age 90.

Henry married Elizabeth Johnson [18157] [MRIN: 6141] on 20 Dec 1658. Elizabeth was born about 13 Aug 1633.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 428 M    i. John Bowen [18158] was born on 1 Sep 1662 and died on 24 Nov 1718 at age 56.

355. Rebecca Russell [18237] was born on 6 Feb 1723 in New Haven, CT and died on 27 May 1773 in New Haven, CT at age 50.

Rebecca married Capt. Ezekiel Hayes [18238] [MRIN: 6183] on 26 Dec 1749 in Branford, New Haven, CT. Ezekiel was born on 21 Oct 1724 in Simsbury, CT and died on 17 Oct 1807 in New Haven, CT at age 82.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 429 M    i. Rutherford Hayes [18239] was born on 29 Jul 1756 in Branford, New Haven, CT and died on 25 Sep 1836 in West Brattleboro, Windham County, Vermont at age 80.


365. 9th President William Henry Harrison [19079] was born on 9 Feb 1773 in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia and died on 4 Apr 1841 in White House, Washington D. C. at age 68.

General Notes: born Feb. 9, 1773, Charles City county, Va. [U.S.]
died April 4, 1841, Washington, D.C.

Ninth president of the United States (1841), whose Indian campaigns, while a territorial governor and army officer, thrust him into the national limelight and led to his election in 1840. He was the oldest man, at 67, ever elected president up to that time, the last president born under British rule, and the first to die in office—after only one month's service. His grandson Benjamin Harrison was 23rd president of the United States (1889–93).

Harrison was born at Berkeley, a Virginia plantation, and descended from two wealthy and well-connected Virginia families. His father, Benjamin Harrison, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a member of the Continental Congress; a brother, Carter Bassett Harrison, served six years in the House of Representatives. Harrison attended Hampden-Sydney College in 1787, then studied medicine in Richmond, Virginia, and in Philadelphia with Benjamin Rush.

At age 18 Harrison enlisted as an army officer, serving as an aide-de-camp to General Anthony Wayne, who was engaged in a struggle against the Northwest Indian Confederation over the westward encroachment of white settlers. Harrison took part in the campaign that ended in the Battle of FallenTimbers (August 20, 1794), near present-day Maumee, Ohio. He was named secretary of the Northwest Territory, a vast tract of land encompassing most of the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin, in 1798, and he was sent to Congress as a territorial delegate the following year. In May 1800 Harrison was appointed governor of the newly created Indiana Territory, where, succumbing to the demands of land-hungry whites, he negotiated between 1802 and 1809 a number of treaties that stripped the Indians of that region of millions of acres.

Resisting this expansionism, the Shawnee intertribal leader Tecumseh organized an Indian uprising. Leading a force of seasoned regulars and militia, Harrison defeated the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe (November 7, 1811), near present-day Lafayette, Indiana, a victory that largely established his military reputation in the public mind. A few months after the War of 1812 broke out with Great Britain, Harrison was made a brigadier general and placed in command of all federal forces in the Northwest Territory. On October 5, 1813, troops under his command decisively defeated the British and their Indian allies at the Battle of the Thames, in Ontario, Canada. Tecumseh was killed in the battle, and the British-Indian alliance was permanently destroyed; thus ended resistance inthe Northwest.

After the war Harrison settled in Ohio, where he quickly became active in politics. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1816–19), the Ohio Senate (1819–21), and the U.S. Senate (1825–28) and as minister to Colombia (1828–29). In 1836 he was one of three presidential candidates of the splintered Whig Party, but he lost the election to Democrat Martin VanBuren. Nonetheless, his popular-vote totals were large enough to encourage him to make another attempt. In 1840 Harrison won the Whig nomination over Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, largely because of his military record and his noncommittal political views. In him the Whigs believed they had found a new Andrew Jackson, attractive as a war hero and a frontiersman. He became, as a result, the first “packaged” presidential candidate, depicted as a simple soul from the backwoods. To pull in Southern Democrats, the Whigs nominated John Tyler of Virginia for vice president. Capitalizing on voters' distress over the severe economic depression caused by the panic of 1837, the campaign deliberately avoided discussion of national issues and substituted political songs, partisan slogans, and appropriate insignia: miniature log cabins and jugs of hard cider were widely distributed to emphasize Harrison's frontier identification, and the cry of “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” rang throughout the land, calling up Harrison's dramatic triumph on the field of battle 29 years earlier. These appeals triumphed, with Harrison winning 234 electoral votes to incumbent Martin Van Buren's 60.

Harrison was the first president-elect to travel by railroad to Washington for his inauguration. Wearing no gloves and no overcoat despite the freezing weather, he rode up Pennsylvania Avenue on a white horse to take the oath of office on March 4, 1841. It was said that he was as pleased with the presidency “as a young woman with a new bonnet.” In the cold drizzle he delivered an inaugural address that lasted almost two hours. In it he highlighted a common Whig concern—“executive usurpation”—and reconfirmed his belief in a limited role for the U.S. president. He said he would serve but one term, limit his use of the veto, and leave revenue schemes to Congress. The address was circulated to some parts of the country by railroad; people outside of Washington for the first time could read the president's words the same day they were uttered.

Harrison was soon overwhelmed by office seekers. He was thoroughly dominated by the better-known leaders of his party—Daniel Webster, whom he appointed secretary of state, and Henry Clay. His relations with Clay were embittered, as Clay then preferred to wield power as leader of the Whigs in Congress. Once when Clay was pressing his opinions on him, Harrison responded, “Mr. Clay, you forget that I am president.” Harrison tried to do everything expected of him, even trudging around Washington to purchase supplies for the White House. But a cold he had contracted on inauguration day developed into pneumonia, and he died just a month later, on April 4, bringing “His Accidency,” John Tyler, to the presidency. The first president to lie in state in the Capitol, Harrison was buried in Washington. In June his remains were reinterred in what is now the William Henry Harrison Memorial State Park in North Bend, Ohio.

Harrison's wife was Anna Symmes Harrison, who had been born in New Jersey of a well-connected family; her father served as chief justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court. During the American Revolution, when the British occupied New Jersey, her father smuggled her, then an infant, through enemy lines to her grandparents' home on Long Island, New York, where she grew up. She received elite schooling there and later in New YorkCity. Her father opposed her marriage to Harrison, but he became reconciled as Harrison rose to prominence. She had not accompanied Harrison to Washington, intending to follow him to the White House later to take up her role as first lady. At first she had enthusiastically supported Harrison's electioneering, seemingly eager to greet visitors who flocked to their home in North Bend. But when one of the Harrisons' sons, his namesake, died in 1838, she fell into depression, even questioning her husband's zeal to be president at his advanced age. Accompanying Harrison to the capital and intending temporarily to substitute for his wife as hostess was a daughter-in-law, his son's widow, Jane Irwin Harrison.

William married Anna Tuthill Symmes [19080] [MRIN: 6557] on 22 Nov 1795 in North Bend, Ohio. Anna was born on 25 Jul 1775 in Flatbrook, Sussex County, New Jersey and died on 25 Feb 1864 in North Bend, Ohio at age 88.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 430 M    i. John Scott Harrison [19081] was born on 4 Oct 1804 in Vincennes, Indiana and died on 25 May 1878 in Point Farm, North Bend, Ohio at age 73.

366. Rhoda Rawson [18271] was born on 4 Oct 1749 and died on 9 Jun 1827 at age 77.

Rhoda married Aaron Taft [18272] [MRIN: 6202] on 1 Jun 1769. Aaron was born on 28 May 1743 and died on 26 Mar 1808 at age 64.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 431 M    i. Peter Rawson Taft [18273] was born on 14 Apr 1785 and died on 1 Jan 1867 at age 81.

367. Hannah Gibbons [18303] .

Hannah married Unknown Hibbert [18304] [MRIN: 6219].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 432 F    i. Mary Hibbert [18305] .

368. William Strother [18011] was born about 1725 and died about 1808 about age 83.

William married Sarah Bayly [18012] [MRIN: 6070]. Sarah was born about 1720 and died on 22 Dec 1774 about age 54.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 433 F    i. Sarah Dabney Strother [12938] was born on 14 Oct 1760 and died on 13 Dec 1822 at age 62.

369. Eleanor Rose Conway [18051] was born in 1731 and died in 1829 at age 98.

Eleanor married James Madison [18052] [MRIN: 6086]. James was born in 1723 and died in 1801 at age 78.

The child from this marriage was:

   434 M    i. 4th U.S. President James Madison [18053] was born on 16 Mar 1751 in Port Conway, King George County, Virginia and died on 28 Jun 1836 in Montpelier, Orange County, Virginia at age 85.

General Notes: Madison was born at the home of his maternal grandmother. The son and name sake of a leading Orange county landowner and squire, he maintained his lifelong home in Virginia at Montpelier, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. In 1769 he rode horseback to the College of New Jersey (Princeton University), selected for its hostility to episcopacy. He completed the four-year course in two years, finding time also to demonstrate against England and to lampoon members of a rival literary society in ribald verse. Overwork produced several years of epileptic hysteria and premonitions of early death, which thwarted military training but did not prevent home study of public law, mixed with early advocacy of independence (1774) and furious denunciation of the imprisonment of nearby dissenters from the established Anglican Church. Madison never became a church member, but in maturity he expressed a preference for Unitarianism.

His health improved, and he was elected to Virginia's 1776 Revolutionary convention, where he drafted the state's guarantee of religious freedom. In the convention-turned-legislature he helped Thomas Jefferson disestablish the church but lost reelection by refusing to furnish the electors with free whiskey. After two years on the governor's council, he was sent to the Continental Congress in March 1780.

Five feet four inches tall and weighing about 100 pounds, small boned, boyish in appearance, and weak of voice, he waited six months before taking the floor, but strong actions belied his mild demeanor. He rose quickly to leadership against the devotees of state sovereignty and enemies of Franco-U.S.. collaboration in peace negotiations, contending also for the establishment of the Mississippi as a western territorial boundary and the right to navigate that river through its Spanish-held delta. Defending Virginia's charter title to the vast Northwest against states that had no claim to western territories and whose major motive was to validate barrel-of-rum purchases from Indian tribes, Madison defeated the land speculators by persuading Virginia to cede the western lands to Congress as a national heritage.

Following the ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1781, Madison undertook to strengthen the Union by asserting implied power in Congress to enforce financial requisitions upon the states by military coercion. This move failing, he worked unceasingly for an amendment conferring power to raise revenue and wrote an eloquent address adjuring the states to avert national disintegration by ratifying the submitted article. The Chevalier de la Luzerne, French minister to the United States, wrote that Madison was “regarded as the man of the soundest judgment in Congress.”

Reentering the Virginia legislature in 1784, Madison defeated Patrick Henry's bill to give financial support to “teachers of the Christian religion.” To avoid the political effect of his extreme nationalism, he persuaded the states-rights advocate John Tyler to sponsor the calling of the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which, aided by Madison's influence, produced the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

There his Virginia, or large-state, Plan, put forward through Governor Edmund Randolph, furnished the basic framework and guiding principles of the Constitution, earning him the title of father of the Constitution. Madison believed keenly in the value of a strong government in which power was well controlled because it was well balanced among the branches. Delegate William Pierce of Georgia wrote that, in the management of every great question, Madison “always comes forward the best informed Man of any point in debate.” Pierce called him “a Gentleman of great modesty—with a remarkable sweet temper. He is easy and unreserved among his acquaintances, and has a most agreeable style of conversation.”

Madison took day-by-day notes of debates at the Constitutional Convention, which furnish the only comprehensive history of the proceedings. To promote ratification he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in newspaper publication of The Federalist Papers (Madison wrote 29 out of 85), which became the standard commentary on the Constitution. His influence produced ratification by Virginia and led John Marshall to say that, if eloquence included “persuasion by convincing, Mr. Madison was the most eloquent man I ever heard.”

Elected to the new House of Representatives, Madison sponsored the first 10 amendments to the Constitution—the Bill of Rights—placing emphasis in debate on freedom of religion, speech, and press. His leadership in the House, which caused the Massachusetts congressman Fisher Ames to call him “our first man,” came to an end when he split with Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton over methods of funding the war debts. Hamilton's aim was to strengthen the national government by cementing men of wealth to it; Madison sought to protect the interests of Revolutionary veterans.

Hamilton's victory turned Madison into a strict constructionist of the congressional power to appropriate for the general welfare. He denied the existence of implied power to establish a national bank to aid the Treasury. Later, as president, he asked for and obtained a bank as “almost [a] necessity” for that purpose, but he contended that it was constitutional only because Hamilton's bank had gone without constitutional challenge. Unwillingness to admit error was a lifelong characteristic. The break over funding split Congress into Madisonian and Hamiltonian factions, with Fisher Ames now calling Madison a “desperate party leader” who enforced a discipline “as severe as the Prussian.” (Madisonians turned into Jeffersonians after Jefferson, having returned from France, became secretary of state.)

In 1794 Madison married a widow, Dolly Payne Todd, a handsome, buxom, vivacious Quaker 17 years his junior, who rejected church discipline and loved social activities. Her first husband had died in the yellow fever epidemic the previous year. She periodically served as official hostess for President Jefferson, who was a widower. As Madison's wife, she became a fixture at soirées, usually wearing a colorful feathered turban and an elegant dress ornamented with jewelry and furs. She may be said to have created the role of First Lady as a political partner of the president, although that label did not come into use until much later. An unpretentious woman, she ate heartily, gambled, rouged her face lavishly, and took snuff. The "Wednesday drawing rooms" that she instituted for the public added to her popularity. She earned the nation's undying gratitude for rescuing a Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington in 1814 just ahead of the British troops who put the torch to the White House in the War of 1812.

Madison left Congress in 1797, disgusted by John Jay's treaty with England, which frustrated his program of commercial retaliation against the wartime oppression of U.S. maritime commerce. The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 inspired him to draft the Virginia Resolutions of that year, denouncing those statutes as violations of the First Amendment of the Constitution and affirming the right and duty of the states “to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil.” Carefully worded to mean less legally than they seemed to threaten, they forced him to spend his octogenarian years combating South Carolina's interpretation of them as a sanction of state power to nullify federal law.

During eight years as Jefferson's secretary of state (1801–09), Madison used the words “The President has decided” so regularly that his own role can be discovered only in foreign archives. British diplomats dealing with Madison encountered “asperity of temper and fluency of expression.” Senators John Adair and Nicholas Gilman agreed in 1806 that he “governed the President,” an opinion held also by French minister Louis-Marie Turreau.

Although he was accused of weakness in dealing with France and England, Madison won the presidency in 1808 by publishing his vigorous diplomatic dispatches. Faced with a senatorial cabal on taking office, he made a senator's lackluster brother, Robert Smith, secretary of state and wrote all important diplomatic letters for two years before replacing him with James Monroe. Although he had fully supported Jefferson's wartime shipping embargo, Madison reversed his predecessor's policy two weeks after assuming the presidency by secretly notifying both Great Britain and France, then at war, that, in his opinion, if the country addressed should stop interfering with U.S. commerce and the other belligerent continued to do so, “Congress will, at the next ensuing session, authorize acts of hostility . . . against the other.”

An agreement with England providing for repeal of its Orders in Council, which limited trade by neutral nations with France, collapsed because the British minister violated his instructions; he concealed the requirements that the United States continue its trade embargo against France, renounce wartime trade with Britain's enemies, and authorize England to capture any U.S. vessel attempting to trade with France. Madison expelled the minister's successor for charging, falsely, that the president had been aware of the violation.

Believing that England was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, Madison proclaimed non intercourse with England on November 2, 1810, and notified France on the same day that this would “necessarily lead to war” unless England stopped its impressment of American seamen and seizure of American goods and vessels. One week earlier, unknown to Congress (in recess) or the public, he had taken armed possession of the Spanish province of West Florida, claimed as part of the Louisiana Purchase. He was reelected in 1812, despite strong opposition and the vigorous candidacy of DeWitt Clinton.

With his actions buried in secrecy, Federalists and politicians pictured Madison as a timorous pacifist dragged into the War of 1812 (1812–15) by congressional War Hawks, and they denounced the conflict as "Mr. Madison's War." In fact, the president had sought peace but accepted war as inevitable. As wartime commander in chief he was hampered by the refusal of Congress to heed pleas for naval and military development and made the initial error of entrusting army command to aging veterans of the Revolution. The small U.S. Navy sparkled, but on land defeat followed defeat.

By 1814, however, Madison had lowered the average age of generals from 60 to 36 years; victories resulted, ending a war the principal cause of which had been removed by revocation of the Orders in Council the day before the conflict began. Contemporary public opinion in the United States, Canada, England, and continental Europe proclaimed the result a U.S. triumph. Still the country would never forget the ignominy of the president and his wife having to flee in the face of advancing British troops bent on laying waste Washington, D.C., including setting afire the executive mansion, the Capitol, and other public buildings.

The Federalist Party was killed by its sedition in opposing the war, and the president was lifted to a pinnacle of popularity. Madison's greatest fault was delay in discharging incompetent subordinates, including Secretary of War John Armstrong, who had scoffed at the president's repeated warnings of a coming British attack on Washington and ignored presidential orders for its defense.

On leaving the presidency, Madison was eulogized at a Washington mass meeting for having won national power and glory “without infringing a political, civil, or religious right.” Even in the face of sabotage of war operations by New England Federalists, he had lived up to the maxim he laid down in 1793 when he had said:

"If we advert to the nature of republican government we shall find that the censorial power is in the people over the government, and not in the government over the people."

Never again leaving Virginia, Madison managed his 5,000-acre farm for 19 years, cultivating the land by methods regarded today as modern innovations. As president of the Albemarle Agricultural Society, he warned that human life might be wiped out by upsetting the balance of nature, including invisible organisms. He hated slavery, which held him in its economic chains, and worked to abolish it through government purchase of slaves and their resettlement in Liberia, financed by sale of public lands. When his personal valet ran away in 1792 and was recaptured—a situation that usually meant sale into the yellow-fever-infested West Indies—Madison set him free and hired him. Another slave managed one-third of the Montpelier farmlands during Madison's years in federal office.

Madison participated in Jefferson's creation of the University of Virginia (1819) and later served as its rector. Excessive hospitality, chronic agricultural depression, the care of aged slaves, and the squandering of $40,000 by and on a wayward stepson made him land-poor in old age. His last years were spent in bed; he was barely able to bend his rheumatic fingers, which nevertheless turned out an endless succession of letters and articles combating nullification and secession—the theme of his final “Advice to My Country.” Henry Clay called him, after George Washington, “our greatest statesman.”

James married Dorothea "Dolley" Payne [18370] [MRIN: 6254], daughter of John Payne [20116] and Mary Coles [20117], on 15 Sep 1794 in Charles Town, Virginia. Dorothea was born on 20 May 1768 in Guilford County, North Carolina and died on 12 Jul 1849 in Washington D. C. at age 81.

370. Experience Abell [18390] was born in 1674 and died in 1763 at age 89.

Experience married Unknown Hyde [18391] [MRIN: 6266].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 435 M    i. James Hyde [18392] was born in 1707 and died in 1793 at age 86.

371. Col. John Quincy [18422] was born in 1689 and died in 1767 at age 78.

John married Elizabeth Norton [18423] [MRIN: 6283]. Elizabeth was born c1695.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 436 F    i. Elizabeth Quincy [18424] was born about 1721 and died on 1 Oct 1775 in Weymouth, Massachusetts about age 54.

372. Anna Shepard [18435] was born on 30 Jan 1684 and died on 7 May 1735 at age 51.

Anna married Henry Smith [18436] [MRIN: 6288] on 9 Jan 1704. Henry was born on 19 Jan 1679 and died on 31 Oct 1766 at age 87.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 437 M    i. William Henry Smith [18437] was born on 29 Oct 1708 and died on 2 Oct 1776 at age 67.

373. Elijah Hutchinson [18347] was born in 1641 and died in 1717 at age 76.

Elijah married Elizabeth Clarke [18348] [MRIN: 6242] in 1677. Elizabeth was born in 1642 and died in 1713 at age 71.

Elijah next married Hannah Hawkins [18349] [MRIN: 6243].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 438 F    i. Hannah Hutchinson [18350] .

374. Agnes Munro [18487] .

Agnes married Unknown Monroe [18488] [MRIN: 6315].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 439 M    i. Andrew Monroe [18489] died in 1668.

375. Ann Elizabeth Baillie [18544] .

Ann married Dr. John Irvine [18545] [MRIN: 6347]. John was born in 1742 and died in 1808 at age 66.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 440 F    i. Anne Irvine [18546] was born in 1770 and died in 1810 at age 40.

376. Capt. Augustin Washington [18572] was born c1693 in Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 12 Apr 1743 in Ferry Farm, King George County, Virginia at age 50.

General Notes: Known as Gus. A busy man with his holdings including a 10,000 acre tract in the potomac region. He also ran an iron foundry. He was not involved with family.

Augustin married Mary Ball [18573] [MRIN: 6361], daughter of Joseph Ball [18691] and Mary Bennett [18692], on 6 Mar 1731 in Fredricksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia. Mary was born about 1708 in Lancaster County, Virginia and died on 25 Aug 1789 in Fredricksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia about age 81.

Children from this marriage were:

   441 M    i. 1st President George Washington [18574] was born on 11 Feb 1732 in Pope's Creek, Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 14 Dec 1799 in Mt. Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia at age 67.

General Notes: born Feb. 22, 1732, Westmoreland county, Va. [U.S.]
died Dec. 14, 1799, Mt. Vernon

"Father of His Country", American general and commander in chief of the colonial armies in the American Revolution (1775–83) and subsequently first president of the United States (1789–97).

Washington's father, Augustine Washington, had gone to school in England, had tasted seafaring life, and then settled down to manage his growing Virginia estates. His mother was Mary Ball, whom Augustine, a widower, had married early the previous year. Washington's paternal lineage had some distinction; an early forebear was described as “gentleman,” Henry VIII later gave the family lands, and its members held various offices. But family fortunes fell with the Puritan revolution in England, and John Washington, grandfather of Augustine, migrated in 1657 to Virginia. The ancestral home at Sulgrave, Northamptonshire, is maintained as a Washington memorial. Little definite information exists on any of the line until Augustine. He was an energetic, ambitious man who acquired much land, built mills, took an interest in opening iron mines, and sent his two oldest sons to England for schooling. By his first wife, Jane Butler, he had four children; by his second wife, Mary Ball, he had six. Augustine died April 12, 1743.

Little is known of George Washington's early childhood, spent largely on the Ferry Farm on the Rappahannock River, opposite Fredericksburg, Virginia. Mason L. Weems's stories of the hatchet and cherry tree and of young Washington's repugnance to fighting are apocryphal efforts to fill a manifest gap. He attended school irregularly from his 7th to his 15th year, first with the local church sexton and later with a schoolmaster named Williams. Some of his schoolboy papers survive. He was fairly well trained in practical mathematics—gauging, several types of mensuration, and such trigonometry as was useful in surveying. He studied geography, possibly had a little Latin, and certainly read some of The Spectator and other English classics. The copybook in which he transcribed, at 14, a set of moral precepts, or Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation, was carefully preserved. His best training, however, was given him by practical men and outdoor occupations, not by books. He mastered tobacco growing and stock raising, and early in his teens he was sufficiently familiar with surveying to plot the fields about him.

At his father's death, the 11-year-old boy became the ward of his eldest half brother, Lawrence, a man of fine character who gave him wise and affectionate care. Lawrence inherited the beautiful estate of Little Hunting Creek, which had been granted to the original settler, John Washington, and which Augustine had done much since 1738 to develop. Lawrence married Anne (Nancy) Fairfax, daughter of Colonel William Fairfax, a cousin and agent of Lord Fairfax and one of the chief proprietors of the region. Lawrence also built a house and named the 2,500-acre holding Mount Vernon in honor of the admiral under whom he had served in the siege of Cartagena. Living there chiefly with Lawrence (though he spent some time near Fredericksburg with his other half brother, Augustine, called Austin), George entered a more spacious and polite world. Anne Fairfax Washington was a woman of charm, grace, and culture; Lawrence had brought from his English school and naval service much knowledge and experience. A valued neighbor and relative, George William Fairfax, whose large estate, Belvoir, was about 4 miles distant, and other relatives by marriage, the Carlyles of Alexandria, helped form George's mind and manners.

The youth turned first to surveying as a profession. Lord Fairfax, a middle-aged bachelor who owned more than 5,000,000 acres in northern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley, came to America in 1746 to live with his cousin George William at Belvoir and to look after his properties. Two years later he sent to the Shenandoah Valley a party to survey and plot his lands to make regular tenants of the squatters moving in from Pennsylvania. With the official surveyor of Prince William county in charge, Washington went along as assistant. The 16-year-old lad kept a disjointed diary of the trip, which shows skill in observation. He describes the discomfort of sleeping under “one thread Bear blanket with double its Weight of Vermin such as Lice, Fleas & c”; an encounter with an Indian war party bearing a scalp; the Pennsylvania-German emigrants, “as ignorant a set of people as the Indians they would never speak English but when spoken to they speak all Dutch”; and the serving of roast wild turkey on “a Large Chip,” for “as for dishes we had none.”

The following year (1749), aided by Lord Fairfax, Washington received an appointment as official surveyor of Culpeper county, and for more than two years he was kept almost constantly busy. Surveying not only in Culpeper but also in Frederick and Augusta counties, he made journeys far beyond the Tidewater region into the western wilderness. The experience taught him resourcefulness and endurance and toughened him in both body and mind. Coupled with Lawrence's ventures in land, it also gave him an interest in western development that endured throughout his life. He was always disposed to speculate in western holdings and to view favorably projects for colonizing the West, and he greatly resented the limitations that the crown laid on the westward movement. In 1752 Lord Fairfax determined to take up his final residence in the Shenandoah Valley and settled there in a log hunting lodge, which he called Greenway Court after a Kentish manor of his family's. There Washington was sometimes entertained and had access to a small library that Fairfax had begun accumulating at Oxford.

The years 1751–52 marked a turning point in Washington's life, for they placed him in control of Mount Vernon. Lawrence, stricken by tuberculosis, went to Barbados in 1751 for his health, taking George along. From this sole journey beyond the present borders of the United States, Washington returned with the light scars of an attack of smallpox. In July of the next year, Lawrence died, making George executor and residuary heir of his estate should his daughter, Sarah, die without issue. As she died within two months, Washington at age 20 became head of one of the best Virginia estates. He always thought farming the “most delectable” of pursuits. “It is honorable,” he wrote, “it is amusing, and, with superior judgment, it is profitable.” And, of all the spots for farming, he thought Mount Vernon the best. “No estate in United America,” he assured an English correspondent, “is more pleasantly situated than this.” His greatest pride in later days was to be regarded as the first farmer of the land.

He gradually increased the estate until it exceeded 8,000 acres. He enlarged the house in 1760 and made further enlargements and improvements on the house and its landscaping in 1784–86. He also tried to keep abreast of the latest scientific advances.

For the next 20 years the main background of Washington's life was the work and society of Mount Vernon. He gave assiduous attention to the rotation of crops, fertilization of the soil, and the management of livestock. He had to manage the 18 slaves that came with the estate and others he bought later; by 1760 he paid tithes on 49 slaves—though he strongly disapproved of the institution and hoped for some mode of abolishing it. At the time of his death, more than 300 slaves were housed in the quarters on his property. He had been unwilling to sell slaves lest families be broken up, even though the increase in their numbers placed a burden on him for their upkeep and gave him a larger force of workers than he required, especially after he gave up the cultivation of tobacco. In his will, he bequeathed the slaves in his possession to his wife and ordered that upon her death they be set free, declaring also that the young, the aged, and the infirm among them “shall be comfortably cloathed & fed by my heirs.” Still, this accounted for only about half the slaves on his property. The other half, owned by his wife, were entailed to the Custis estate, so that on her death they were destined to pass to her heirs. However, she freed all the slaves in 1800 after his death.

For diversion Washington was fond of riding, fox hunting, and dancing, of such theatrical performances as he could reach, and of duck hunting and sturgeon fishing. He liked billiards and cards and not only subscribed to racing associations but also ran his own horses in races. In all outdoor pursuits, from wrestling to colt breaking, he excelled. A friend of the 1750s describes him as “straight as an Indian, measuring six feet two inches in his stockings”; as very muscular and broad-shouldered but, though large-boned, weighing only 175 pounds; and as having long arms and legs. His penetrating blue-gray eyes were overhung by heavy brows, his nose was large and straight, and his mouth was large and firmly closed. “His movements and gestures are graceful, his walk majestic, and he is a splendid horseman.” He soon became prominent in community affairs, was an active member and later vestryman of the Episcopal church, and as early as 1755 expressed a desire to stand for the Virginia House of Burgesses.

Traditions of John Washington's feats as Indian fighter and Lawrence Washington's talk of service days helped imbue George with military ambition. Just after Lawrence's death, Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed George adjutant for the southern district of Virginia at £100 a year (November 1752). In 1753 he became adjutant of the Northern Neck and Eastern Shore. Later that year, Dinwiddie found it necessary to warn the French to desist from their encroachments on Ohio Valley lands claimed by the crown. After sending one messenger who failed to reach the goal, he determined to dispatch Washington. On the day he received his orders, October 31, 1753, Washington set out for the French posts. His party consisted of a Dutchman to serve as interpreter, the expert scout Christopher Gist as guide, and four others, two of them experienced traders with the Indians. Theoretically, Great Britain and France were at peace. Actually, war impended, and Dinwiddie's message was an ultimatum: the French must get out or be put out.

The journey proved rough, perilous, and futile. Washington's party left what is now Cumberland, Maryland, in the middle of November and, despite wintry weather and impediments of the wilderness, reached Fort LeBoeuf, at what is now Waterford, Pennsylvania, 20 miles south of Lake Erie, without delay. The French commander was courteous but adamant. As Washington reported, his officers “told me, That it was their absolute Design to take possession of the Ohio, and by God they would do it.” Eager to carry this alarming news back, Washington pushed off hurriedly with Gist. He was lucky to have gotten back alive. An Indian fired at them at 15 paces but missed. When they crossed the Allegheny River on a raft, Washington was jerked into the ice-filled stream but saved himself by catching one of the timbers. That night he almost froze in his wet clothing. He reached Williamsburg, Virginia, on January 16, 1754, where he hastily penned a record of the journey. Dinwiddie, who was laboring to convince the crown of the seriousness of the French threat, had it printed, and when he sent it to London, it was reprinted in three different forms.

The enterprising governor forthwith planned an expedition to hold the Ohio country. He made Joshua Fry colonel of a provincial regiment, appointed Washington lieutenant colonel, and set them to recruiting troops. Two agents of the Ohio Company, which Lawrence Washington and others had formed to develop lands on the upper Potomac and Ohio rivers, had begun building a fort at what later became Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dinwiddie, ready to launch into his own war, sent Washington with two companies to reinforce this post. In April 1754 the lieutenant colonel set out from Alexandria with about 160 men at his back. He marched to Cumberland only to learn that the French had anticipated the British blow; they had taken possession of the fort of the Ohio Company and had renamed it Fort Duquesne. Happily, the Indians of the area offered support. Washington struggled cautiously forward to within about 40 miles of the French position and erected his own post at Great Meadows, near what is now Confluence, Pennsylvania. From this base, he made a surprise attack (May 28, 1754) upon an advance detachment of 30 French, killing the commander, Coulon de Jumonville, and nine others and taking the rest prisoners. The French and Indian War had begun.

Washington at once received promotion to a full colonel and was reinforced, commanding a considerable body of Virginia and North Carolina troops, with Indian auxiliaries. But his attack soon brought the whole French force down upon him. They drove his 350 men into the Great Meadows fort (Fort Necessity) on July 3, besieged it with 700 men, and, after an all-day fight, compelled him to surrender. The construction of the fort had been a blunder, for it lay in a waterlogged creek bottom, was commanded on three sides by forested elevations approaching it closely, and was too far from Washington's supports. The French agreed to let the disarmed colonials march back to Virginia with the honors of war, but they compelled Washington to promise that Virginia would not build another fort on the Ohio for a year and to sign a paper acknowledging responsibility for “l'assassinat” of de Jumonville, a word that Washington later explained he did not rightly understand. He returned to Virginia, chagrined but proud, to receive the thanks of the House of Burgesses and to find that his name had been mentioned in the London gazettes. His remark in a letter to his brother that “I have heard the bullets whistle; and believe me, there is something charming in the sound” was commented on humorously by the author Horace Walpole and sarcastically by King George II.

The arrival of General Edward Braddock and his army in Virginia in February 1755, as part of the triple plan of campaign that called for his advance on Fort Duquesne and in New York Governor William Shirley's capture of Fort Niagara and Sir William Johnson's capture of Crown Point, brought Washington new opportunities and responsibilities. He had resigned his commission in October 1754 in resentment of the slighting treatment and underpayment of colonial officers and particularly because of an untactful order of the British war office that provincial officers of whatever rank would be subordinate to any officer holding the king's commission. But he ardently desired a part in the war; “my inclinations,” he wrote a friend, “are strongly bent to arms.” When Braddock showed appreciation of his merits and invited him to join the expedition as personal aide-de-camp, with the courtesy title of colonel, he therefore accepted. His self-reliance, decision, and masterfulness soon became apparent.

At table he had frequent disputes with Braddock, who, when contractors failed to deliver their supplies, attacked the colonials as supine and dishonest while Washington defended them warmly. His freedom of utterance is proof of Braddock's esteem. Braddock accepted Washington's unwise advice that he divide his army, leaving half of it to come up with the slow wagons and cattle train and taking the other half forward against Fort Duquesne at a rapid pace. Washington was ill with fever during June but joined the advance guard in a covered wagon on July 8, begged to lead the march on Fort Duquesne with his Virginians and Indian allies, and was by Braddock's side when on July 9 the army was ambushed and bloodily defeated.

In this defeat Washington displayed the combination of coolness and determination, the alliance of unconquerable energy with complete poise, that was the secret of so many of his successes. So ill that he had to use a pillow instead of a saddle and that Braddock ordered his body servant to keep special watch over him, Washington was, nevertheless, everywhere at once. At first he followed Braddock as the general bravely tried to rally his men to push either forward or backward, the wisest course the circumstances permitted. Then he rode back to bring up the Virginians from the rear and rallied them with effect on the flank. To him was largely due the escape of the force. His exposure of his person was as reckless as Braddock's, who was fatally wounded on his fifth horse; Washington had two horses shot under him and his clothes cut by four bullets without being hurt. He was at Braddock's deathbed, helped bring the troops back, and was repaid by being appointed, in August 1755, while still only 23 years old, commander of all Virginia troops.

But no part of his later service was conspicuous. Finding that a Maryland captain who held a royal commission would not obey him, he rode north in February 1756 to Boston to have the question settled by the commander in chief in America, Governor Shirley, and, bearing a letter from Dinwiddie, had no difficulty in carrying his point. On his return he plunged into a multitude of vexations. He had to protect a weak, thinly settled frontier nearly 400 miles in length with only some 700 ill-disciplined colonial troops, to cope with a legislature unwilling to support him, to meet attacks on the drunkenness and inefficiency of the soldiers, and to endure constant wilderness hardships. It is not strange that in 1757 his health failed and in the closing weeks of that year he was so ill of a “bloody flux” (dysentery) that his physician ordered him home to Mount Vernon.

In the spring of 1758 he had recovered sufficiently to return to duty as colonel in command of all Virginia troops. As part of the grand sweep of several armies organized by British statesman William Pitt, the Elder, General John Forbes led a new advance upon Fort Duquesne. Forbes resolved not to use Braddock's road but to cut a new one west from Raystown, Pennsylvania. Washington disapproved of the route but played an important part in the movement. Late in the autumn the French evacuated and burned Fort Duquesne, and Forbes reared Fort Pitt on the site. Washington, who had just been elected to the House of Burgesses, was able to resign with the honorary rank of brigadier general.

Although his officers expressed regret at the “loss of such an excellent Commander, such a sincere Friend, and so affable a Companion,” he quit the service with a sense of frustration. He had thought the war excessively slow. The Virginia legislature had been niggardly in voting money; the Virginia recruits had come forward reluctantly and had proved of poor quality; Washington had hanged a few deserters and flogged others heavily. Virginia gave him less pay than other colonies offered their troops. Desiring a regular commission such as his half brother Lawrence had held, he applied in vain to the British commander in North America, Lord Loudoun, to make good a promise that Braddock had given him. Ambitious for both rank and honor, he showed a somewhat strident vigor in asserting his desires and in complaining when they were denied. He returned to Mount Vernon somewhat disillusioned.

Immediately on resigning his commission, Washington was married (January 6, 1759) to Martha Dandridge, the widow of Daniel Parke Custis. She was a few months older than he, was the mother of two children living and two dead, and possessed one of the considerable fortunes of Virginia. Washington had met her the previous March and had asked for her hand before his campaign with Forbes. Though it does not seem to have been a romantic love match, the marriage united two harmonious temperaments and proved happy. Martha was a good housewife, an amiable companion, and a dignified hostess. Like many well-born women of the era, she had little formal schooling, and Washington often helped her compose important letters.

Some estimates of the property brought to him by this marriage have been exaggerated, but it did include a number of slaves and about 15,000 acres, much of it valuable for its proximity to Williamsburg. More important to Washington were the two stepchildren, John Parke (“Jacky”) and Martha Parke (“Patsy”) Custis, who at the time of the marriage were six and four, respectively. He lavished great affection and care upon them, worried greatly over Jacky's waywardness, and was overcome with grief when Patsy died just before the Revolution. Jacky died during the war, leaving four children. Washington adopted two of them, a boy and a girl, and even signed his letters to the boy as “your papa.” Himself childless, he thus had a real family.

From the time of his marriage Washington added to the care of Mount Vernon the supervision of the Custis estate at the White House on the York River. As his holdings expanded, they were divided into farms, each under its own overseer; but he minutely inspected operations every day and according to one visitor often pulled off his coat and performed ordinary labor. As he once wrote, “middling land under a man's own eyes, is more profitable than rich land at a distance.” Until the eve of the Revolution he devoted himself to the duties and pleasures of a great landholder, varied by several weeks' attendance every year in the House of Burgesses in Williamsburg. During 1760–74 he was also a justice of the peace for Fairfax county, sitting in court in Alexandria.

In no light does Washington appear more characteristically than as one of the richest, largest, and most industrious of Virginia planters. For six days a week he rose early and worked hard; on Sundays he irregularly attended Pohick Church (16 times in 1760), entertained company, wrote letters, made purchases and sales, and sometimes went fox hunting. In these years he took snuff and smoked a pipe; throughout life he liked Madeira wine and punch. Although wheat and tobacco were his staples, he practiced crop rotation on a three-year or five-year plan. He had his own water-powered flour mill, blacksmith shop, brick and charcoal kilns, carpenters, and masons. His fishery supplied shad, bass, herring, and other catches, salted as food for his slaves. Coopers, weavers, and his own shoemaker turned out barrels, cotton, linen, and woolen goods, and brogans for all needs. In short, his estates, in accordance with his orders to overseers to “buy nothing you can make yourselves,” were largely self-sufficient communities. But he did send large orders to England for farm implements, tools, paint, fine textiles, hardware, and agricultural books and hence was painfully aware of British commercial restrictions.

Washington was an innovative farmer and a responsible landowner. He experimented at breeding cattle, acquired at least one buffalo, with the hope of proving its utility as a meat animal, and kept stallions at stud. He also took pride in a peach and apple orchard.

His care of slaves was exemplary. He carefully clothed and fed them, engaged a doctor for them by the year, generally refused to sell them—“I am principled against this kind of traffic in the human species”—and administered correction mildly. They showed so much attachment that few ran away.

He meanwhile played a prominent role in the social life of the Tidewater region. The members of the council and House of Burgesses, a roster of influential Virginians, were all friends. He visited the Byrds of Westover, the Lees of Stratford, the Carters of Shirley and Sabine Hall, and the Lewises of Warner Hall; Mount Vernon often was busy with guests in return. He liked house parties and afternoon tea on the Mount Vernon porch overlooking the grand Potomac; he was fond of picnics, barbecues, and clambakes; and throughout life he enjoyed dancing, frequently going to Alexandria for balls. Cards were a steady diversion, and his accounts record sums lost at them, the largest reaching nearly £10. His diary sometimes states that in bad weather he was “at home all day, over cards.” Billiards was a rival amusement. Not only the theatre, when available, but also concerts, cockfights, circuses, puppet shows, and exhibitions of animals received his patronage.

He insisted on the best clothes—coats, laced waistcoats, hats, colored silkhose—bought in London. The Virginia of the Randolphs, Corbins, Harrisons, Tylers, Nicholases, and other prominent families had an aristocratic quality, and Washington liked to do things in a large way. It has been computed that in the seven years prior to 1775, Mount Vernon had 2,000 guests, most of whom stayed to dinner if not overnight.

Washington's contented life was interrupted by the rising storm in imperial affairs. The British ministry, facing a heavy postwar debt, high home taxes, and continued military costs in America, decided in 1764 to obtain revenue from the colonies. Up to that time, Washington, though regarded by associates, in Colonel John L. Peyton's words, as “a young man of an extraordinary and exalted character,” had shown no signs of personal greatness and few signs of interest in state affairs. The Proclamation of 1763 interdicting settlement beyond the Alleghenies irked him, for he was interested in the Ohio Company, the Mississippi Company, and other speculative western ventures. He nevertheless played a silent part in the House of Burgesses and was a thoroughly loyal subject.

But he was present when Patrick Henry introduced his resolutions against the Stamp Act in May 1765 and shortly thereafter gave token of his adherence to the cause of the colonial Whigs against the Tory ministries of England. In 1768 he told George Mason at Mount Vernon that he would take his musket on his shoulder whenever his country called him. The next spring, on April 4, 1769, he sent Mason the Philadelphia nonimportation resolutions with a letter declaring that it was necessary to resist the strokes of “our lordly masters” in England; that, courteous remonstrances to Parliament having failed, he wholly endorsed the resort to commercial warfare; and that as a last resort no man should scruple to use arms in defense of liberty. When, the following May, the royal governor dissolved the House of Burgesses, he shared in the gathering at the Raleigh, North Carolina, tavern that drew up nonimportation resolutions, and he went further than most of his neighbors in adhering to them. At that time and later he believed with most Americans that peace need not be broken.

Late in 1770 he paid a land-hunting visit to Fort Pitt, where George Croghan was maturing his plans for the proposed 14th colony of Vandalia. Washington directed his agent to locate and survey 10,000 acres adjoining the Vandalia tract, and at one time he wished to share in certain of Croghan's schemes. But the Boston Tea Party of December 1773 and the bursting of the Vandalia bubble at about the same time turned his eyes back to the East and the threatening state of Anglo-American relations. He was not a member of the Virginia committee of correspondence formed in 1773 to communicate with other colonies, but when the Virginia legislators, meeting irregularly again at the Raleigh tavern in May 1774, called for a Continental Congress, he was present and signed the resolutions. Moreover, he was a leading member of the first provincial convention or revolutionary legislature late that summer, and to that body he made a speech that was much praised for its pithy eloquence, declaring that “I will raise one thousand men, subsist them at my own expense, and march myself at their head for the relief of Boston.”

The Virginia provincial convention promptly elected Washington one of the seven delegates to the first Continental Congress. He was by this time known as a radical rather than a moderate, and in several letters of the time he opposed a continuance of petitions to the British crown, declaring that they would inevitably meet with a humiliating rejection. “Shall we after this whine and cry for relief when we have already tried it in vain?” he wrote. When the Congress met in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, he was in his seat in full uniform, and his participation in its councils marks the beginning of his national career.

His letters of the period show that, while still utterly opposed to the idea of independence, he was determined never to submit “to the loss of those valuable rights and privileges, which are essential to the happiness of every free State, and without which life, liberty, and property are rendered totally insecure.” If the ministry pushed matters to an extremity, he wrote, “more blood will be spilled on this occasion than ever before in American history.” Though he served on none of the committees, he was a useful member, his advice being sought on military matters and weight being attached to his advocacy of a nonexportation as well as nonimportation agreement. He also helped to secure approval of the Suffolk Resolves, which looked toward armed resistance as a last resort and did much to harden the king's heart against America.

Returning to Virginia in November, he took command of the volunteer companies drilling there and served as chairman of the Committee of Safety in Fairfax county. Although the province contained many experienced officers and Colonel William Byrd of Westover had succeeded Washington as commander in chief, the unanimity with which the Virginia troops turned to Washington was a tribute to his reputation and personality; it was understood that Virginia expected him to be its general. He was elected to the second Continental Congress at the March 1775 session of the legislature and again set out for Philadelphia.

The choice of Washington as commander in chief of the military forces of all the colonies followed immediately upon the first fighting, though it was by no means inevitable and was the product of partly artificial forces. The Virginia delegates differed upon his appointment. Edmund Pendleton was, according to John Adams, “very full and clear against it,” and Washington himself recommended General Andrew Lewis for the post. It was chiefly the fruit of a political bargain by which New England offered Virginia the chief command as its price for the adoption and support of the New England army. This army had gathered hastily and in force about Boston immediately after the clash of British troops and American minutemen at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. When the second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, one of its first tasks was to find a permanent leadership for this force. On June 15, Washington, whose military counsel had already proved invaluable on two committees, was nominated and chosen by unanimous vote. Beyond the considerations noted, he owed being chosen to the facts that Virginia stood with Massachusetts as one of the most powerful colonies; that his appointment would augment the zeal of the Southern people; that he had gained an enduring reputation in the Braddock campaign; and that his poise, sense, and resolution had impressed all the delegates. The scene of his election, with Washington darting modestly into an adjoining room and John Hancock flushing with jealous mortification, will always impress the historical imagination; so also will the scene of July 3, 1775, when, wheeling his horse under an elm in front of the troops paraded on Cambridge common, he drew his sword and took command of the army investing Boston. News of Bunker Hill had reached him before he was a day's journey from Philadelphia, and he had expressed confidence of victory when told how the militia had fought. In accepting the command, he refused any payment beyond his expenses and called upon “every gentleman in the room” to bear witness that he disclaimed fitness for it. At once he showed characteristic decision and energy in organizing the raw volunteers, collecting provisions and munitions, and rallying Congress and the colonies to his support.

The first phase of Washington's command covered the period from July 1775 to the British evacuation of Boston in March 1776. In those eight months he imparted discipline to the army, which at maximum strength slightly exceeded 20,000; he dealt with subordinates who, as John Adams said, quarreled “like cats and dogs”; and he kept the siege vigorously alive. Having himself planned an invasion of Canada by Lake Champlain, to be entrusted to General Philip Schuyler, he heartily approved of Benedict Arnold's proposal to march north along the Kennebec River in Maine and take Quebec. Giving Arnold 1,100 men, he instructed him to do everything possible to conciliate the Canadians. He was equally active in encouraging privateers to attack British commerce. As fast as means offered, he strengthened his army with ammunition and siege guns, having heavy artillery brought from Fort Ticonderoga, New York, over the frozen roads early in 1776. His position was at first precarious, for the Charles River pierced the center of his lines investing Boston. If the British general, Sir William Howe, had moved his 20 veteran regiments boldly up the stream, he might have pierced Washington's army and rolled either wing back to destruction. But all the generalship was on Washington's side. Seeing that Dorchester Heights, just south of Boston, commanded the city and harbor and that Howe had unaccountably failed to occupy it, he seized it on the night of March 4, 1776, placing his Ticonderoga guns in position. The British naval commander declared that he could not remain if the Americans were not dislodged, and Howe, after a storm disrupted his plans for an assault, evacuated the city on March 17. He left 200 cannons and invaluable stores of small arms and munitions. After collecting his booty, Washington hurried south to take up the defense of New York.

Washington had won the first round, but there remained five years of the war, during which the American cause was repeatedly near complete disaster. It is unquestionable that Washington's strength of character, his ability to hold the confidence of army and people and to diffuse his own courage among them, his unremitting activity, and his strong common sense constituted the chief factors in achieving American victory. He was not a great tactician: as Jefferson said later, he often “failed in the field”; he was sometimes guilty of grave military blunders, the chief being his assumption of a position on Long Island, New York, in 1776 that exposed his entire army to capture the moment it was defeated. At the outset he was painfully inexperienced, the wilderness fighting of the French war having done nothing to teach him the strategy of maneuvering whole armies. One of his chief faults was his tendency to subordinate his own judgment to that of the generals surrounding him; at every critical juncture, before Boston, before New York, before Philadelphia, and in New Jersey, he called a council of war and in almost every instance accepted its decision. Naturally bold and dashing, as he proved at Trenton, Princeton, and Germantown, he repeatedly adopted evasive and delaying tactics on the advice of his associates; however, he did succeed in keeping a strong army in existence and maintaining the flame of national spirit. When the auspicious moment arrived, he planned the rapid movements that ended the war.

One element of Washington's strength was his sternness as a disciplinarian. The army was continually dwindling and refilling, politics largely governed the selection of officers by Congress and the states, and the ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-paid forces were often half-prostrated by sickness and ripe for mutiny. Troops from each of the three sections, New England, the middle states, and the South, showed a deplorable jealousy of the others. Washington was rigorous in breaking cowardly, inefficient, and dishonest men and boasted in front of Boston that he had “made a pretty good sort of slam among such kind of officers.” Deserters and plunderers were flogged, and Washington once erected a gallows 40 feet (12 meters) high, writing, “I am determined if I can be justified in the proceeding, to hang two or three on it, as an example to others.” At the same time, the commander in chief won the devotion of many of his men by his earnestness in demanding better treatment for them from Congress. He complained of their short rations, declaring once that they were forced to “eat every kind of horse food but hay.”

The darkest chapter in Washington's military leadership was opened when, reaching New York in April 1776, he placed half his army, about 9,000 men, under Israel Putnam, on the perilous position of Brooklyn Heights, Long Island, where a British fleet in the East River might cut off their retreat. He spent a fortnight in May with the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, then discussing the question of independence; though no record of his utterances exists, there can be no doubt that he advocated complete separation. His return to New York preceded but slightly the arrival of the British army under Howe, which made its main encampment on Staten Island until its whole strength of nearly 30,000 could be mobilized. On August 22, 1776, Howe moved about 20,000 men across to Gravesend Bay on Long Island. Four days later, sending the fleet under command of his brother Admiral Richard Howe to make a feint against New York City, he thrust a crushing force along feebly protected roads against the American flank. The patriots were outmaneuvered, defeated, and suffered a total loss of 5,000 men, of whom 2,000 were captured. Their whole position might have been carried by storm, but, fortunately for Washington, General Howe delayed. While the enemy lingered, Washington succeeded under cover of a dense fog in ferrying the remaining force across the East River to Manhattan,where he took up a fortified position. The British, suddenly landing on the lower part of the island, drove back the Americans in a clash marked by disgraceful cowardice on the part of troops from Connecticut and others. In a series of actions, Washington was forced northward, more than once in danger of capture, until the loss of his two Hudson River forts, one of them with 2,600 men, compelled him to retreat from White Plains across the river into New Jersey. He retired toward the Delaware River while his army melted away, until it seemed that armed resistance to the British was about to expire.

It was at this darkest hour of the Revolution that Washington struck his brilliant blows at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, reviving the hopes and energies of the nation. Howe, believing that the American army soon would dissolve totally, retired to New York, leaving strong forces in Trenton and Burlington. Washington, at his camp west of the Delaware, planned a simultaneous attack on both posts, using his whole command of 6,000 men. But his subordinates in charge of both wings failed him, and he was left on the night of December 25, 1776, to march on Trenton with about 2,400 men. He completely surprised the unprepared Hessians and after confused street fighting killed the commander, Johann Rall, and captured nearly 1,000 prisoners, and arms and ammunition. The immediate result was that General Charles Cornwallis hastened with about 8,000 men to Trenton, where he found Washington strongly posted behind the Assunpink Creek, skirmished with him, and decided to wait overnight “to bag the old fox.”

During the night, the wind shifted, the roads froze hard, and Washington was able to steal away from camp (leaving his fires deceptively burning), march around Cornwallis's rear, and fall at daybreak upon the three British regiments at Princeton. These were put to flight with a loss of 500 men, and Washington escaped with more captured munitions to a strong position at Morristown, New Jersey. The effect of these victories heartened all Americans, brought recruits flocking to camp in the spring, and encouraged foreign sympathizers with the American cause.

Thus far the important successes had been won by Washington; then they fell to others, while he was left to face popular apathy, military cabals, and the disaffection of Congress. The year 1777 was marked by the British capture of Philadelphia and the surrender of British General John Burgoyne's invading army to General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York, followed by intrigues to displace Washington from his command. Howe's main British army of 18,000 left New York by sea on July 23, 1777, and landed on August 25 in Maryland, not far below Philadelphia. Washington, despite his inferiority of force—he had only 11,000 men, mostly militia and, in the Marquis de Lafayette's words, “badly armed and worse clothed”—risked a pitched battle on September 11 at the fords of Brandywine Creek, about 13 miles north of Wilmington, Delaware. While part of the British force held the Americans engaged, General Cornwallis, with the rest, made a secret 17-mile detour and fell with crushing effect on the American right and rear, the result being a complete defeat from which Washington was fortunate to extricate his army in fairly good order. For a time he hoped to hold the Schuylkill Fords, but the British passed them and on September 26 triumphantly marched into Philadelphia. Congress fled to the interior of Pennsylvania, and Washington, after an unsuccessful effort to repeat his stroke at Trenton against the British troops posted at Germantown, had to take up winter quarters at Valley Forge. His army, twice beaten, ill housed, and ill fed, with thousands of men “barefoot and otherwise naked,” was at the point of exhaustion; it could not keep the field, for inside of a month it would have disappeared. Under these circumstances, there is nothing that better proves the true fibre of Washington's character and the courage of his soul than the unyielding persistence with which he held his strong position at Valley Forge through a winter of semi-starvation, of justified grumbling by his men, of harsh public criticism, and of captious meddling by a Congress that was too weak to help him. In February Martha Washington arrived and helped to organize entertainment for the soldiers.

Washington's enemies seized the moment of his greatest weakness to give vent to an antagonism that had been nourished by sectional jealousies of North against South, by the ambition of small rivals, and by baseless accusations that he showed favoritism to such foreigners as Lafayette. The intrigues of Thomas Conway, an Irish adventurer who had served in the French army and had become an American general, enlisted Thomas Mifflin, Charles Lee, Benjamin Rush, and others in an attempt to displace Washington. General Gates appears to have been a tool of rather than a party to the plot, expecting that the chief command would devolve upon himself. A faction of Congress sympathized with the movement and attempted to paralyze Washington by reorganizing the board of war, a body vested with the general superintendence of operations, of which Gates became the president; his chief of staff, James Wilkinson, the secretary; and Mifflin and Timothy Pickering, members. Washington was well aware of the hostility in congress, of the slanders spread by Rush and James Lovell of Massachusetts, and of the effect of forgeries published in the American press by adroit British agents. He realized the intense jealousy of many New Englanders, which made even John Adams write his wife that he was thankful Burgoyne had not been captured by Washington, who would then “have been deified. It is bad enough as it is.” But Washington decisively crushed the cabal: after the loose tongue of Wilkinson disclosed Conway's treachery, Washington sent the general on November 9, 1777, proof of his knowledge of the whole affair.

With the conclusion of the French alliance in the spring of 1778, the aspect of the war was radically altered. The British army in Philadelphia, fearing that a French fleet would blockade the Delaware while the militia of New Jersey and Pennsylvania invested the city, hastily retreated upon New York City. Washington hoped to cut off part of the enemy and by a hurried march with six brigades interposed himself at the end of June between Sir Henry Clinton (who had succeeded Howe) and the New Jersey coast. The result was the Battle of Monmouth on June 28, where a shrewd strategic plan and vigorous assault were brought to naught by the treachery of Charles Lee. When Lee ruined the attack by a sudden order to retreat, Washington hurried forward, fiercely denounced him, and restored the line, but the golden opportunity had been lost. The British made good their march to Sandy Hook, and Washington took up his quarters at New Brunswick. Lee was arrested, court-martialed, and convicted on all three of the charges made against him; but instead of being shot, as he deserved, he was sentenced to a suspension from command for one year. The arrival of the French fleet under Admiral Charles-Hector Estaing on July 1778 completed the isolation of the British, and Clinton was thenceforth held to New York City and the surrounding area. Washington made his headquarters in the highlands of the Hudson and distributed his troops in cantonments around the city and in New Jersey.

The final decisive stroke of the war, the capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown, is to be credited chiefly to Washington's vision. With the domestic situation intensely gloomy early in 1781, he was hampered by the feebleness of Congress, the popular discouragement, and the lack of prompt and strong support by the French fleet. A French army under the Comte de Rochambeau had arrived to reinforce him in 1780, and he had pressed Admiral de Grasse to assist in an attack upon either Cornwallis in the south or Clinton in New York. In August the French admiral sent definite word that he preferred the Chesapeake, with its large area and deep water, as the scene of his operations; and within a week, on August 19, 1781, Washington marched south with his army, leaving General William Heath with 4,000 men to hold West Point. He hurried his troops through New Jersey, embarked them on transports in Delaware Bay, and landed them at Williamsburg, Virginia, where he had arrived on September 14. Cornwallis had retreated to Yorktown and entrenched his army of 7,000 British regulars. Their works were completely invested before the end of the month; the siege was pressed with vigor by the allied armies under Washington, consisting of 5,500 Continentals, 3,500 Virginia militia, and 5,000 French regulars; and on October 19 Cornwallis surrendered. By this campaign, probably the finest single display of Washington's generalship, the war was brought to a virtual close.

Washington remained during the winter of 1781–82 with the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, exhorting it to maintain its exertions for liberty and to settle the army's claims for pay. He continued these exhortations after he joined his command at Newburgh on the Hudson in April 1782. He was astounded and angered when some loose camp suggestions found expression in a letter from Colonel Lewis Nicola offering a plan by which he should use the army to make himself king. He blasted the proposal with fierce condemnation. When the discontent of his unpaid men came to a head in the circulation of the “Newburgh Address” early in 1783, he issued a general order censuring the paper and at a meeting of officers on March 15 read a speech admonishing the army to obey Congress and promising his best efforts for a redress of grievances. He was present at the entrance of the American army into New York on the day of the British evacuation, November 25, 1783, and on December 4 took leave of his closest officers in an affecting scene at Fraunces Tavern. Traveling south, on December 23, in a solemn ceremonial immortalized by the pen of William Makepeace Thackeray, he resigned his commission to the Continental Congress in the state senate chamber of Maryland in Annapolis and received the thanks of the nation. His accounts of personal expenditures during his service, kept with minute exactness in his own handwriting and totaling £24,700, without charge for salary, had been given the controller of the treasury to be discharged. Washington left Annapolis at sunrise of December 24 and before nightfall was at home in Mount Vernon.

In the next four years Washington found sufficient occupation in his estates, wishing to close his days as a gentleman farmer and to give to agriculture as much energy and thought as he had to the army. He enlarged the Mount Vernon house; he laid out the grounds anew, with sunken walls, or ha-has; and he embarked on experiments with mahogany, palmetto, pepper, and other foreign trees, and English grasses and grains. His farm manager during the Revolution, a distant relative named Lund Washington, retired in 1785 and was succeeded by a nephew, Major George Augustine Washington, who resided at Mount Vernon until his death in 1792. Washington's losses during the war had been heavy, caused by neglect of his lands, stoppage of exportation, and depreciation of paper money, which cost him hardly less than $30,000. He then attempted successfully to repair his fortunes, his annual receipts from all his estates being from $10,000 to $15,000 a year. In 1784 he made a tour of nearly 700 miles to view the wild lands he owned to the westward, Congress having made him a generous grant. As a national figure, he was constrained to offer hospitality to old army friends, visitors from other states and nations, diplomats, and Indian delegations, and he and his household seldom sat down to dinner alone.

Viewing the chaotic political condition of the United States after 1783 with frank pessimism and declaring (May 18, 1786) that “something must be done, or the fabric must fall, for it is certainly tottering,” Washington repeatedly wrote his friends urging steps toward “an indissoluble union.” At first he believed that the Articles of Confederation might be amended. Later, especially after the shock of Shays's Rebellion, he took the view that amore radical reform was necessary but doubted as late as the end of 1786 that the time was ripe. His progress toward adoption of the idea of a federal convention was, in fact, puzzlingly slow. Although John Jay assured him in March 1786 that breakup of the nation seemed near and opinion for a constitutional convention was crystallizing, Washington remained noncommittal. But, despite long hesitations, he earnestly supported the proposal for a federal impost, warning the states that their policy must decide “whether the Revolution must ultimately be considered a blessing or a curse.” And his numerous letters to the leading men of the country assisted greatly to form a sentiment favorable to a more perfect union. Some understanding being necessary between Virginia and Maryland regarding the navigation of the Potomac, commissioners from the two states had met at Mount Vernon in the spring of 1785; from this seed sprang the federal convention. Washington approved in advance the call for a gathering of all the states to meet in Philadelphia in May 1787 to “render the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.” But he was again hesitant about attending, partly because he felt tired and infirm, partly because of doubts about the outcome. Although he hoped to the last to be excused, he was chosen one of Virginia's five delegates.

Washington arrived in Philadelphia on May 13, the day before the opening of the Constitutional Convention, and as soon as a quorum was obtained he was unanimously chosen its president. For four months he presided over the convention, breaking his silence only once upon a minor question of congressional apportionment. Although he said little in debate, no one did more outside the hall to insist on stern measures. “My wish is,” he wrote, “that the convention may adopt no temporizing expedients, but probe the defects of the Constitution to the bottom, and provide a radical cure.” His weight of character did more than any other single force to bring the convention to an agreement and obtain ratification of the instrument afterward. He did not believe it perfect, though his precise criticisms of it are unknown. But his support gave it victory in Virginia, where he sent copies to Patrick Henry and other leaders with a hint that the alternative to adoption was anarchy, declaring that “it or dis-union is before us to chuse from.” He received and personally circulated copies of The Federalist. When ratification was obtained, he wrote to leaders in the various states urging that men staunchly favorable to it be elected to Congress. For a time he sincerely believed that, the new framework completed, he would be allowed to retire again to privacy. But all eyes immediately turned to him for the first president. He alone commanded the respect of both the parties engendered by the struggle over ratification, and he alone would be able to give prestige to the republic throughout Europe. In no state was any other name considered. The electors chosen in the first days of 1789 cast a unanimous vote for him, and reluctantly—for his love of peace, his distrust of his own abilities, and his fear that his motives in advocating the new government might be misconstrued all made him unwilling—he accepted.

On April 16, after receiving congressional notification of the honor, he set out from Mount Vernon, reaching New York City in time to be inaugurated on April 30. His journey northward was a celebratory procession as people in every town and village through which he passed turned out to greet him, often with banners and speeches, and in some places with triumphal arches. He came across the Hudson River in a specially built barge decorated in red, white, and blue. The inaugural ceremony was performed on Wall Street, near the spot now marked by John Quincy Adams Ward's statue of Washington. A great crowd broke into cheers as, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall, he took the oath administered by Chancellor Robert Livingston and retired indoors to read Congress his inaugural address. Washington was clad in a brown suit of American manufacture, but he wore white stockings and a sword after the fashion of European courts.

Martha was as reluctant as her husband to resume public life. But a month later she came from Mount Vernon to join him. She, too, was greeted wildly on her way. And when Washington crossed the Hudson to bring her to Manhattan, guns boomed in salute. The Washington's, to considerable public criticism, traveled about in a coach-and-four like monarchs. Moreover, during his presidency, Washington did not shake hands, and he met his guests on state occasions while standing on a raised platform and displaying a sword on his hip. Slowly, feeling his way, Washington was defining the style of the first president of a country in the history of the world. The people, too, were adjusting to a government without a king. Even the question of how to address a president had to be discussed. It was decided that in a republic the simple salutation “Mr. President” would do.

Washington's administration of the government in the next eight years was marked by the caution, the methodical precision, and the sober judgment that had always characterized him. He regarded himself as standing aloof from party divisions and emphasized his position as president of the whole country by touring first through the Northern states and later through the Southern. A painstaking inquiry into all the problems confronting the new nation laid the basis for a series of judicious recommendations to Congress in his first message. In selecting the four members of his first cabinet, Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state, Alexander Hamilton as secretary of treasury, Henry Knox as secretary of war, and Edmund Randolph as attorney general, Washington balanced the two parties evenly. But he leaned with especial weight upon Hamilton, who supported his scheme for the federal assumption of state debts, took his view that the bill establishing the Bank of the United States was constitutional, and in general favored strengthening the authority of the federal government. Distressed when the inevitable clash between Jefferson and Hamilton arose, he tried to keep harmony, writing frankly to each and refusing to accept their resignations.

But when war was declared between France and England in 1793, he took Hamilton's view that the United States should completely disregard the treaty of alliance with France and pursue a course of strict neutrality, while he acted decisively to stop the improper operations of the French minister, Edmond-Charles Genet. He had a firm belief that the United States must insist on its national identity, strength, and dignity. His object, he wrote, was to keep the country “free from political connections with every other country, to see them independent of all, and under the influence of none. In a word, I want an American character that the powers of Europe may be convinced that we act for ourselves, and not for others.” The sequel was the resignation of Jefferson at the close of 1793, the two men parting on good terms and Washington praising Jefferson's “integrity and talents.” The suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 by federal troops whom Hamilton led in person and the dispatch of John Jay to conclude a treaty of commerce with Great Britain tended further to align Washington with the federalists. Although the general voice of the people compelled him to acquiesce reluctantly to a second term in 1792 and his election that year was again unanimous, during his last four years in office he suffered from a fierce personal and partisan animosity. This culminated when the publication of the terms of the Jay Treaty, which Washington signed in August 1795, provoked a bitter discussion, and the House of Representatives called upon the president for the instructions and correspondence relating to the treaty. These Washington, who had already clashed with the Senate on foreign affairs, refused to deliver, and, in the face of an acrimonious debate, he firmly maintained his position.

Early in his first term, Washington, who by education and natural inclination was minutely careful of the proprieties of life, established the rules of a virtual republican court. In both New York and Philadelphia he rented the best houses procurable, refusing to accept the hospitality of George Clinton, for he believed the head of the nation should be no man's guest. He returned no calls and shook hands with no one, acknowledging salutations by a formal bow. He drove in a coach drawn by four or six smart horses, with outriders and lackeys in rich livery. He attended receptions dressed in a black velvet suit with gold buckles, with yellow gloves, powdered hair, a cocked hat with an ostrich plume in one hand, and a sword in a white leather scabbard. After being overwhelmed by callers, he announced that, except for a weekly levee open to all, persons desiring to see him had to make previous engagements. On Friday afternoons the first lady held informal receptions, at which the president appeared. Although the presidents of the Continental Congress had made their tables partly public, Washington, who entertained largely, inviting members of Congress in rotation, insisted that his hospitality be private. He served good wines and the menus were elaborate, but such visitors as Pennsylvania Senator William Maclay complained that the atmosphere was too “solemn.” Indeed, his simple ceremony offended many of the more radical anti-federalists, who did not share his sense of its fitness and accused the president of conducting himself like a king. But his cold and reserved manner was caused by native diffidence rather than any excessive sense of dignity.

Earnestly desiring leisure, feeling a decline of his physical powers, and wincing under abuses of the opposition, Washington refused to yield to the general pressure for a third term. This refusal was blended with a testament of sagacious advice to his country in the Farewell Address of September 19, 1796, written largely by Hamilton but remolded by Washington and expressing his ideas. Retiring in March 1797 to Mount Vernon, he devoted himself for the last two and a half years of his life to his family, farm operations, and care of his slaves. In 1798 his seclusion was briefly interrupted when the prospect of war with France caused his appointment as commander in chief of the provisional army, and he was much worried by the political quarrels over high commissions; but the war cloud passed away.

On December 12, 1799, after riding on horseback for several hours in cold and snow, he returned home exhausted and was attacked late the next day with quinsy or acute laryngitis. He was bled heavily four times and given gargles of “molasses, vinegar and butter,” and a blister of cantharides (a preparation of dried beetles) was placed on his throat, his strength meanwhile rapidly sinking. He faced the end with characteristic serenity, saying, “I die hard, but I am not afraid to go,” and later: “I feel myself going. I thank you for your attentions; but I pray you to take no more trouble about me. Let me go off quietly. I cannot last long.” After giving instructions to his secretary, Tobias Lear, about his burial, he died at 10:00 PM on December 14. The news of his death placed the entire country in mourning, and the sentiment of the country endorsed the famous words of Henry (“Light-Horse Harry”) Lee, embodied in resolutions that John Marshall introduced in the House of Representatives, that he was “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.” When the news reached Europe, the British channel fleet and the armies of Napoleon paid tribute to his memory, and many of the leaders of the time joined in according him a preeminent place among the heroes of history. His fellow citizens memorialized him forever by naming the newly created capital city of the young nation for him while he was still alive. Later, one of the states of union would bear his name—the only state named for an individual American. Moreover, counties in 32 states were given his name, and in time it also could be found in 121 postal addresses. The people of the United States have continued to glory in knowing him as “the father of his country,” an accolade he was pleased to accept, even though it pained him that he fathered no children of his own. For almost a century beginning in the 1770s, Washington was the uncontested giant in the American pantheon of greats, but only until Abraham Lincoln was enshrined there after another critical epoch in the life of the country.

Summary of Events in George Washington's life:
1. Probably named after George Eskridge who raised George Washington's mother.
2. 6' 2" and about 200 lbs.
3. George adopted his wife's two children from a previous marriage; John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis. John's grandaughter Mary Custis married Robert E. Lee. He had no children of his own.
4. He didn't cut down the cherry tree.
5. Had an irregular education in colonial Virginia. Applied his mathematical skills to learn surveying.
6. Episcopalian.
7. Played billiards, cards, fox hunted and read the newspapers of the day aloud to his wife.
8. Before marriage he courted Betsy Fauntleroy, Mary Philipse, Sally Fairfax.
9. Served in the Virginia Militia generally from 1752-1758 rising to Colonel. Commander in Chief of the Continental Army 1775-1783.
10. Surveyor of Culpepper County, Virginia.
11. House of Burgesses 1759-1774.
12. Delegate to the Continental Congress 1774-1775.
13. Elected twice as President 1789 and 1792.

George married Martha Dandridge [18575] [MRIN: 6362] on 6 Jan 1759 in St. Peters Church, New Kent County, Virginia. Martha was born on 21 Jun 1731 in New Kent County, Virginia and died on 22 May 1802 in Mt. Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia at age 70.

General Notes: Martha Dandridge Custis Washington

"I think I am more like a state prisoner than anything else, there is certain bounds set for me which I must not depart from..." So in one of her surviving letters, Martha Washington confided to a niece that she did not entirely enjoy her role as first of First Ladies. She once conceded that "many younger and gayer women would be extremely pleased" in her place; she would "much rather be at home."

But when George Washington took his oath of office in New York City on April 30, 1789, and assumed the new duties of President of the United States, his wife brought to their position a tact and discretion developed over 58 years of life in Tidewater Virginia society.

Oldest daughter of John and Frances Dandridge, she was born June 2, 1731, on a plantation near Williamsburg. Typical for a girl in an 18th-century family, her education was almost negligible except in domestic and social skills, but she learned all the arts of a well-ordered household and how to keep a family contented.

As a girl of 18--about five feet tall, dark-haired, gentle of manner--she married the wealthy Daniel Park Custis. Two babies died; two were hardly past infancy when her husband died in 1757.

From the day Martha married George Washington in 1759, her great concern was the comfort and happiness of her husband and children. When his career led him to the battlegrounds of the Revolutionary War and finally to the Presidency, she followed him bravely. Her love of private life equaled her husband's; but, as she wrote to her friend Mercy Otis Warren, " I cannot blame him for having acted according to his ideas of duty in obeying the voice of his country." As for herself, "I am still determined to be cheerful and happy, in whatever situation I may be; for I have also learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions, and not upon our circumstances."

At the President's House in temporary capitals, New York and Philadelphia, the Washingtons chose to entertain in formal style, deliberately emphasizing the new republic's wish to be accepted as the equal of the established governments of Europe. Still, Martha's warm hospitality made her guests feel welcome and put strangers at ease. She took little satisfaction in " formal compliments and empty ceremonies" and declared that "I am fond of only what comes from the heart." Abigail Adams, who sat at her right during parties and receptions, praised her as "one of those unassuming characters which create Love and Esteem."

In 1797 the Washingtons said farewell to public life and returned to their beloved Mount Vernon, to live surrounded by kinfolk, friends, and a constant stream of guests eager to pay their respects to the celebrated couple. Martha's daughter Patsy had died, her son Jack at 26, but Jack's children figured in the household. After George Washington died in 1799, Martha assured a final privacy by burning their letters; she died of "severe fever" on May 22, 1802. Both lie buried at Mount Vernon, where Washington himself had planned an unpretentious tomb for them.

   442 F    ii. Betty Washington [3839] was born in 1733 and died in 1797 at age 64.

Betty married Unknown Lewis [23453] [MRIN: 7904].

   443 M    iii. Samuel Washington [18636] was born in 1734 and died in 1781 at age 47.

+ 444 M    iv. John Augustine Washington [18687] was born in 1736.

   445 M    v. Charles Washington [18689] was born in 1738 and died in 1799 at age 61.

General Notes: Founder of Charleston, VA (WVA).

   446 F    vi. Mildred Washington [18690] was born in 1739.

Augustin next married Jane Butler [23451] [MRIN: 7902]. Jane died in 1730.

377. Mary Bland [13047] was born on 21 Aug 1704 in Prince George, Virginia and died in 1764 in Virginia at age 60.

General Notes: Left a will dated October 19, 1762; proved May 29, 1764.
SRC: "Ancient Dominion of Virginia". pg 671. History of Virginia Published 1859. See bibliography.

Mary married Col. Henry Lee [12833] [MRIN: 4285], son of Richard Lee [12823] and Laetitia Corbin [12824], in 1724 in Prince George County, Virginia. Henry was born in 1691 in Westmoreland County, Virginia, died in 1747 in Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 56, and was buried in Burnt Housefield, Lee Hall Plantation, Virginia.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Alt. Marriage: Alt. Marriage, Abt 1723, Prince William County, Virginia.

Noted events in his life were:

• Alt. Death: Alt. Death, Abt 1747.

Children from this marriage were:

   447 M    i. John Lee [12888] was born in 1724 in Westmoreland County, Virginia and died in 1767 in Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 43.

+ 448 M    ii. Richard Lee [12889] was born in 1726 in Bristol, Virginia and died in 1795 in Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 69.

   449 F    iii. Laetitia Lee [12890] was born in 1730 in Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died in 1788 in Lancaster County, Virginia at age 58.

+ 450 M    iv. Henry Lee [12885] was born in 1729 in Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia, died in 1787 in Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 58, and was buried in Washington D. C..

   451 F    v. Female Lee [12884] was born in 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

   452 F    vi. Anne Lee [12892] was born in 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

378. Elizabeth Bland [13048] was born on 29 May 1705 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

General Notes: Residence at "Blandfield", Essex County, Virginia.

Elizabeth married Col. William Beverley [13049] [MRIN: 5254], son of Col. Robert Beverley Jr. [15817] and Ursula Byrd [15818]. William was born about 1696 and died on 28 Feb 1756 about age 60.

General Notes: Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. Owned Beverley Manor in Augusta County, Virginia and leased 118,490 acres from the Fairfax family in 1736 for one pound per thousand acres a year. He was Clerk of the County between 1716 and 1745 in Essex County, Virginia; was a member of the Council between 1752 and 1755; left a will on December 3, 1755; proved May 3, 1756. Left a will on 3 dec 1755; proved 3 may 1756.

In the name of God, Amen. I, William Beverley of Blandfield in the parish of St. Ann in the county of Essex, Virginia, Esquire, being in tolerable health and of sound mind & memory do make this my last will and testament in manner and form following:
Imprimis. I do order my executors herein after named to pay all my just debts that I owe to my several creditors.
Item. I do lend unto my dear and loving wife Elizabeth during her natural life and in full consideration of her thirds dower or child’s part of all my estate real and personal and in lieu thereof all my lands and plantations in the county of Essex together with all my slaves, cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep usually kept thereon, and I also give her on the said consideration all my household goods, carts, and tools with corn belonging to the said plantation, also my household goods and plate which I now have in England, also my chair and coach if Mr. Edward Athawes has bought one for me at the time of my death as I have directed him, all this in full consideration as aforesaid.
Item. Whereas I have already given unto my son-in-law James Mills in money & slaves to the value of one thousand pounds sterling, I do therefore give and bequeath unto my dear daughter Elizabeth, now the wife of the said James Mills, and her heirs forever the further sum of five hundred pounds sterling.
Item. I give and bequeath unto my dear daughter Ursula, now the wife of William Fitzhugh, and her heirs forever the sum of five hundred pounds sterling, having also paid her said husband the sum of one thousand pounds sterling, memorandum that these legacies are in full of my said two daughters’ marriage portions.
Item. I give and bequeath unto my dear daughter Anna Beverley ( ) to be paid her on the day of her marriage or when she comes to the age of twenty-one years, whichever shall first happen, and in the meantime I order that she be maintained out of her brother’s estate.
Item. I do give and bequeath unto my dear son Robert and to his heirs forever, all the rest of my estate both real and personal and the fee simple of the estate above devised to his dear mother, but if she shall happen to depart this life before he shall attain to the age of twenty-one years (which God forbid), then and in such case I give and bequeath unto my daughter Elizabeth Mills and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever all my lands in the counties of King & Queen and Essex, and my lands called Pewmazeno situated lying and being on both sides of the mill pond of the mill commonly called Taliaferro’s Mill in the county of Caroline and now belonging to Thomas Roy and Adam Lindsey, together with one-third of all the Negroes left my wife and son, and all these lands and Negroes are to go to and descend together in manner to my dear daughter Elizabeth as aforesaid, but on expressed condition that she and her heirs shall convey unto my dear daughter Anna all their right and title of in and to my tract of land of four thousand acres called Elkwood, situated in the county of Culpepper which was settled by act of assembly in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and twenty-two and in the same manner as therein in this my will, shall give it to her, & if my said daughter Mills and her heirs shall refuse to convey it to her as aforesaid then and in such case all the said tracts of land, herein bequeathed to my dear daughter Mills to go to my dear daughter Anna & to descend in the same manner as the other lands will in this my will, be given to her as appointed to go and descend and not otherwise, and then my said dear daughter Mills to have all these lands. I shall give and bequeath to my dear daughter Anna on the same terms as I give and bequeathed in King & Queen, Essex, and Caroline to her. And in case of failure of issue of the body of my said dear daughter Mills lawfully begotten, I give and bequeath all the said lands and slaves to my dear daughter Ursula Fitzhugh and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever, and on failure of such issue I give and bequeath all the said lands and slaves to my dear daughter Anna and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever.
Item. In case of the death of the death of my dear son Robert as foresaid I give and bequeath unto my dear daughter Ursula Fitzhugh and the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever one-third of all the Negroes left my wife and son and all my lands in the county of Caroline containing about fourteen thousand one hundred and seventy-four acres commonly called Beverley Chance, be the same more or less and my lots in Port Royal and, on failure of such issue, I give the said lands and slaves unto my dear daughter Elizabeth Mills and to the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever.
Item. In case of the death of the death of my dear son Robert Beverley as foresaid, I give and bequeath unto my dear daughter Anna Beverley and to the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever one-third part of all my slaves and all my lands in the counties of Culpepper and Prince William and my lots in Falmouth & Fredericksburg and, on failure of such issue, I give the said lands, lots, and slaves to my dear daughter Elizabeth Mills & the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever and, on failure of such issue, I give the said slaves, lands, and lots to my dear daughter Ursula Fitzhugh and to the heirs of her body lawfully begotten forever.
Be it remembered that it is my intention that in all these bequests of slaves to my dear daughter, the increase of them to go, and descend in the several entails as if they had been expressly named.
Item. I desire my executors will buy for each of themselves a pair of good horses fit for coach or chair and charge my estate with their cost.
Item. I desire my executors will send to London for a neat marble tombstone and have it placed over his (Robert Beverley, his father) body at the charge of my estate, he having departed this life at Beverley Park the 21st of April 1722, new style and lies buried there.
Item. It is my desire that my body may be interred as privately as may be without any pomp or funeral sermon.
Item. I do nominate and appoint my well beloved wife and my cousin * friend John Robinson, Esq., of King & Queen, executors of this my last will and testament and guardian of my dear son Robert and my dear daughter Anna. And it is my will and desire that my son may remain under the care of Mr. Edward Athawes of London, merchant, till he thinks proper to send him unto this country. And it is also my intent that my wife is not to make up the loss or decrease of the horses, cattle, sheep, or hogs or other personal estate. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal this third day of December in the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty-five, being all written with my own hand and the several obligations also made by myself.

W. Beverley (L. S.)

Item. My will and desire is and I do empower either of my executors to sell all my lands in Augusta and Isle of Wight and add the proceeds to my personal estate.
Item. If money should be wanted for the payment of my debts and legacies before my crops & rents and other profits of my estate can raise money sufficient for the payment of them, I do hereby empower my executors to borrow enough money for the payment thereof at interest. In testimony whereof I have to this my last will and testament set my hand and seal the day and year first above written.

W. Beverley (L. S.)

Sealed & declared to be the last will and testament of the within named William Beverley by him in the presence of us.

Archibald Ritchie, Ch. Mortimer, John Corrie, James Emerson

At a general court held at the capitol the 3rd day of May 1756. This will was proved according to law by the oaths of John Corrie and James Emerson, witnesses thereto & ordered to be recorded. And, on the motion of John Robinson, Esq., one of the executors therein named who made oath according to law, certificate was granted him for obtaining a probate thereof in due form, giving security whereupon he together with Ralph Wormeley and Bernard Moore, Gent., his securities entered into and acknowledged their bond in the penalty of ten thousand pounds current money conditioned as the law directs, liberty nevertheless being reserved to Elizabeth Beverley, the executrix named in the said will to join in the probate thereof when she shall think fit.

Teste: Ben Waller, C. Cur.


Source: The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume XXII, pages 297 – 301, with the following note:
The will of William Beverley of "Blandfield", Essex county, member of the council and patentee of the great Beverley Manor tract in Augusta county has not heretofore been discovered. In the recently published abstracts of the records of Augusta county, by Judge Lyman Chalkley, it was shown that a copy of the will was recorded in a suit in that county. We are indebted to Mr. Armistead C. Gordon of Staunton, a member of the executive committee of the society, for an exact copy. It appears from this that the will was proved in the general court and destroyed by fire with the other records of that court. It is evident that when James Brown, clerk of the general court, made the copy filed in Staunton, that the original record was mutilated as the copy omits the amount of money legacy to Anna Beverley and does not give the name of the person commemorated by the tombstone which is ordered. (By the date, this person must be William’s father, Robert Beverley).




Children from this marriage were:

+ 453 F    i. Ursala Beverley [23467] was born in Essex County, Virginia.

   454 M    ii. John Beverley [23471] died in 1743.

   455 F    iii. Anna Beverley [23472] .

Anna married Col. Robert Munford [15923] [MRIN: 7920], son of Capt. Robert Munford [15873] and Anna Bland [15872].

+ 456 F    iv. Elizabeth Beverley [23473] was born on 15 Jan 1725 in "Blandfield" Essex County, Virginia and died on 3 Oct 1795 at age 70.

+ 457 M    v. Robert Beverley [23478] was born on 21 Aug 1740 in "Blandfield" Essex County, Virginia and died on 12 Apr 1800 at age 59.

379. Theodorick Bland [34307] was born on 2 Dec 1708 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in May 1790 in Amelia County, Virginia at age 81.

General Notes: Resided at "Cawson's" Prince George City County, Virginia; resided at "Kippax" Prince George City County, Virginia; left a will dated July 16, 1783 - proved October 28, 1784.

Theodorick married Elizabeth Randolph [15975] [MRIN: 11628], daughter of Edward Randolph [15879] and Elizabeth Graves [15972], about 1759.

Children from this marriage were:

   458 F    i. Patsy Bland [15934] .

+ 459 F    ii. Unknown Bland [15938] .

Theodorick next married Frances Bolling [15876] [MRIN: 5284], daughter of Capt. Drury Bolling [15877] and Elizabeth Meriwether [15926], in 1739. Frances was born in 1724 in Prince George City County, Virginia and died in 1774 at age 50.

General Notes: Descendant of Pocahontas.


Children from this marriage were:

   460 F    i. Elizabeth Bland [16046] was born on 4 Jan 1738 and died in 1788 at age 50.

Elizabeth married Col. John Banister [15939] [MRIN: 7983] in 1760. John was born on 26 Dec 1734 in Dinwiddie County, Virginia and died on 30 Sep 1788 in Dinwiddie County, Virginia at age 53.

General Notes: BANISTER, John, a Delegate from Virginia; born at “Hatcher’s Run,” near Petersburg, Dinwiddie County, Va., December 26, 1734; attended a private school at Wakefield, England, and was graduated in law from the Temple in London; returned to Virginia and commenced the practice of law in Petersburg; also engaged as a planter; member of the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1765, 1766-1774, and 1775; member of the conventions of 1775 and 1776; served in the State house of delegates in 1776, 1777, and 1781-1783; Member of the Continental Congress in 1778; one of the framers and signers of the Articles of Confederation; during the Revolutionary War served as major and lieutenant colonel of the Virginia Militia; died on his estate, “Hatcher’s Run,” near Petersburg, Dinwiddie County, Va., on September 30, 1788; interment in the family burying ground on his estate.

SRC: Congressional Library

   461 M    ii. Col. Theodorick Bland [16043] was born on 21 Mar 1742 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia, died on 2 Jun 1790 in New York City, New York at age 48, and was buried in Trinity Churchyard, New York/Reinternment Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D. C..

General Notes: Theodorick Bland was a descendant of Pocahontas on his mother's side. He was sent abroad for schooling and in 1763 graduated from the University of Edinburgh as a medical doctor. Bland practiced medicine in Virginia from 1764 until ill-health forced him to give quit in 1771. After his retirement he became an active patriot and in June 1775 Bland, along with 23 others, helped to removed arms from the governor's palace in Williamsburg. In June 1776 Bland became a Captain in the first troop of Virginia Cavalry, going on to become a Colonel in the 1st Continental Dragoons.

At the Battle of Brandywine Bland commanded light cavalry troops. Bland's cavalry were among the few horseman available to Washington for scouting purposes on the day of the battle. Some blamed the American defeat at Brandywine on Bland's poor scouting abilities, especially Light Horse Harry Lee would held Bland responsible. Some accounts of the battle portray Bland as slow in reporting enemy movements to Washington. Bland had responsibilities covering Washington's right flank where Cornwallis crossed the river and captured a small community before Washington was notified.

Henry Lee summed it up, "Colonel Bland was noble, sensible, honorable, and amiable; but never intended for the department of military intelligence."

Nephew of Richard Bland; uncle of John Randolph of Roanoke; served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; delegate to Congress from Virginia, 1780-83; at large delegate, 1789-90; died in office 1790.
------------
By the Spring of 1790 many American politicians had cause to worry about the survival of the Union to which they had devoted their careers. Southerners remained angry over their inability to establish the capital on the Potomac and the northern demand that the federal government assume all state debts. Northerners expressed their frustrations openly especially after the House rejected assumption on April 12. This letter was written before that House vote and it should give the reader a feel for the times and concerns of the involved.

Transcript of one of Theodorick Bland's last letters written March 6, 1790 to St. George Tucker.

My dear Sir.
I was yesterday favored with your agreeable letter enclosing two for the Boys which I delivered to them - I have the satisfaction to inform you they are both well - I am myself just risen from a fit of the Gout which attacked me a day or two before the Attorney General left this place, and exerted its utmost violence on my hands, feet and knees and elbows for about ten days it has however spared my head - and I thank God has left that in a Better Situation than it has been for twelve months preceding - so that it is now more than four weeks since I have been obliged to bleed or Cup - thus do I begin to entertain hopes that I shall again enjoy good health - thus much for myself - The federal Councils move with a Slow and Cautious step - but a Politician of no great depth may easily see what it is likely to be the Issue of the Fiscal arrangements of the Present System - Absorption of revenue will Certainly follow Assumption of debt - so that our State governments will have little else to do than to eat drink and be merry - all this I think I foresaw would be the case for how are states to be managed who have not nor ever will make any exertions to pay the debts contracted in a common cause - while the Citizens of others are taxed up to the teeth for that purpose - again Consolidation follows power - power has been given with a liberal hand - how then is consolidation to be with held - some feeble attempts to keeps it back may now be made by those who gave the power - but I see tis in vain it may be a sort of apology for the moments of Liberality but what avails it - I see I must either go with the tide of Power or become again a Rebel - which is the best at my time of life? You wish to have the secretary's budget - it is too large to enclose in a letter - and I have only one which is my Text Book in Congress - But by this time the Atty. Genl & Mr. Blair are arrived and they carried each a copy out to Encompass the Assumption and funding of the State debts of this there were no more copies Struck but sufficient for the members of both houses - it consists of additional Signposts on Pepper Salt Rum Wine Sugar Melasses etc etc. to a little more than one Million - I have enclosed yu the last Paper - tis but a Barren one but may be Interesting to you as you will see the roll of the Regt. of Lawyers enlisted to serve at the federal Bar - I have written an Answer to Mr. Wickham the Lawyer - I wish you wd. ask him to let you look at it - if anything is wanting - I shd be glad you wd point out it to him, which as a party to the Suit I think you may do consistent with yr Character as a Judge - my love to the Boys & Girls and believe me to be yr affect. Friend & Sert.

Theodorick Bland

P.S. we are told her that poor Grayson is so ill on the road that his life despaird of=shd. he die - I mean to become a candidate to be his successor in the Senate - if you can give me a lift with your Honble. Friends in the Executive-Shd. that event take place I shall Esteem it a favor - but do not mention this Subject unless the Event sahd. actually take place.

Theodorick married Martha Dangerfield [16045] [MRIN: 7979]. Martha was born in 1742 and died in 1804 in France at age 62.

+ 462 F    iii. Anne Bland [15927] was born in 1748 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

   463 F    iv. Jane Bland [13041] was born on 30 Sep 1749.

Jane married Herbert Harris [15940] [MRIN: 5312].

+ 464 F    v. Frances Bland [15959] was born on 24 Sep 1752 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died on 18 Jan 1788 in Matoax, Virginia at age 35.

   465 F    vi. Mary Bland [13039] was born in 1754.

Mary married William Ruffin [15941] [MRIN: 5311]. William was born in 1755.

380. Lt. Richard Bland [13046] was born on 6 May 1710 and died on 26 Oct 1776 at age 66.

General Notes: Educated at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia. Resided at Jordan's Point, Prince George City County, Virginia. Was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses between 1742 and 1775; was a member of the First Continental Congress in 1775.

Richard married Elizabeth Blair [15869] [MRIN: 5267], daughter of Archibald Blair [15870] and Sarah Archer [15871].

Richard next married Anne Pothyress [12883] [MRIN: 4338], daughter of Peter Poythress [15866] and Unknown, on 21 Mar 1729. Anne was born in 1712 and died in 1758 at age 46.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 466 M    i. Richard Bland [13050] was born on 20 Feb 1730 and died on 25 Jan 1786 at age 55.

   467 F    ii. Elizabeth Bland [34247] was born on 17 Mar 1732.

Elizabeth married Peter Poythress [34248] [MRIN: 11605].

+ 468 F    iii. Anne Bland [34255] was born on 15 Aug 1735 and died in 1782 at age 47.

   469 M    iv. Peter Randolph Bland [34257] was born on 2 Feb 1736 and died on 16 Feb 1781 at age 45.

Peter married Judith Booker [34258] [MRIN: 11609] on 26 Nov 1761 in Amelia County, Virginia.

+ 470 M    v. John Bland [34259] was born on 19 Oct 1739 and died in 1777 at age 38.

   471 F    vi. Mary Bland [34244] was born on 5 Feb 1740 and died about 1741 about age 1.

General Notes: Died in infancy.

   472 M    vii. William Bland [34264] was born on 26 Dec 1742.

   473 M    viii. Theodorick Bland [34251] was born on 28 Sep 1744 and died in 1754 at age 10.

   474 M    ix. Edward Bland [34252] was born on 16 Dec 1746 and died about 1797 about age 51.

Edward married Elizabeth Cooke [34253] [MRIN: 11607].

   475 F    x. Sarah Bland [34245] was born on 30 Sep 1750 and died on 13 May 1807 at age 56.

Sarah married Col. Robert Goode III [34246] [MRIN: 11604].

   476 F    xi. Susan Bland [34254] was born on 20 Feb 1752 and died about 1753 about age 1.

   477 F    xii. Lucy Bland [34249] was born on 22 Sep 1754.

Lucy married Jacob Rubsamen [34250] [MRIN: 11606] on 31 May 1780. Jacob died about May 1792 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

Richard next married Martha Macon [15867] [MRIN: 4336], daughter of William Macon [15868] and Unknown, on 1 Jan 1759.

381. Anna Bland [15872] was born on 25 Feb 1712.

Anna married Capt. Robert Munford [15873] [MRIN: 5282], son of Robert Munford [15922] and Unknown.

Children from this marriage were:

   478 M    i. Col. Robert Munford [15923] .

Robert married Anna Beverley [23472] [MRIN: 7920], daughter of Col. William Beverley [13049] and Elizabeth Bland [13048].

   479 F    ii. Elizabeth Munford [15924] .

   480 M    iii. Theodorick Munford [15925] .

Anna next married George Currie [15874] [MRIN: 5283].

Children from this marriage were:

   481 F    i. Anna Currie [34297] .

   482 F    ii. Margaret Currie [34298] .

382. William Randolph [16035] was born in 1711 in Turkey Island Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died in 1761 at age 50.

General Notes: Member of the House of Burgesses, Virginia from 1758 to 1761.

Residence at "Wilton", Henrico County, Virginia.

William married Anne Carlin Harrison [16340] [MRIN: 5437], daughter of Benjamin Harrison IV [16341] and Anne Carter [19109], in 1735 in Virginia. Anne was born in 1713.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 327)

384. Elizabeth Randolph [16031] was born in Oct 1715.

Elizabeth married Col. John Chiswell [16337] [MRIN: 5434], son of Charles Chiswell [16350] and Unknown, in May 1736 in Williamsburg, Virginia. John died in Oct 1766.

General Notes: A metallurgist residing at Scotchtown, Hanover County, Virginia. Member of the House of Burgesses from 1744 - 1758 Virginia.


The child from this marriage was:

   483 F    i. Susan Chiswell [17214] .

Susan married John Robinson [16025] [MRIN: 7912], son of John Robinson [15970] and Catherine Beverley [15952], on 21 Dec 1759. John was born on 3 Feb 1704 in Virginia and died on 11 May 1766 in Virginia at age 62.

385. Col. Peter Randolph [16034] was born in Oct 1717 and died in Jul 1767 in Chatesworth, Henrico County, Virginia at age 49.

General Notes: Attorney General for Virginia; Clerk of the House of Burgesses; Surveyor General of Customs; Justice in 1741; Treasurer for Virginia in 1751; member of the Council of Virginia 1764.

Peter married Lucy Bolling [16338] [MRIN: 5435], daughter of Robert Bolling [16351] and Anne Cocke [16352], in Jul 1738. Lucy was born on 3 May 1719.

General Notes: Residence at Chatesworth, Henrico County, Virginia.


Children from this marriage were:

   484 F    i. Mary Ann Randolph [16353] was born in 1747 and died in 1805 at age 58.

Mary married Col. William Fitzhugh [16357] [MRIN: 5442], son of Henry Fitzhugh [16358] and Lucy Carter [16359], in 1763. William was born in 1741 and died in 1809 at age 68.

   485 M    ii. William Randolph [16354] died in Nov 1774.

William married Mary Skipwith [16360] [MRIN: 5444], daughter of Sir William Skipwith [16361] and Elizabeth Smith [16362], in 1767.

   486 M    iii. Gov. Beverley Randolph [16355] was born in Sep 1753 in Chatsworth, Henrico County, Virginia, died in 1797 in "Green Creek", Cumberland County, Virginia at age 44, and was buried in Westview Cemetery, Farmville, Virginia.

General Notes: He was a member of the Council of Virginia; Lt. Governor of Virginia; delegate to the Legislature 1777 to 1780; Commander of Cavalry Regiment in Gen. Lawson's Brigade in 1780; Governor from 1788 to 1791.

Beverley married Martha Cocke [16363] [MRIN: 5446], daughter of James Cocke [16364] and Catherine Browne [16365], in Feb 1775.

+ 487 M    iv. Col. Robert Randolph [16356] was born in 1760 in Virginia and died on 12 Sep 1825 in Virginia at age 65.

387. Col. William Randolph [15979] was born in 1713 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died in Sep 1745 in Virginia at age 32.

General Notes: Colonel William Randolph.

William married Maria Judith Page [15982] [MRIN: 5320], daughter of Mann Page [16346] and Judith Wormley [16347], about 1734.

Children from this marriage were:

   488 F    i. Maria Judith Randolph [15983] .

Maria married Edmund Berkeley [34167] [MRIN: 11564], son of Edmund Berkeley [34168] and Mary Nelson [34169], on 5 Nov 1757. Edmund was born on 5 Dec 1730 and died on 8 Jul 1802 at age 71.

+ 489 F    ii. Mary Randolph [15984] was born about 1739 in Goochland County, Virginia.

+ 490 M    iii. Thomas Mann Randolph [34238] was born about 1741 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1793 about age 52.

389. Judith Randolph [15981] .

Judith married Rev. William Stith [34173] [MRIN: 11569], son of John Stith [15955] and Mary Randolph [15953], on 17 May 1738 in Goochland County, VA.

General Notes: President of the College of William and Mary.


Children from this marriage were:

   491 F    i. Elizabeth Stith [34299] .

   492 F    ii. Judith Stith [34300] .

   493 F    iii. Polly Stith [34301] .

390. Jane Randolph [15910] was born in 1720 in London, England and died in 1776 at age 56.

Jane married Col. Peter Jefferson [15911] [MRIN: 5281], son of Thomas Jefferson [16367] and Mary Field [16368], on 3 Oct 1739 in Goochland County, Virginia. Peter was born on 29 Feb 1708 in Osborne's, Chesterfield, Virginia and died on 17 Aug 1757 at age 49.

General Notes: Death date per "The History of Albemarle County, Virginia" published by The Michie Company, 1901.


Children from this marriage were:

   494 F    i. Jane Jefferson [18031] was born in 1740 and died in 1765 at age 25.

+ 495 F    ii. Mary Jefferson [18032] was born in 1741 and died in 1817 at age 76.

+ 496 M    iii. 3rd President Thomas Jefferson [15912] was born on 13 Apr 1743 in Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia and died on 4 Jul 1826 in Monticello, Virginia at age 83.

   497 F    iv. Elizabeth Jefferson [18033] was born in 1744 and died in 1773 at age 29.

+ 498 F    v. Martha Jefferson [18034] was born in 1746 and died in 1811 at age 65.

   499 M    vi. Peter Field Jefferson [18035] was born in 1748 and died in 1748.

   500 M    vii. N. N. Jefferson [18036] was born in 1750 and died in 1750.

   501 F    viii. Lucy Jefferson [18037] was born in 1752.

Lucy married Charles Lilburn Lewis [18042] [MRIN: 6080].

   502 F    ix. Anna Scott Jefferson [18038] was born in 1755 and died in 1828 at age 73.

Anna married Hastings Marks [18043] [MRIN: 6081].

   503 M    x. Randolph Jefferson [18039] was born in 1755 and died in 1815 at age 60.

Randolph married Anna Lewis [18044] [MRIN: 6082].

393. Thomas Isham Randolph [15988] .

General Notes: SRC: Birth Record from the Register of St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia (William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol 15, No. 2, pgs 113-123)

Thomas married Jane Cary [30141] [MRIN: 10125], daughter of Col. Archibald Cary [34235] and Mary Randolph [16004].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 504 M    i. Isham Randolph [30142] was born on 27 Mar 1771 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   505 M    ii. Thomas Randolph [30143] was born on 27 Mar 1771 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 5 Nov 1811 in Tippecanoe Battle, Indiana at age 40.

+ 506 M    iii. Archibald Cary Randolph [30144] was born in 1769 in Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1813 at age 44.

+ 507 F    iv. Mary Randolph [30145] was born on 1 Feb 1773 in Ampthill, Chesterfield County, Virginia.

398. Susannah Randolph [15993] .

Susannah married Carter Henry Harrison [11213] [MRIN: 3758] on 7 Nov 1760 in Goochland County, Virginia.

The child from this marriage was:

   508 F    i. Betty Harrison [30130] was born in 1764 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

401. Richard Randolph [16002] was born about 1715 in Curles Neck Plantation, Henrico County, Virginia and died on 6 Jun 1786 about age 71.

Richard married Anne Meade [16008] [MRIN: 5322].

Children from this marriage were:

   509 M    i. Richard Randolph [23492] .

Richard married Maria Beverley [23491] [MRIN: 7931], daughter of Robert Beverley [23478] and Maria Carter [23479], on 1 Dec 1785. Maria was born on 15 Dec 1764 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 2 Oct 1824 in Williamsburg, James City County, Virginia at age 59.

   510 M    ii. David Meade Randolph [34159] .

David married Mary "Mollie" Randolph [17200] [MRIN: 11556], daughter of Thomas Mann Randolph [34238] and Anne Cary [34237], on 11 Dec 1780 in Goochland County, VA. Mary was born on 9 Aug 1762 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   511 M    iii. Brett Randolph [16011] .

Brett married Lucy Beverley [23498] [MRIN: 7935], daughter of Robert Beverley [23478] and Maria Carter [23479], on 21 Nov 1789. Lucy was born on 24 Feb 1771 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia, died in 1854 in Oakleigh, Greensboro, Alabama at age 83, and was buried in Oakleigh, Greensboro, Alabama.

   512 M    iv. Ryland Randolph [16012] .

+ 513 F    v. Susan Randolph [16013] .

+ 514 F    vi. Jane Randolph [16014] .

   515 F    vii. Anne Randolph [16015] .

Anne married Brett Randolph [34213] [MRIN: 11586] on 7 May 1782 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA.

   516 F    viii. Elizabeth Randolph [16016] .

Elizabeth married David Meade [34214] [MRIN: 11587] on 1 Mar 1789 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA.

   517 F    ix. Sarah Randolph [16017] .

Sarah married William Mewburn [34215] [MRIN: 11588] on 20 Jan 1814 in Powhatan County, Virginia.

   518 F    x. Mary Randolph [16018] .

Mary married William Bolling [34216] [MRIN: 11589], son of Thomas Bolling [34217] and Unknown, on 23 Feb 1789 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA.

402. Mary Randolph [16004] was born on 21 Nov 1727 and died on 5 Nov 1781 at age 53.

Mary married Col. Archibald Cary [34235] [MRIN: 11598], son of Henry Cary [34236] and Unknown. Archibald was born in 1721 in Goochland County, VA and died in 1785 in Chesterfield County, Virginia at age 64.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 519 F    i. Anne Cary [34237] died on 6 Mar 1789.

+ 520 F    ii. Jane Cary [30141] .

   521 F    iii. Elizabeth Cary [15985] was born in 1769.

Elizabeth married Robert Kincaid [17199] [MRIN: 5784] on 5 Jul 1787 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

   522 F    iv. Mary Cary [34239] .

Mary married Carter Page [34240] [MRIN: 11601] on 4 Apr 1783 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

+ 523 F    v. Sarah Cary [34241] .

403. Jane Randolph [16003] was born about 1730.

Jane married Anthony Walke [16029] [MRIN: 5324].

The child from this marriage was:

   524 M    i. Anthony Walke [16030] .

404. Brett Randolph [15945] was born about 1732 in England and died about 1759 in England about age 27.

Brett married Mary Scott [15946] [MRIN: 5306].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 525 M    i. Henry Randolph [15947] .

+ 526 M    ii. Brett Randolph [16027] .

   527 F    iii. Susanna Randolph [16028] .

405. John Randolph [15960] was born about 1742 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in Oct 1775 about age 33.

General Notes: John Randolph of Matoax.

John married Frances Bland [15959] [MRIN: 5316], daughter of Theodorick Bland [34307] and Frances Bolling [15876], on 9 Mar 1769 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia. Frances was born on 24 Sep 1752 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died on 18 Jan 1788 in Matoax, Virginia at age 35.

General Notes: Frances Bland was sixteen when she married John Randolph, eleven years her senior. They resided at Matoax Plantation in Chesterfield County, Virginia which held over a thousand acres. John Randolph died October 1775 after only six years of marriage.

Frances later married St. George Tucker of Bermuda and his family wished for them to live there. Frances had two large plantations to manage (Bizzare and Cawson's) so they stayed in Virginia.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 528 M    i. Richard Randolph [15965] was born on 9 May 1770 in Virginia and died in 1796 at age 26.

   529 M    ii. Theodorick Bland Randolph [15966] was born in Jan 1771 and died on 14 Feb 1792 at age 21.

   530 M    iii. John Randolph [15967] was born on 2 Jun 1773 in Cawsons, Prince George County, Virginia, died on 24 May 1833 in Roanoke Plantation, Virginia at age 59, and was buried in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

General Notes: born June 2, 1773, Prince George County, Va. [U.S.]
died May 24, 1833, Philadelphia, Pa.

American political leader who was an important proponent of the doctrine of states' rights in opposition to a strong centralized government.

A descendant of notable colonial families of Virginia as well as of the Indian princess Pocahontas, Randolph distinguished himself from a distant relative by assuming the title John Randolph of Roanoke, where he established his home in 1810.

In 1799 Randolph was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and he served in that legislative body almost continuously until 1829. His political rise was so rapid that by 1801 he was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee and leader of the Jeffersonian Republicans in Congress. His debating skill and biting sarcasm made him a feared opponent through the years, and he anticipated the states'-rights theories of John C. Calhoun by passionately defending state sovereignty on every occasion. He thus opposed a national bank, protective tariffs, federally financed internal improvements (such as roads and canals), and federal interference with the institution of slavery—though he freed his own bondsmen in his will.

After his failure as manager of the impeachment trial of Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase in 1804–05, in addition to his opposition to President Thomas Jefferson's efforts to acquire Florida, Randolph drifted away from the Jeffersonian Republican Party. He returned to national prominence in 1820 when he represented Southern planters in resisting the Missouri Compromise, which outlawed slavery in new western territory north of the 36°30´ parallel. During those years, when party feelings ran high, Randolph's denunciation of Henry Clay's support of John Quincy Adams for the presidency in the disputed election of 1824–25 led him into a duel with Clay from which both emerged unscathed.

He served briefly in the Senate (1825–26) and three years later was a prominent member of the convention that drafted a new Virginia constitution. In 1830 President Andrew Jackson sent him on a special mission to Russia, but ill health forced him to return to the United States after only a few weeks at his post.

John Randolph the Orator.

Noted events in his life were:

• Political Career: U. S. Representative from Virginia, 1799 - 1813, 1815 -17, 1819 - 25
15th District 1807 - 13, 16th District 1815 - 17, 1819 - 21, 5th District 1821 - 25, 1827 - 29. Died in Office 1833.

U. S. Senator from Virginia 1825 - 27
U. S. Minister to Russia 1830

406. Rev. William Stith [34173] .

General Notes: President of the College of William and Mary.

William married Judith Randolph [15981] [MRIN: 11569], daughter of Thomas Randolph [15950] and Judith Fleming [15978], on 17 May 1738 in Goochland County, VA.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 389)

407. John Stith [15957] .

John married Elizabeth Anderson [15956] [MRIN: 11571], daughter of Rev. Charles Anderson [34176] and Frances Unknown [34177].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 531 M    i. Maj. Anderson Stith [34220] .

John next married Mary Fleming [34302] [MRIN: 11623], daughter of Tarelton Fleming [34303] and Mary Page [34304].

The child from this marriage was:

   532 F    i. Judith Stith [34305] .

Judith married John Maynard [34306] [MRIN: 11625]. John was born in Halifax County, Virginia.

408. Mary Randolph Stith [15958] .

Mary married William Dawson [34178] [MRIN: 11573].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 533 M    i. Unknown Dawson [34308] .

   534 F    ii. Mary Dawson [34309] died in 1787.

Mary married Ludwell Grymes [34311] [MRIN: 11626], son of John Grymes [34186] and Lucy Ludwell [34187], in 1756. Ludwell was born in 1733 and died in 1795 at age 62.

411. John Randolph [15996] was born in 1727 in Virginia and died on 30 Jun 1784 in London, England at age 57.

John married Ariana Jennings [15998] [MRIN: 5321], daughter of Edmund Jennings [34182] and Arianna Vanderhuyden [34183]. Ariana was born in 1727 in Virginia and died in 1801 at age 74.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 535 M    i. Edmund Jennings Randolph [15999] was born on 10 Aug 1753 in Tazewell, Williamsburg, Virginia and died on 12 Sep 1813 in Clark County, Virginia at age 60.

   536 F    ii. Arianna Randolph [16268] was born about 1755 in Tazewell Hall, Williamsburg, Virginia.

   537 F    iii. Susan Randolph [16000] was born in 1755.

   538 F    iv. Sarah Randolph [16267] was born in 1757 in Tazewell Hall, Williamsburg, Virginia.

   539 F    v. Ariana Randolph [16001] was born in 1760.

412. Mary Randolph [15997] .

Mary married Philip Grymes [34185] [MRIN: 11578], son of John Grymes [34186] and Lucy Ludwell [34187].

Children from this marriage were:

   540 M    i. John Grymes [34188] .

   541 F    ii. Lucy Grymes [34189] .

   542 M    iii. Philip Ludwell Grymes [34190] .

Philip married Elizabeth Randolph [34191] [MRIN: 11580].

   543 M    iv. John Randolph Grymes [34192] .

   544 M    v. Charles Grymes [34193] .

   545 M    vi. Benjamin Grymes [34194] .

+ 546 F    vii. Susanna Grymes [34195] was born in 1751 and died on 7 Jul 1788 at age 37.

   547 F    viii. Mary Grymes [34197] .

   548 M    ix. Peyton Grymes [34198] .

   549 F    x. Betty Grymes [34199] .

413. Elizabeth Randolph [15975] .

Elizabeth married Rev. William Yates [23563] [MRIN: 7966].

General Notes: President of William and Mary College.


Children from this marriage were:

   550 M    i. William Yates [15875] .

   551 F    ii. Susanna Yates [15878] .

   552 F    iii. Clara Yates [34312] .

   553 F    iv. Lucy Yates [34313] .

Elizabeth next married Theodorick Bland [34307] [MRIN: 11628], son of Richard Bland [13024] and Elizabeth Randolph [13027], about 1759. Theodorick was born on 2 Dec 1708 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in May 1790 in Amelia County, Virginia at age 81.

General Notes: Resided at "Cawson's" Prince George City County, Virginia; resided at "Kippax" Prince George City County, Virginia; left a will dated July 16, 1783 - proved October 28, 1784.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 379)

415. Edward Randolph [15974] .

Edward married Lucy Harrison [23544] [MRIN: 7965], daughter of Benjamin Harrison [23565] and Susan Randolph [16013].

The child from this marriage was:

   554 M    i. Harrison Randolph [23566] .

Harrison married Elizabeth Starke [23567] [MRIN: 7969].

Harrison next married Mary Jones [23568] [MRIN: 7970].

416. Elizabeth Randolph [15975] .

Elizabeth married Rev. William Yates [23563] [MRIN: 7966].

General Notes: President of William and Mary College.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 413)

Elizabeth next married Theodorick Bland [34307] [MRIN: 11628], son of Richard Bland [13024] and Elizabeth Randolph [13027], about 1759. Theodorick was born on 2 Dec 1708 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in May 1790 in Amelia County, Virginia at age 81.

General Notes: Resided at "Cawson's" Prince George City County, Virginia; resided at "Kippax" Prince George City County, Virginia; left a will dated July 16, 1783 - proved October 28, 1784.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 379)

421. Henry Randolph [16073] was born in Feb 1721 in Henrico County, Virginia and died in Apr 1771 at age 50.

General Notes: Will of Henry Randolph; dated June 17, 1769 gives to son John Randolph 1,000 actes on which they live; gives William Randolph land called Rich Neck; gives Thomas Randolph all of his lands in Amelia County; son Robert gets 500 pounds, son Richard 500 pounds. -Chesterfield County, Virginia-

Henry married Tabitha Poythress [16077] [MRIN: 5332], daughter of Robert Poythress [16088] and Unknown, about 1742. Tabitha was born in 1725 and died in 1805 at age 80.

Children from this marriage were:

   555 M    i. John Randolph [16078] .

   556 M    ii. William Randolph [16079] .

   557 M    iii. Peter Randolph [16080] .

   558 M    iv. Thomas Randolph [16081] .

   559 M    v. Robert Randolph [16082] .

   560 M    vi. Richard Randolph [16083] .

+ 561 F    vii. Mary Randolph [16084] .

+ 562 F    viii. Elizabeth Randolph [16085] was born about 1745 in Amelia County, Virginia.

425. Lydia Royce [19052] was born on 28 May 1680 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut and died c1750 at age 70.

Lydia married Daniel Messenger [19053] [MRIN: 6544] on 28 Jan 1704 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut. Daniel was born c1683 in Queen's, New York and died in 1751 in Harwinton, CT at age 68.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 563 F    i. Susannah Messenger [19054] was born on 30 Nov 1704 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut.

426. John Harry [18999] .

John married Unknown [19000] [MRIN: 6519].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 564 F    i. Miriam Harry [19001] died on 19 Mar 1809.

427. Mary Porter [18611] was born about 1638 in Felstead, Essex, England and died on 16 Dec 1681 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT about age 43.

Mary married Samuel Grant [18612] [MRIN: 6381] on 27 May 1656. Samuel was born on 12 Nov 1631 in Dorchester, Massachusetts and died on 10 Sep 1718 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT at age 86.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 565 M    i. Samuel Grant Jr [18613] was born in 1659 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT and died on 8 May 1710 at age 51.

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428. John Bowen [18158] was born on 1 Sep 1662 and died on 24 Nov 1718 at age 56.

John married Hannah Brewer [18159] [MRIN: 6142] in 1696. Hannah was born on 5 Jul 1665.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 566 F    i. Abigail Bowen [18160] was born on 5 Jul 1700 and died on 16 Sep 1775 at age 75.

429. Rutherford Hayes [18239] was born on 29 Jul 1756 in Branford, New Haven, CT and died on 25 Sep 1836 in West Brattleboro, Windham County, Vermont at age 80.

Rutherford married Chloe Smith [18240] [MRIN: 6184]. Chloe was born on 10 Nov 1762 in South Hadley, Massachusetts and died on 17 Feb 1847 in Brattleboro, Vermont at age 84.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 567 M    i. Rutherford Hayes [18241] was born on 4 Jan 1787 in Brattleboro, Vermont and died on 20 Jul 1822 in Delaware, Delaware County, Ohio at age 35.

430. John Scott Harrison [19081] was born on 4 Oct 1804 in Vincennes, Indiana and died on 25 May 1878 in Point Farm, North Bend, Ohio at age 73.

John married Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin [19082] [MRIN: 6558]. Elizabeth was born on 18 Jul 1810 in Mercerburg, Pennsylvania and died on 15 Aug 1850 in North Bend, Ohio at age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

   568 M    i. 23rd President Benjamin Harrison [19083] was born on 20 Aug 1833 in North Bend, Ohio and died on 13 Mar 1901 in Indianapolis, Indiana at age 67.

General Notes: born Aug. 20, 1833, North Bend, Ohio, U.S.
died March 13, 1901, Indianapolis, Ind.

23rd president of the United States (1889–93), a moderate Republican who won an electoral majority while losing the popular vote by more than 95,000 to Democrat Grover Cleveland. Harrison signed into law the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), the first legislation to prohibit business combinations in restraint of trade.

Harrison was the son of John Scott Harrison, a farmer, and Elizabeth Irwin Harrison and grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison (elected 1840). In 1852 he graduated with distinction from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and the following year he married Caroline Lavinia Scott, with whom he had two children. In 1854, after two years studying law, Harrison moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, to establish his own practice. Ignoring his father's contention that “none but knaves should ever enter the political arena,” Harrison found in Indianapolis an inviting arena for his political ambitions, especially in the newly formed Republican Party. He served in the Civil War as an officer in the Union army, finally reaching the rank of brevet brigadier general. Resuming his law practice after the war, Harrison supported the Reconstruction policies of the Radical Republicans. He failed to win the governorship of Indiana in 1876, but in 1881 he was elected to the United States Senate. As senator, Harrison defended the interests of homesteaders and Native Americans against the railroads, supported generous pensions for ex-soldiers, and fought for civil-service reform and a moderately protective tariff.

Harrison was a kindly man of stout principle who possessed a keen intellect and a phenomenal memory. He could captivate an audience with stirring oratory and unhinge his opponents with a cold, discerning eye. On many occasions he willingly sacrificed valuable political support rather than abandon his convictions—as in 1882, when he opposed the Chinese Exclusion Act on the ground that it would abrogate rights guaranteed to the Chinese by the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. A deeply religious man—he was an elder in the Presbyterian church for 40 years — Harrison was known before, during, and after his years of public service as a man of moral courage.

Nominated for the presidency by the Republicans in 1888, he lost the popular vote by 5,444,337 to Cleveland's 5,540,309 but won the election by outpolling Cleveland in the electoral college by 233 electoral votes to Cleveland's 168. Harrison's victory in the electoral college owed much to lavish spending by his campaign in the crucial swing states of New York and Indiana.

Harrison's administration was marked by an innovative foreign policy and expanding American influence abroad. His secretary of state, James G. Blaine, presided over the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, D.C. (1889–90), which established the International Union of American Republics (later called the Pan-American Union) for the exchange of cultural and scientific information. In addition, Blaine successfully resisted pressure from Germany and Great Britain to abandon American interests in the tripartite protectorate over the Samoan Islands (1889), and he negotiated a treaty with Great Britain to refer to arbitration a long-standing controversy over the hunting of seals in the Bering Sea (1892). The administration also concluded treaties of commercial reciprocity with a number of foreign governments. In February 1893, after an American-led coup toppled Queen Liliuokalani in the Hawaiian Islands, Harrison placed a treaty of annexation before the Senate, but Democrats blocked ratification for the remainder of Harrison's term.

In 1890 Republicans controlled both houses of Congress, but an economic depression in the agrarian West and South led to pressure for legislation that conservative Republicans normally resisted. The result was an accommodation in which conservatives gained the McKinley Tariff Act (1890), which substantially raised duties on most imports, but yielded to agrarians and reformers in measures such as the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), which outlawed “every contract, combination ... or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce,” and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of the same year, which required the government to buy 4.5 million ounces of the metal every month. Farmers and debtors in the Free Silver Movement had long advocated a bimetallic (gold and silver) standard for the nation's currency in the belief that an increase in the amount of money in circulation would raise crop prices and allow for easier debt repayment.

Although the treasury had a surplus at the inception of Harrison's administration, the “Billion-Dollar Congress” spent such enormous sums on soldiers' pensions and business subsidies that the surplus soon vanished. Many Americans, particularly farmers, viewed the Republican-controlled White House and Congress as wasteful and too closely aligned with the nation's wealthy elite. In the congressional elections of 1890, the Democrats recaptured the House of Representatives by a large majority, and during the remaining two years of his term Harrison had little, if any, influence on legislation. He was renominated at the party convention in Minneapolis (1892), but growing populist discontent and several major strikes late in his term—especially the violent steel strike at Homestead, Pennsylvania, in July 1892—largely accounted for his defeat by his old rival, Grover Cleveland, by an electoral vote of 145 to 277. Neither candidate campaigned much, owing in part to Mrs. Harrison's declining health and her death midway through the campaign.

Having retired to his law practice in Indianapolis, Harrison, at 62, married his deceased wife's niece and caretaker, Mary Lord Dimmick; they had one daughter. He emerged briefly to serve as leading counsel for Venezuela in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain (1898–99). Harrison was also in much demand as a public speaker, and his series of lectures delivered at Stanford University was published in 1901 as Views of an Ex-President. He died of pneumonia that year at his house in Indianapolis. He was the last Civil War general to serve as president.







Benjamin married Caroline Lavinia Scott [19084] [MRIN: 6559] on 20 Oct 1853 in Oxford, Ohio. Caroline was born on 1 Oct 1832 in Oxford, Ohio and died on 25 Oct 1892 in White House, Washington D. C. at age 60.

431. Peter Rawson Taft [18273] was born on 14 Apr 1785 and died on 1 Jan 1867 at age 81.

Peter married Sylvia Howard [18274] [MRIN: 6203] on 5 Dec 1810. Sylvia was born on 17 Feb 1792 and died in 1866 at age 74.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 569 M    i. Alphonso Taft [18275] was born on 5 Nov 1810 and died on 21 May 1891 at age 80.

432. Mary Hibbert [18305] .

Mary married Unknown Jewett [18306] [MRIN: 6220].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 570 M    i. Nathan Jewett [18307] .

433. Sarah Dabney Strother [12938] was born on 14 Oct 1760 and died on 13 Dec 1822 at age 62.

Sarah married Richard Taylor [12937] [MRIN: 4304], son of Zachary Taylor [12936] and Elizabeth Lee [12827]. Richard was born on 3 Apr 1744 and died on 19 Jan 1829 at age 84.

Children from this marriage were:

   571 M    i. Richard Strother Taylor [18015] .

   572 M    ii. Hancock Taylor [18013] was born in 1781 and died in 1841 at age 60.

   573 M    iii. William Dabney Strother Taylor [18014] was born in 1782.

+ 574 M    iv. 12th President Zachary Taylor [12939] was born on 24 Nov 1784 in Barboursville, Orange County, Virginia and died on 9 Jul 1850 in Washington D. C. at age 65.

   575 M    v. George Taylor [18016] was born in 1790.

   576 F    vi. Elizabeth Lee Taylor [18017] was born in 1792 and died in 1845 at age 53.

Elizabeth married John Gibson Taylor [18021] [MRIN: 6071].

   577 M    vii. Joseph Pannill Taylor [18018] was born in 1796 and died in 1864 at age 68.

Joseph married Evelyn McLean [18022] [MRIN: 6072].

   578 F    viii. Sarah Bailey Taylor [18019] was born in 1799.

Sarah married French Strother Grey [18023] [MRIN: 6073].

   579 F    ix. Emily Richard Taylor [18020] was born in 1801.

Emily married John S. Allison [18024] [MRIN: 6074].

435. James Hyde [18392] was born in 1707 and died in 1793 at age 86.

James married.

His child was:

+ 580 F    i. Abiah Hyde [18393] was born on 27 Dec 1749 in Norwich, CT and died on 23 Aug 1788 in Norwich, CT at age 38.

436. Elizabeth Quincy [18424] was born about 1721 and died on 1 Oct 1775 in Weymouth, Massachusetts about age 54.

Elizabeth married Rev. William Smith [18425] [MRIN: 6284], son of William Smith [20104] and Abigail Fowle [20105], on 16 Oct 1740 in Norfolk, Massachusetts. William was born on 29 Jan 1707 in Charlestown, Massachusetts and died in Sep 1783 in Weymouth, Massachusetts at age 76.

Children from this marriage were:

   581 F    i. Mary Smith [20098] was born in 1741 in Charlestown, Massachusetts and died in 1811 in Massachusetts at age 70.

Mary married Richard Cranch [20099] [MRIN: 6833] in Massachusetts.

+ 582 F    ii. Abigail Smith [18426] was born on 22 Nov 1744 in Weymouth, Massachusetts and died on 28 Oct 1818 in Quincy, Massachusetts at age 73.

   583 M    iii. William Smith [20100] was born on 1 Dec 1746 in Charlestown, Massachusetts and died in 1775 at age 29.

William married Catherine Louisa Salmon [20101] [MRIN: 6834].

   584 F    iv. Elizabeth Smith [20102] was born on 8 May 1750 in Charlestown, Massachusetts and died in 1815 at age 65.

Elizabeth married William Shaw [20103] [MRIN: 6835] in 1777 in Weymouth, Massachusetts.

437. William Henry Smith [18437] was born on 29 Oct 1708 and died on 2 Oct 1776 at age 67.

William married Margaret Lloyd [18438] [MRIN: 6289] on 19 Dec 1732. Margaret was born on 1 Jun 1713 and died on 25 Sep 1756 at age 43.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 585 F    i. Rebecca Smith [18439] was born c1734 and died on 25 Nov 1809 at age 75.

438. Hannah Hutchinson [18350] .

Hannah married John Ruck [18351] [MRIN: 6244].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 586 F    i. Hannah Ruck [18352] was born in 1702 and died about 1767 about age 65.

439. Andrew Monroe [18489] died in 1668.

Andrew married.

His child was:

+ 587 M    i. William Monroe [18490] was born in 1666 and died in 1737 at age 71.

440. Anne Irvine [18546] was born in 1770 and died in 1810 at age 40.

Anne married James Bulloch [18547] [MRIN: 6348]. James was born c1765 and died in 1806 at age 41.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 588 M    i. Major James Stephen Bulloch [18548] was born c1793 and died in 1849 at age 56.

444. John Augustine Washington [18687] was born in 1736.

John married.

His child was:

   589 M    i. Bushrod Washington [23452] .

General Notes: Supreme Court Justice.

448. Richard Lee [12889] was born in 1726 in Bristol, Virginia and died in 1795 in Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 69.

Richard married Sarah Bland Poythress [12929] [MRIN: 4295].

General Notes: She was about 16 years of age when she married Richard Lee who was about 55 years of age.


The child from this marriage was:

   590 M    i. John Lee [12930] .

John married Mary Smith [12931] [MRIN: 4297].

450. Henry Lee [12885] was born in 1729 in Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia, died in 1787 in Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 58, and was buried in Washington D. C..

Henry married Lucy Grymes [12893] [MRIN: 4291], daughter of Charles Grymes [12932] and Frances Jennings [12933], in Dec 1752 in Gloucester County, Virginia. Lucy was born on 24 Aug 1734 in Brandon, Middlesex, Virginia, died on 14 Sep 1830 in Springfield, Hanover County, Virginia at age 96, and was buried in Fork Church, Hanover, Virginia.

General Notes: Reportedly courted by George Washington. Termed the "Lowland Beauty", daughter of Charles Grymes and Frances Jenings.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 591 M    i. Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee [12902] was born on 19 Jan 1756 in Stratford, Virginia, died on 25 Mar 1818 in Cumberland Island, Georgia at age 62, and was buried in Greene's Private Cemetery, Dungeness, Cumberland Island, Georgia.

+ 592 M    ii. Charles Lee [12866] was born in 1758 in Alexandria County, Virginia, died on 24 Jun 1815 in Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 57, and was buried in Turkey Run Church.

   593 M    iii. Richard Bland Lee [12894] was born on 20 Jan 1761 in Virginia and died on 12 Mar 1827 at age 66.

General Notes: Sir Richard Bland Lee.

Member of Congress 1789-1795.

Richard married Elizabeth Collins [34289] [MRIN: 11622].

   594 F    iv. Mary Lee [12898] was born in 1764 in Westmoreland County, Virginia and died in 1827 at age 63.

Mary married Phillip R. Fendall [12934] [MRIN: 4300].

   595 M    v. Theodorick Lee [12899] was born on 3 Sep 1766 and died on 10 Apr 1849 at age 82.

Theodorick married Catherine Hite [12935] [MRIN: 4301].

+ 596 M    vi. Edmund Jennings Lee [12895] was born on 20 May 1772 and died on 30 May 1843 at age 71.

   597 F    vii. Lucy Lee [12900] was born in 1774 in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

   598 F    viii. Mary Lee [12903] was born in 1775.

   599 F    ix. Anne Anna Lee [12901] was born in 1776 and died in Aug 1857 at age 81.

453. Ursala Beverley [23467] was born in Essex County, Virginia.

Ursala married Col. William Fitzhugh [23468] [MRIN: 7918], son of Maj. John Fitzhugh [23469] and Ann Barbara McCarty [23470], about 1752.

Children from this marriage were:

   600 M    i. William Beverley Fitzhugh [12896] .

   601 M    ii. Daniel Fitzhugh [34290] was born on 15 Mar 1758 and died on 16 Oct 1836 at age 78.

   602 M    iii. Theodorick Fitzhugh [34291] was born on 20 Jul 1760.

456. Elizabeth Beverley [23473] was born on 15 Jan 1725 in "Blandfield" Essex County, Virginia and died on 3 Oct 1795 at age 70.

Elizabeth married James Mills [23474] [MRIN: 7921] on 21 Aug 1743.

Children from this marriage were:

   603 M    i. John Mills [34292] .

   604 F    ii. Elizabeth Mills [34293] .

   605 F    iii. Anna Beverley Mills [34294] .

   606 M    iv. William Mills [34295] .

   607 M    v. James Mills [34296] was born on 10 Jul 1757 and died on 31 Aug 1757.

Elizabeth next married Thomas Griffin Peachy [23475] [MRIN: 7922], son of Samuel Peachy [23476] and Winifred Griffin [23477], on 22 Sep 1783.

457. Robert Beverley [23478] was born on 21 Aug 1740 in "Blandfield" Essex County, Virginia and died on 12 Apr 1800 at age 59.

Robert married Maria Carter [23479] [MRIN: 7924], daughter of Col. Landon Carter [23486] and Maria Byrd [23487], on 3 Feb 1763 in Sabine Hall, Richmond County, Virginia. Maria was born on 22 Nov 1745 in Sabine Hall, Richmond County, Virginia and died on 21 Aug 1817 in Williamsburg, James City County, Virginia at age 71.

Children from this marriage were:

   608 M    i. William Beverley [23488] was born on 27 Oct 1763 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in Sep 1823 in Paris, France at age 59.

William married Mary Midgeley [23489] [MRIN: 7929], daughter of Jonathan Midgeley [23490] and Unknown.

   609 F    ii. Maria Beverley [23491] was born on 15 Dec 1764 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 2 Oct 1824 in Williamsburg, James City County, Virginia at age 59.

Maria married Richard Randolph [23492] [MRIN: 7931], son of Richard Randolph [16002] and Anne Meade [16008], on 1 Dec 1785.

Maria next married Gawin Lane Corbin [16009] [MRIN: 7932], son of John Tayloe Corbin [23493] and Mary Waller [23494], on 12 Aug 1800.

   610 M    iii. Robert Beverley [23495] was born on 30 Jul 1766 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 14 Jun 1767 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia.

+ 611 M    iv. Hon. Robert Beverley [23496] was born on 12 Mar 1769 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in May 1843 at age 74.

   612 F    v. Lucy Beverley [23498] was born on 24 Feb 1771 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia, died in 1854 in Oakleigh, Greensboro, Alabama at age 83, and was buried in Oakleigh, Greensboro, Alabama.

Lucy married Brett Randolph [16011] [MRIN: 7935], son of Richard Randolph [16002] and Anne Meade [16008], on 21 Nov 1789.

   613 M    vi. Burton Beverley [23499] was born on 24 Nov 1772 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 16 Jul 1781 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia at age 8.

   614 M    vii. Carter Beverley [23500] was born on 17 Apr 1774 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in 1844 at age 70.

Carter married Jane Wormeley [23501] [MRIN: 7936], daughter of Hon. Ralph Wormeley [23502] and Eleanor Tayloe [23503], on 24 Jan 1795.

   615 M    viii. Byrd Beverley [23504] was born on 17 Aug 1775 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in 1836 in Lost at sea. at age 61.

   616 M    ix. James Mills Beverley [23505] was born on 22 Dec 1776 and died on 8 Apr 1779 at age 2.

   617 F    x. Anna Munford Beverley [23506] was born on 6 Jan 1778 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 17 Jan 1830 in The Reeds, Caroline County, Virginia at age 52.

Anna married Hon. Francis Corbin [23507] [MRIN: 7938], son of Col. Richard Corbin [23508] and Elizabeth Tayloe [23509], about 12 Mar 1795 in The Reeds, Caroline County, Virginia.

   618 M    xi. Munford Beverley [23510] was born on 8 Mar 1779 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in Feb 1820 in Lost at sea. at age 40.

   619 M    xii. Peter Randolph Beverley [23511] was born on 17 Oct 1780.

Peter married Lovely St. Martin [23512] [MRIN: 7940].

   620 F    xiii. Evelyn Byrd Beverley [23513] was born on 6 Jun 1782 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 10 Sep 1836 at age 54.

Evelyn married George Lee [23514] [MRIN: 7941], son of Thomas Ludwell Lee [23515] and Mary Aylett [23516].

Evelyn next married Dr. Patrick Hume Douglas [12800] [MRIN: 4270], son of Col. William Douglas [12801] and Sarah Orrick [23517].

   621 M    xiv. McKenzie Beverley [23518] was born on 3 Jun 1783 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia.

McKenzie married Isabella Gray [23519] [MRIN: 7944], daughter of William Gray [23520] and Isabella Miller [23521].

   622 F    xv. Jane Bradshaw Beverley [23522] was born on 27 Aug 1784 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 23 Feb 1814 at age 29.

Jane married Thomas Robertson [23523] [MRIN: 7946].

   623 F    xvi. Harriet Beverley [23524] was born on 12 Apr 1786 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in May 1829 at age 43.

Harriet married John Bull Rittenhouse [23525] [MRIN: 7947], son of Judge Benjamin Rittenhouse [23526] and Elizabeth Bull [23527].

459. Unknown Bland [15938] .

Unknown married Unknown Randolph [15943] [MRIN: 5315].

The child from this marriage was:

   624 M    i. John Randolph [15944] .

462. Anne Bland [15927] was born in 1748 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

Anne married Gen. Thomas Eaton [15928] [MRIN: 5309], son of William Eaton [15935] and Mary Unknown [15936]. Thomas was born about 1757 in North Carolina and died on 6 Jul 1809 in Warren County, North Carolina about age 52.

General Notes: Commanded a North Carolina Regiment in the Revolutionary War under General Nathaniel Greene.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 625 F    i. Anne Bland Eaton [15929] was born on 21 Dec 1763 and died on 6 Dec 1847 at age 83.

464. Frances Bland [15959] was born on 24 Sep 1752 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died on 18 Jan 1788 in Matoax, Virginia at age 35.

General Notes: Frances Bland was sixteen when she married John Randolph, eleven years her senior. They resided at Matoax Plantation in Chesterfield County, Virginia which held over a thousand acres. John Randolph died October 1775 after only six years of marriage.

Frances later married St. George Tucker of Bermuda and his family wished for them to live there. Frances had two large plantations to manage (Bizzare and Cawson's) so they stayed in Virginia.

Frances married John Randolph [15960] [MRIN: 5316], son of Col. Richard Randolph [15906] and Jane Bolling [15907], on 9 Mar 1769 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia. John was born about 1742 in Cawsons, Prince George City County, Virginia and died in Oct 1775 about age 33.

General Notes: John Randolph of Matoax.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 405)

Frances next married Col. St. George Tucker [15961] [MRIN: 5317] on 23 Sep 1778. St. was born in 1752 in Bermuda and died in 1828 at age 76.

General Notes: Judge, Appeals Court, State of Virginia.

St. George Tucker's family held considerable property in Bermuda and while his parents approved of his marriage to Frances Bland, they wished for him to live in Bermuda. He stayed in Virginia. He joined the American Revolution and his military service brought him to the rank of Colonel. He was injured in 1781.

After the War he began a law practice in Richmond, Virginia and was often absent from the residence at Matoax Plantation. After the death of his wife, Frances, he relocated to Williamsburg with the children, and in 1791 married Lelia, widow of George Carter and daughter of Sir Peyton Skipwith.
----
St. George Tucker was a lawyer, trader, inventor, scholar, professor, judge, essayist, poet, avid gardener, and amateur astronomer.

Tucker was born in Bermuda, on July 10, 1752. The Tucker's migrated to Bermuda from England and established themselves on the island in the mid-1600s. With a substantial population of slaves, there was little work for established families and St. George Tucker, the youngest of four sons (there were also two daughters) would begin the study of law in Bermuda but left in 1771 at age nineteen to finish his studies at the College of William and Mary.

In Williamsburg he took up general studies for six months or so and then signed on to read law under George Wythe, who had been a teacher of Thomas Jefferson. He graduated from William and Mary in 1772, and was admitted to the bar in 1774. He practiced law briefly but with the Revolutionary War in its early stages, the Virginia courts were closed and Tucker returned to Bermuda in 1776.

When he returned to Virginia in January, 1777 he took up residence and law practice in Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1778 he married the widow of John Randolph, Francis Bland Randolph, and became the father of three in doing so. After his marriage he moved to the Randolph plantation near Petersburg.

During the war, Tucker joined the militia as a major and served as a major, and participated in an engagement at Guilford Courthouse. After the war Tucker reestablished his law practice at Petersburg and became a judge on the general court of Virginia in 1788, the year his wife died after giving birth to their sixth child. In 1791 he remarried, this time a widow with two children. Three children of this marriage all died in their early years.

Tucker assumed a professorship of law at the College of William and Mary in 1800, was appointed as a justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia in 1803, where he served until 1811. The year of his appointment to the Virginia high court, also saw publication of his edition of Blackstone's Commentaries. In 1804 he gave up his law faculty appointment for another judicial appointment, and in 1813 became a U.S. District Court judge by appointment of President James Madison, a position he held until 1825.

Tucker wrote poetry, political satire, tried his hand at drama, but is known best for his edition of Blackstone's Commentaries and his other legal commentaries, including View of the Constitution, one of the first extended commentaries on the newly ratified Constitution. He is sometimes referred to as the "American Blackstone" for his Americanized version of a multi-volume of Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England.

Tucker died in November, 1828, at the age of seventy-five.

Judge Tucker had a ready talent for versification, which he exercised through life, and he was particularly successful in vers de societé, when that species of literary accomplishment was more practised and admired than it is at the present day. His rhymed epistles, epigrams, complimentary verses, and other bagatelles, would fill several volumes, but he gave only one small collection of them to the public in this form. When Dr. Wolcott's satires on George the Third, written under the name of "Peter Pindar," obtained both in this country and in England a popularity far beyond their merits, Judge Tucker, who admired them, was induced to publish in Freneau's "National Gazette" a series of similar odes, under the signature of "Jonathan Pindar," by which he at once gratified his political zeal and his poetical propensity. His object was to assail John Adams and other leading federalists, for their supposed monarchical predilections. His piece might well be compared with Wolcott's for poetical qualities, but were less playful, and had far more acerbity. Collected into a volume, they continued to be read by politicians, and had the honour of a volunteer reprint from one of the early presses in Kentucky.

Judge Tucker was capable of better things than these political trifles. He wrote a poem entitled "Liberty," in which the leading characters and events of the revolution are introduced. Of his numerous minor pieces some are characterized by ease, springliness, and grace. One of them so affected John Adams, in his old age, that he declared he would rather have written it than any lyric by Milton or Shakespeare. He little dreamed it was by an author who in earlier years had made him the theme of his satirical wit.

In prose also Judge Tucker was a voluminous writer. His most elaborate performance was an edition of Blackstone's "Commentaries," with copious notes and illustrative dissertations. He lived to a great age, and through life had numerous and warm friends. He was an active and often an intolerant politician, yet such was the predominance of his kindly affections and companionable qualities, that some of his cherished friends were of the party in the mass he most cordially hated.

The Tucker family produced a long line of jurists and scholars, including St. George Tucker's sons, Henry St. George Tucker (1780-1848) and Nathaniel Beverley, and a grandson, John Randolph Tucker (1823-1897), all lawyers, and Nathaniel and John Randolph poets as well.
-----
A lawyer, Revolutionary War militia officer, legal scholar, and judge, St. George Tucker bought three lots on Williamsburg's Palace green from Edmund Randolph for £100 in 1788. They included the site of William Levingstone's theater, the first in America. Bermuda-born but William and Mary-educated, Tucker moved the largest structure, a 1716 building that had been Levingstone's home, to its present location on Nicholson Street to face more-fashionable Market Square.

The rambling but graceful wooden building was enlarged several times, partly to accommodate Tucker's children. His two wives brought a total of five stepchildren to him with their marriages. In addition, the first bore him six of his own and the second three. To teach his children deportment, Tucker wrote "Garrison Articles to be Observed by the Officers and Privates Stationed at Ft. St. George Tucker in Williamsburg." Tucker himself was fort commander. One of the 13 articles read, "No Captain or subaltern officer or private shall presume to dance or run about the room at Breakfast or Dinner time."

Tucker is better known for editing Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England (Philadelphia, 1803) to put them in an American context. He also is credited with the construction of Williamsburg's first bathroom: he converted his backyard dairy house and installed in it a copper bathtub into which heated water was piped. The tub had a drain, a novelty at the time.
Tucker was a charter member and officer of Williamsburg's "Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge." He was an avid gardener, and there appear to be traces of 18th-century gardens in the yard.

William and Mary Professor Charles F. E. Minnigerode, a political refugee from the principality of Hesse-Darmstadt, put up Williamsburg's first recorded Christmas tree at the house in 1842. He was a friend of Tucker's son Nathaniel Beverley Tucker. Minnigerode enjoyed Nathaniel's children and put up a tree for them in the Tucker parlor in the German Yuletide tradition. A small tree, emblematic of the occasion, now is left each Christmas on the porch.

The house was restored in 1930 and 1931. Tucker's descendants owned and lived in the house until 1993.


Noted events in his life were:

• SRC:"The Randolphs, The Story of a Virginia Family" 1946.

• SRC:University of West Virginia Library.

• SRC:Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

• Property: Williamsburg, Virginia

Children from this marriage were:

   626 F    i. Anne Frances Bland Tucker [15964] was born on 26 Sep 1778 and died on 12 Sep 1813 at age 34.

Anne married Judge John Coalter [16044] [MRIN: 7978].

General Notes: Of "Chatham", Stafford County, Virginia.

+ 627 M    ii. Henry St. George Tucker [15962] was born on 29 Dec 1780 in Chesterfield County, Virginia, died on 28 Aug 1848 in Virginia at age 67, and was buried in Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

   628 M    iii. Theodorick Tudor Tucker [16023] was born on 12 Sep 1782 and died on 3 Apr 1795 at age 12.

General Notes: Died at the age of twelve.

   629 M    iv. Nathaniel Beverley Tucker [15963] was born on 6 Sep 1784 in Matoax, Virginia and died in 1851 in William And Mary College, Virginia at age 67.

General Notes: Attorney.
Nathaniel Beverley Tucker, the second son of St. George Tucker like so many members of his family, was a lawyer and literary man. Beverley Tucker was born at Matoax, Virginia, on September 6, 1784 and was educated at Williamsburgh, where his father had taken up residence. Tucker graduated from William and Mary in 1801 and then studied of law. He was married in 1809 and moved to Charlotte County. He moved to Missouri in 1815, became a resident of the state, and was appointed as judge. Fifteen years later he returned to Virginia. On July 4, 1834, he was elected to serve as professor of law at William and Mary College, a position he held until his death in the summer of 1851. [Source: Evert A. & George L. Duyckinck, 1 The Cyclopaedia of American Literature 694 (Philadelphia: William Rutter & Co., 1880) (2 vols. )]

Tucker wrote political novels and engaged in various other forms of writing. His first novel, George Balcombe, to which he did not append his name, received favorable reviews, including one from Edgar Allen Poe. Poe provides the following commentary on Tucker's writing:

B. Tucker Judge BEVERLEY TUCKER, of the College of William and Mary, Virginia, is the author of one of the best novels ever published in America — "George Balcombe" — although, for some reason, the book was never a popular favorite. It was, perhaps, somewhat too didactic for the general taste. He has written a great deal, also, for the "Southern Literary Messenger" at different times ; and, at one period, acted in part, if not altogether, as editor of that Magazine, which is indebted to him for some very racy articles, in the way of criticism especially. He is apt, however, to be led away by personal feelings, and is more given to vituperation for the mere sake of point or pungency, than is altogether consonant with his character as judge. Some five years ago there appeared in the "Messenger," under the editorial head, an article on the subject of the "Pickwick Papers" and some other productions of Mr. Dickens. This article, which abounded in well-written but extravagant denunciation of everything composed by the author of "The Curiosity Shop," and which prophesied his immediate downfall, we have reason to believe was from the pen of Judge Beverley Tucker. We take this opportunity of mentioning the subject, because the odium of the paper in question fell altogether upon our shoulders, and it is a burden we are not disposed and never intended to bear. The review appeared in March, we think, and we had retired from the Messenger in the January preceding. About eighteen months previously, and when Mr. Dickens was scarcely known to the public at all, except as the author of some brief tales and essays, the writer of this article took occasion to predict, in the Messenger, and in the most emphatic manner, that high and just distinction which the author in question has attained. Judge Tucker's MS. is diminutive, but neat and legible, and has much force and precision, with little of the picturesque. The care which he bestows upon his literary compositions makes itself manifest also in his chirography. The signature is more florid than the general hand. [Source: Edgar Allan Poe, "A Chapter on Autography (Part I)," Graham's Magazine, November 1841, pp. 224-234]

Tucker corresponded with the young Poe when he was editor of the Southern Literary Messenger and another Southern man of letters, William Gilmore Simms, a fellow lawyer and poet.

Nathaniel married Mary Coalter [34288] [MRIN: 7976].

   630 F    v. Henrietta Eliza Tucker [16024] was born on 16 Dec 1787 and died in Jul 1796 at age 8.

General Notes: Died at the age of eight.

466. Richard Bland [13050] was born on 20 Feb 1730 and died on 25 Jan 1786 at age 55.

Richard married Mary Bolling [13051] [MRIN: 4339] on 8 Oct 1761. Mary was born in 1744 and died after 1791 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   631 M    i. Richard Bland [34283] was born on 23 Jul 1762 and died on 26 Mar 1806 at age 43.

General Notes: Attending the College of William and Mary 1771-1772.

Richard married Susanna Poythress [34284] [MRIN: 11620].

+ 632 F    ii. Ann Poythress Bland [34267] .

   633 M    iii. John Bland [34285] .

   634 F    iv. Elizabeth Blair Bland [34286] .

Elizabeth married William Poythress [34287] [MRIN: 11621] on 10 Feb 1787.

468. Anne Bland [34255] was born on 15 Aug 1735 and died in 1782 at age 47.

Anne married Alexander Morrison [34256] [MRIN: 11608]. Alexander was born in Prince George City County, Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   635 M    i. Alexander Morrison [34265] died in 1840.

Alexander married Mary Ann Unknown [34268] [MRIN: 11614].

+ 636 M    ii. John Morrison [34266] died in Mar 1790.

   637 M    iii. David Morrison [34270] .

   638 M    iv. Theodorick Morrison [34271] .

   639 F    v. Elizabeth Morrison [34272] .

Elizabeth married Peter Bland [34273] [MRIN: 11615].

   640 F    vi. Jane Morrison [34274] .

Jane married John Green [34275] [MRIN: 11616] on 27 Jun 1789 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

   641 M    vii. William Morrison [34276] .

   642 F    viii. Patience Morrison [34277] .

Patience married William Epes [34278] [MRIN: 11617] on 9 Dec 1786 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

   643 F    ix. Sarah Morrison [34279] .

Sarah married Thomas Bowler Adams [34280] [MRIN: 11618].

   644 F    x. Anne Morrison [34281] .

Anne married William Harrison [34282] [MRIN: 11619] on 6 Dec 1788 in Prince George City County, Virginia.

470. John Bland [34259] was born on 19 Oct 1739 and died in 1777 at age 38.

John married Clara Yates [34260] [MRIN: 11610].

The child from this marriage was:

   645 M    i. Richard Yates Bland [34261] was born about 1770 and died in Jun 1854 about age 84.

Richard married Ann Booth [34262] [MRIN: 11611], daughter of Gilliam Booth [34263] and Unknown. Ann died on 23 May 1853.

487. Col. Robert Randolph [16356] was born in 1760 in Virginia and died on 12 Sep 1825 in Virginia at age 65.

General Notes: Member of the House of Delegates to Virginia; Captain in Baylor's Dragoons during the Revolutionary War; captured at Tappan; resided at "Eastern View" Fauquier County, Virginia; aide to General Anthony Wayne.

Robert married Elizabeth Hill Carter [16366] [MRIN: 5449], daughter of Charles Carter [16369] and Mary Walker [16370]. Elizabeth was born in 1764 and died in Jun 1832 at age 68.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 646 F    i. Eliza Carter Randolph [16371] was born in Oct 1782 and died in 1866 in Fauquier County, Virginia at age 84.

   647 M    ii. Robert Beverley Randolph [16372] was born in 1784 and died in Aug 1839 at age 55.

Robert married Lavinia Heth [16380] [MRIN: 5452], daughter of Henry Heth [16381] and Ann Hair [16382].

   648 M    iii. Charles Carter Randolph [16373] was born in Oct 1788 and died in Dec 1863 in Kinchloch, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 75.

Charles married Mary Anne Fauntleroy Mortimer [16383] [MRIN: 5454], daughter of John Mortimer [16384] and Mary French [16385], in 1825.

   649 F    iv. Anne Fitzhugh Randolph [16374] was born in 1790.

Anne married James L. McKenna [16386] [MRIN: 5456].

+ 650 M    v. Robert Lee Randolph [16375] was born in 1791.

   651 F    vi. Lucy Bolling Randolph [16376] was born in Dec 1796 in Fauquier County, Virginia and died in Nov 1861 at age 64.

Lucy married Richard Chisterfield Mason [16387] [MRIN: 5457] in May 1816 in Charles City County, Virginia.

   652 F    vii. Landonia Randolph [16377] .

   653 F    viii. Mary Braxton Randolph [16378] .

Mary married Hill Carter [16389] [MRIN: 5459].

489. Mary Randolph [15984] was born about 1739 in Goochland County, Virginia.

Mary married Tarlton Fleming [30146] [MRIN: 10126] about 1758 in Goochland County, Virginia. Tarlton died in Jan 1778 in Goochland County, VA.

Children from this marriage were:

   654 M    i. Tarlton Fleming [30147] was born on 18 Jul 1763 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   655 M    ii. William Randolph Fleming [30148] was born on 14 Apr 1765 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

William married Nancy Webb [34170] [MRIN: 11566] on 16 Dec 1793 in Goochland County, VA.

   656 M    iii. Thomas Mann Fleming [30149] was born on 15 Feb 1767 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Thomas married Anne Spotswood Payne [34171] [MRIN: 11567] on 1 Apr 1791 in Goochland County, VA.

   657 F    iv. Judith Fleming [30150] was born on 4 Jul 1769 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Judith married George Webb [34172] [MRIN: 11568].

490. Thomas Mann Randolph [34238] was born about 1741 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1793 about age 52.

Thomas married Anne Cary [34237] [MRIN: 11600], daughter of Col. Archibald Cary [34235] and Mary Randolph [16004]. Anne died on 6 Mar 1789.

Children from this marriage were:

   658 F    i. Mary "Mollie" Randolph [17200] was born on 9 Aug 1762 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Mary married David Meade Randolph [34159] [MRIN: 11556], son of Richard Randolph [16002] and Anne Meade [16008], on 11 Dec 1780 in Goochland County, VA.

   659 M    ii. Henry Cary Randolph [17201] was born on 8 Jan 1764 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   660 F    iii. Elizabeth Randolph [17202] .

Elizabeth married Robert Pleasants [34160] [MRIN: 11557] on 15 Oct 1784 in Goochland County, VA.

   661 M    iv. Thomas Mann Randolph [17203] was born on 1 Oct 1768 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 20 Jun 1828 at age 59.

Thomas married Martha Jefferson [34161] [MRIN: 11558].

   662 M    v. William Randolph [17204] was born on 16 Jan 1770 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

William married Lucy Bolling [34162] [MRIN: 11559].

   663 M    vi. Archibald Cary Randolph [17205] was born on 24 Aug 1771 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

General Notes: SRC: Birth Records from the Register of St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia. (William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol 15, No 2 pgs - 113-123)

+ 664 F    vii. Judith Randolph [17206] was born on 24 Nov 1772 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia.

+ 665 F    viii. Anne Cary Randolph [17207] was born on 15 Sep 1774 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 28 May 1837 in New York at age 62.

   666 F    ix. Jane Cary Randolph [17208] was born on 17 Dec 1776 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Jane married Thomas Eston Randolph [34163] [MRIN: 11560] on 8 Apr 1795 in Chesterfield County, Virginia.

   667 M    x. Dr. John Randolph [17209] .

John married Judith Archer Lewis [34164] [MRIN: 11561] on 12 Jun 1809 in Powhatan County, Virginia.

   668 M    xi. George Washington Randolph [17210] .

   669 F    xii. Harriett Randolph [17211] .

Harriett married Richard S. Hackley [34165] [MRIN: 11562].

   670 F    xiii. Virginia Randolph [17212] .

Virginia married Wilson Jefferson Cary [34166] [MRIN: 11563].

Thomas next married Gabriella Harvie [16033] [MRIN: 11552], daughter of John Harvie [34158] and Unknown.

495. Mary Jefferson [18032] was born in 1741 and died in 1817 at age 76.

Mary married John Bolling [18040] [MRIN: 6078] in 1760 in Virginia. John was born in 1741.

Children from this marriage were:

   671 M    i. Thomas Bolling [30129] was born on 11 Feb 1764 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   672 F    ii. Jane Bolling [30131] was born on 17 Sep 1765 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   673 F    iii. Ann Bolling [30133] was born on 18 Jul 1767 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   674 F    iv. Martha Bolling [30136] was born in 1769 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   675 M    v. Edward Bolling [30139] was born on 17 Sep 1772 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.


496. 3rd President Thomas Jefferson [15912] was born on 13 Apr 1743 in Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia and died on 4 Jul 1826 in Monticello, Virginia at age 83.

General Notes: Third President of the United States.

Graduated from College of William and Mary 1762
Member of Virginia House of Burgesses 1769-74
Member of Continental Congress 1775-76
Governor of Virginia 1779-81
Member of Continental Congress 1783-85
Minister to France 1785-89
Secretary of State 1790-93
Vice President 1797-1801
3rd President of the United States 1801-1809

At 3 cents per acre, purchased the Louisiana Territory.
Dispatched Lewis and Clark on their famous exploration.
Signs Bill outlawing the importation of slaves.
Invented a machine that makes fiber from hemp.
Invented the lazy-susan.
Made $25,000 per year as President.

born April 2, 1743, Shadwell, Virginia [U.S.]
died July 4, 1826, Monticello, Virginia, U.S.

Draftsman of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the nation's first secretary of state (1789–94), second vice president (1797–1801), and, as the third president (1801–09), statesman responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. An early advocate of total separation of church and state, he also was the founder and architect of the University of Virginia and the most eloquent American proponent of individual freedom as the core meaning of the American Revolution.

Long regarded as America's most distinguished “apostle of liberty,” Jefferson has come under increasingly critical scrutiny within the scholarly world. At the popular level, both in the United States and abroad, he remains an incandescent icon, an inspirational symbol for both major U.S. political parties, as well as for dissenters in communist China, liberal reformers in central and eastern Europe, and aspiring democrats in Africa and Latin America. His image within scholarly circles has suffered, however, as the focus on racial equality has prompted a more negative reappraisal of his dependence upon slavery and his conviction that American society remain a white man's domain. The huge gap between his lyrical expression of liberal ideals and the more attenuated reality of his own life has transformed Jefferson into America's most problematic and paradoxical hero.

Albermarle county, where he was born, lay in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in what was then regarded as a western province of the Old Dominion. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a self-educated surveyor who amassed a tidy estate that included 60 slaves. According to family lore, Jefferson's earliest memory was as a three-year-old boy “being carried on a pillow by a mounted slave” when the family moved from Shadwell to Tuckahoe. His mother, Jane Randolph Jefferson, was descended from one of the most prominent families in Virginia. She raised two sons, of whom Jefferson was the eldest, and six daughters. There is reason to believe that Jefferson's relationship with his mother was strained, especially after his father died in 1757, because he did everything he could to escape her supervision and had almost nothing to say about her in his memoirs. He boarded with the local schoolmaster to learn his Latin and Greek until 1760, when he entered the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg.

By all accounts he was an obsessive student, often spending 15 hours of the day with his books, 3 hours practicing his violin, and the remaining 6 hours eating and sleeping. The two chief influences on his learning were William Small, a Scottish-born teacher of mathematics and science, and George Wythe, the leading legal scholar in Virginia. From them Jefferson learned a keen appreciation of supportive mentors, a concept he later institutionalized at the University of Virginia. He read law with Wythe from 1762 to 1767, then left Williamsburg to practice, mostly representing small-scale planters from the western counties in cases involving land claims and titles. Although he handled no landmark cases and came across as a nervous and somewhat indifferent speaker before the bench, he earned a reputation as a formidable legal scholar. He was a shy and extremely serious young man.

In 1768 he made two important decisions: first, to build his own home atop an 867-foot high mountain near Shadwell that he eventually named Monticello and, second, to stand as a candidate for the House of Burgesses. These decisions nicely embodied the two competing impulses that would persist throughout his life—namely, to combine an active career in politics with periodic seclusion in his own private haven. His political timing was also impeccable, for he entered the Virginia legislature just as opposition to the taxation policies of the British Parliament was congealing. Although he made few speeches and tended to follow the lead of the Tidewater elite, his support for resolutions opposing Parliament's authority over the colonies was resolute.

In the early 1770s his own character was also congealing. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, an attractive and delicate young widow whose dowry more than doubled his holdings in land and slaves. In 1774 he wrote “A Summary View of the Rights of British America,” which was quickly published, though without his permission, and catapulted him into visibility beyond Virginia as an early advocate of American independence from Parliament's authority; the American colonies were tied to Great Britain,he believed, only by wholly voluntary bonds of loyalty to the king.

His reputation thus enhanced, the Virginia legislature appointed him a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in the spring of 1775. He rode into Philadelphia—and into American history—on June 20, 1775, a tall (slightly above 6 feet 2 inches [1.88 metres]) and gangly young man with reddish blond hair, hazel eyes, a burnished complexion, and rock-ribbed certainty about the American cause. In retrospect, the central paradox of his life was also on display, for the man who the following year was to craft the most famous manifesto for human equality in world history arrived in an ornate carriage drawn by four handsome horses and accompanied by three slaves.

Jefferson's inveterate shyness prevented him from playing a significant role in the debates within the Congress. John Adams, a leader in those debates, remembered that Jefferson was silent even in committee meetings, though consistently staunch in his support for independence. His chief role was as a draftsman of resolutions. In that capacity, on June 11, 1776, he was appointed to a five-person committee, which also included Adams and Benjamin Franklin, to draft a formal statement of the reasons why a break with Great Britain was justified. Adams asked him to prepare the first draft, which he did within a few days. He later claimed that he was not striving for “originality of principle or sentiment,” only seeking to provide “an expression of the American mind”; that is, putting into words those ideas already accepted by a majority of Americans. This accurately describes the longest section of the Declaration of Independence, which lists the grievances against George III. It does not, however, describe the following 55 words, which are generally regarded as the seminal statement of American political culture:

"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness;that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed."

On July 3–4 the Congress debated and edited Jefferson's draft, deleting and revising fully one-fifth of the text. But they made no changes whatsoever in this passage, which over succeeding generations became the lyrical sanction for every liberal movement in American history. At the time, Jefferson himself was disconsolate that the Congress had seen fit to make any changes in his language. Nevertheless, he was not regarded by his contemporaries as the author of the Declaration, which was seen as a collective effort by the entire Congress. Indeed, he was not known by most Americans as the principal author until the 1790s.

He returned to Virginia in October 1776 and immediately launched an extensive project for the reform of the state's legal code to bring it in line with the principles of the American Revolution. Three areas of reform suggest the arc of his political vision: first, he sought and secured abolition of primogeniture, entail, and all those remnants of feudalism that discouraged a broad distribution of property; second, he proposed a comprehensive plan of educational reform designed to assure access at the lowest level for all citizens and state support at the higher levels for the most talented; third, he advocated a law prohibiting any religious establishment and requiring complete separation of church and state. The last two proposals were bitterly contested, especially the statute for religious freedom, which was not enacted until 1786.

Taken together, these legal reforms capture the essence of Jefferson's political philosophy, which was less a comprehensive body of thought than a visionary prescription. He regarded the past as a “dead hand” of encrusted privileges and impediments that must be cast off to permit the natural energies of individual citizens to flow freely. The American Revolution, as he saw it, was the first shot in what would eventually became a global battle for human liberation from despotic institutions and all coercive versions of government.

At the end of what was probably the most creative phase of his public career, personal misfortune struck in two successive episodes. Elected governor of Virginia in 1779, he was caught off-guard by a surprise British invasion in 1780 against which the state was defenseless. His flight from approaching British troops was described in the local press, somewhat unfairly, as a cowardly act of abdication. (Critics would recall this awkward moment throughout the remainder of his long career.) Then, in September 1782, his wife died after a difficult delivery in May of their third daughter. These two disasters caused him to vow that he would never again desert his family for his country.

The vow was sincere but short-lived. Jefferson agreed, albeit reluctantly, to serve as a delegate to the Continental Congress in December 1782, where his major contribution was to set forth the principle that territories in the West should not be treated as colonies but rather should enter the Union with status equal to the original states once certain conditions were met. Then, in 1784, recognizing the need to escape the memories of Martha that haunted the hallways at Monticello, he agreed to replace Franklin as American minister to France; or, as legend tells the story, he agreed to succeed Franklin, noting that no one could replace him.

During his five-year sojourn in Paris, Jefferson accomplished very little in any official sense. Several intractable conditions rendered his best diplomatic efforts futile: the United States was heavily in debt owing to the recent war, so few European nations were interested in signing treaties of amity and commerce with the infant American republic; the federal government created under the Articles of Confederation was notoriously weak, so clear foreign policy directives proved impossible; Great Britain already enjoyed a monopoly, controlling more than 80 percent of America's foreign trade, so it had no incentive to negotiate commercial treaties on less favorable terms; and France was drifting toward a cataclysmic political crisis of its own, so relations with the upstart new nation across the Atlantic were hardly a high priority.

As a result, Jefferson's diplomatic overtures to establish a market for American tobacco and to reopen French ports to whale oil produced meager results, his efforts to create an alliance of American and European powers to contest the terrorism of the Barbary pirates proved stillborn, and his vision of open markets for all nations, a world without tariffs, seemed excessively visionary. His only significant achievement was the negotiation of a $400,000 loan from Dutch bankers that allowed the American government to consolidate its European debts, but even that piece of diplomacy was conducted primarily by John Adams, then serving as American minister to the Court of St. James's in London.

But the Paris years were important to Jefferson for personal reasons and are important to biographers and historians for the new light they shed on his famously elusive personality. The dominant pattern would seem to be the capacity to live comfortably with contradiction. For example, he immersed himself wholeheartedly in the art, architecture, wine, and food of Parisian society but warned all prospective American tourists to remain in America so as to avoid the avarice, luxury, and sheer sinfulness of European fleshpots. He made a point of bringing along his elder daughter, Martha (called Patsy as a girl), and later sent for his younger daughter, Maria (called Polly), all as part of his genuine devotion as a single parent. But he then placed both daughters in a convent, wrote them stern lecture like letters about proper female etiquette, and enforced a patriarchal distance that was in practice completely at odds with his theoretical commitment to intimacy.

With women in general his letters convey a message of conspicuous gallantry, playfully flirtatious in the manner of a male coquette. The most self-revealing letter he ever wrote, “a dialogue between the head and the heart,” was sent to Maria Cosway, an Anglo-Italian beauty who left him utterly infatuated. Jefferson and Cosway, who was married to a prominent if somewhat degenerate English miniaturist, spent several months in a romantic haze, touring Parisian gardens, museums, and art shows together, but whether Jefferson's head or heart prevailed, either in the letter or in life, is impossible to know. Meanwhile, there is considerable evidence to suggest, but not to prove conclusively, that Jefferson initiated a sexual liaison with his attractive young mulatto slave Sally Hemings in 1788, about the time his torrid affair with Cosway cooled down—this despite his public statements denouncing blacks as biologically inferior and sexual relations between the races as taboo.

During the latter stages of Jefferson's stay in Paris, Louis XVI, the French king, was forced to convene the Assembly of Notables in Versailles to deal with France's deep financial crisis. Jefferson initially regarded the assembly as a French version of the Constitutional Convention, then meeting in Philadelphia. Much influenced by moderate leaders such as the Marquis de Lafayette, he expected the French Revolution to remain a bloodless affair that would culminate in a revised French government, probably a constitutional monarchy along English lines. He remained oblivious to the erroneous resentments and volatile energies pent up within French society that were about to explode in the Reign of Terror, mostly because he thought the French Revolution would follow the American model. He was fortunate to depart France late in 1789, just at the onset of mob violence.

Even before his departure from France, Jefferson had overseen the publication of Notes on the State of Virginia. This book, the only one Jefferson ever published, was part travel guide, part scientific treatise, and part philosophical meditation. Jefferson had written it in the fall of 1781 and had agreed to a French edition only after learning that an unauthorized version was already in press. Notes contained an extensive discussion of slavery, including a graphic description of its horrific effects on both blacks and whites, a strong assertion that it violated the principles on which the American Revolution was based, and an apocalyptic prediction that failure to end slavery would lead to “convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of one or the other race.” It also contained the most explicit assessment that Jefferson ever wrote of what he believed were the biological differences between blacks and whites, an assessment that exposed the deep-rooted racism that he, like most Americans and almost all Virginians of his day, harbored throughout his life. Coming as it did at the midpoint of his career, the publication of Notes affords the opportunity to review Jefferson's previous and subsequent positions on the most volatile and therefore most forbidden topic in the revolutionary era.

To his critics in later generations, Jefferson's views on race seemed particularly virulent because of his purported relationship with Sally Hemings, who bore several children obviously fathered by a white man and some of whom had features resembling those of Jefferson. The public assertion of this relationship was originally made in 1802 by a disreputable journalist interested in injuring Jefferson's political career. His claim was corroborated, however, by one of Hemings's children in an 1873 newspaper interview and then again in a 1968 book by Winthrop Jordan revealing that Hemings became pregnant only when Jefferson was present at Monticello. Finally, in 1998, DNA samples were gathered from living descendants of Jefferson and Hemings. Tests revealed that Jefferson was almost certainly the father of some of Hemings's children. What remained unclear was the character of the relationship—consensual or coercive, a matter of love or rape, or a mutually satisfactory arrangement. Jefferson's admirers preferred to consider it a love affair and to see Jefferson and Hemings as America's preeminent biracial couple. His critics, on the other hand, considered Jefferson a sexual predator whose eloquent statements about human freedom and equality were hypocritical.

In any case, coming as it did at the midpoint of Jefferson's career, the publication of Notes affords the opportunity to review Jefferson's previous and subsequent positions on the most volatile and therefore most forbidden topic in the revolutionary era. Early in his career Jefferson had taken a leadership role in pushing slavery onto the political agenda in the Virginia assembly and the federal Congress. In the 1760s and '70s, like most Virginia planters, he endorsed the end of the slave trade. (Virginia's plantations were already well stocked with slaves, so ending the slave trade posed no economic threat and even enhanced the value of the existent slave population.) In his original draft of the Declaration of Independence, he included a passage, subsequently deleted by the Continental Congress, blaming both the slave trade and slavery itself on George III. Unlike most of his fellow Virginians, Jefferson was prepared to acknowledge that slavery was an anomaly in the American republic established in 1776. His two most practical proposals came in the early 1780s: a gradual emancipation scheme by which all slaves born after 1800 would be freed and their owners compensated, and a prohibition of slavery in all the territories of the West as a condition for admission to the Union. By the time of the publication of Notes, then, Jefferson's record on slavery placed him among the most progressive elements of southern society. Rather than ask how he could possibly tolerate the persistence of slavery, it is more historically correct to wonder how this member of Virginia's planter class had managed to develop such liberal convictions.

Dating the onset of a long silence is inevitably an imprecise business, but by the time of his return to the United States in 1789 Jefferson had backed away from a leadership position on slavery. The ringing denunciations of slavery presented in Notes had generated controversy, especially within the planter class of Virginia, and Jefferson's deep aversion to controversy made him withdraw from the cutting edge of the antislavery movement once he experienced the sharp feelings it aroused. Moreover, the very logic of his argument in Notes exposed the inherent intractability of his position. Although he believed that slavery was a gross violation of the principles celebrated in the Declaration of Independence, he also believed that people of African descent were biologically inferior to whites and could never live alongside whites in peace and harmony. They would have to be transported elsewhere, back to Africa or perhaps the Caribbean, after emancipation. Because such a massive deportation was a logistical and economic impossibility, the unavoidable conclusion was that, though slavery was wrong, ending it, at least at present, was inconceivable. That became Jefferson's public position throughout the remainder of his life.

It also shaped his personal posture as a slave owner. Jefferson owned, on average, about 200 slaves at any point in time, and slightly over 600 over his lifetime. To protect himself from facing the reality of his problematic status as plantation master, he constructed a paternalistic self-image as a benevolent father caring for what he called “my family.” Believing that he and his slaves were the victims of history's failure to proceed along the enlightened path, he saw himself as the steward for those entrusted to his care until a better future arrived for them all. In the meantime, his own lavish lifestyle and all the incessant and expensive renovations of his Monticello mansion were wholly dependent on slave labor. Whatever silent thoughts he might have harbored about freeing his slaves never found their way into the record. (He freed only five slaves, all members of the Hemings family.) His mounting indebtedness rendered all such thoughts superfluous toward the end, because his slaves, like all his possessions, were mortgaged to his creditors and therefore not really his to free.

Jefferson returned to the United States in 1789 to serve as the first secretary of state under President George Washington. He was entering the most uncharted waters in American history. There had never been an enduring republican government in a nation as large as the United States, and no one was sure if it was possible or how it would work. The Constitution ratified in 1788 was still a work-in-progress, less a blueprint that provided answers than a framework for arguing about the salient questions. And because Jefferson had been serving in France when the constitutional battles of 1787–88 were waged in Philadelphia and then in the state ratifying conventions, he entered the volatile debates of the 1790s without a clear track record of his constitutional convictions. In truth, unlike his friend and disciple James Madison, Jefferson did not think primarily in constitutional categories. His major concern about the new Constitution was the absence of any bill of rights. He was less interested in defining the powers of government than in identifying those regions where government could not intrude.

During his tenure as secretary of state (1790–93), foreign policy was his chief responsibility. Within the cabinet a three-pronged division soon emerged over American policy toward the European powers. While all parties embraced some version of the neutrality doctrine, the specific choices posed by the ongoing competition for supremacy in Europe between England and France produced a bitter conflict. Washington and Adams, who was serving as vice president, insisted on complete neutrality, which in practice meant tacking back and forth between the two dominant world powers of the moment. Alexander Hamilton pushed for a pro-English version of neutrality—chiefly commercial ties with the most potent mercantile power in the world. Jefferson favored a pro-French version of neutrality, arguing that the Franco-American treaty of 1778 obliged the United States to honor past French support during the war for independence, and that the French Revolution embodied the “spirit of '76” on European soil. Even when the French Revolution spun out of control and began to devour its own partisans, Jefferson insisted that these bloody convulsions were only temporary excesses justified by the larger ideological issues at stake.

This remained his unwavering position throughout the decade. Even after he retired from office late in 1793, he issued directives from Monticello opposing the Neutrality Act (1793) and the Jay Treaty (1795) as pacts with the British harlot and betrayals of our French brethren. Serving as vice president during the Adams presidency (1796–1800), Jefferson worked behind the scenes to undermine Adams's efforts to sustain strict neutrality and blamed the outbreak of the “quasi-war” with France in 1797–98 on what he called “our American Anglophiles” rather than the French Directory. His foreign-policy vision was resolutely moralistic and highly ideological, dominated by a dichotomous view of England as a corrupt and degenerate engine of despotism and France as the enlightened wave of the future.

Jefferson's position on domestic policy during the 1790s was a variation on the same ideological dichotomy. As Hamilton began to construct his extensive financial program—to include funding the national debt, assuming the state debts, and creating a national bank—Jefferson came to regard the consolidation of power at the federal level as a diabolical plot to subvert the true meaning of the American Revolution. As Jefferson saw it, the entire Federalist commitment to an energetic central government with broad powers over the domestic economy replicated the arbitrary policies of Parliament and George III, which the American Revolution had supposedly repudiated as monarchical and aristocratic practices, incompatible with the principles of republicanism. Jefferson sincerely believed that the “principles of '76” were being betrayed by a Federalist version of the “court party,” whose covert scheme was to install monarchy and a pseudo-aristocracy of banker sand “monocrats” to rule over the American yeomanry.

All the major events of the decade—the creation of a national bank, the debate over the location of a national capital, the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania, the passage of the Jay Treaty, and, most notoriously, the enforcement of the Alien and Sedition Acts—were viewed through this ideological lens. By the middle years of the decade two distinctive political camps had emerged, calling themselves Federalists and Republicans. Not that modern-day political parties, with their mechanisms for raising money, selecting candidates, and waging election campaigns, were fully formed at this stage. (Full-blooded political parties date from the 1830s and '40s.) But an embryonic version of the party structure was congealing, and Jefferson, assisted and advised by Madison, established the rudiments of the first opposition party in American politics under the Republican banner.

The partnership between Jefferson and Madison, labeled by subsequent historians as “the great collaboration,” deserves special attention. John Quincy Adams put it nicely when he observed that “the mutual influence of these two mighty minds on each other is a phenomenon, like the invisible and mysterious movements of the magnet in the physical world.” Because the notion of a legitimate opposition to the elected government did not yet exist, and because the term party remained an epithet that was synonymous with faction, meaning an organized effort to undermine the public interest, Jefferson and Madison were labeled as traitors by the Federalist press. They were, in effect, inventing a modern form of political behavior before there was any neutral vocabulary for talking about it. Jefferson's own capacity to live comfortably with contradictions served him well in this context, since he was creating and leading a political party while insisting that parties were evil agents. In 1796 he ran for the presidency against Adams, all the while claiming not to know that he was even a candidate. Most negative assessments of Jefferson's character date from this period, especially the charge of hypocrisy and duplicity.

The highly combustible political culture of the early republic reached a crescendo in the election of 1800, one of the most fiercely contested campaigns in American history. The Federalist press described Jefferson as a pagan and atheist, a treasonable conspirator against the duly elected administrations of Washington and Adams, a utopian dreamer with anarchistic tendencies toward the role of government, and a cunning behind-the-scenes manipulator of Republican propaganda. All these charges were gross exaggerations, save the last. Always operating through intermediaries, Jefferson paid several journalists to libel Adams, his old friend but current political enemy, and offered the vice presidency to Aaron Burr in return for delivering the electoral votes of New York. In the final tally the 12 New York votes made the difference, with the tandem of Jefferson and Burr winning 73 to 65. A quirk in the Constitution, subsequently corrected in the 12th Amendment, prevented electors from distinguishing between their choice of president and vice president, so Jefferson and Burr tied for the top spot, even though voter preference for Jefferson was incontestable. The decision was thrown into the House of Representatives where, after several weeks of debate and backroom wheeling and dealing, Jefferson was elected on the 36th ballot.

There was a good deal of nervous speculation whether the new American nation could survive a Jefferson presidency. The entire thrust of Jefferson's political position throughout the 1790s had been defiantly negative, rejecting as excessive the powers vested in the national government by the Federalists. In his Virginia Resolutions of 1798, written in protest of the Alien and Sedition Acts, he had described any projection of federal authority over the domestic policy of the states as a violation of “the spirit of '76” and therefore a justification for secession from the Union. (This became the position of the Confederacy in 1861.) His Federalist critics wondered how he could take an oath to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States if his primary go alas president was to dismantle the federal institutions created by that very document. As he rose to deliver his inaugural address on March 4, 1801, in the still-unfinished Capitol of the equally unfinished national capital on the Potomac, the mood was apprehensive. The most rabid alarmists had already been proved wrong, since the first transfer of power from one political regime to another had occurred peacefully, even routinely. But it was still very much an open question whether, as Lincoln later put it, “any nation so conceived and so dedicated could long endure” in the absence of a central government along Federalist lines.

The major message of Jefferson's inaugural address was conciliatory. Its most famous line (“We are all republicans—we are all federalists”) suggested that the scatological party battles of the previous decade must cease. He described his election as a recovery of the original intentions of the American Revolution, this after the hostile takeover of those “ancient and sacred truths” by the Federalists, who had erroneously assumed that a stable American nation required a powerful central government. In Jefferson's truly distinctive and original formulation, the coherence of the American republic did not require the mechanisms of a powerful state to survive or flourish. Indeed, the health of the emerging American nation was inversely proportional to the power of the federal government, for in the end the sovereign source of republican government was voluntary popular opinion, “the people,” and the latent energies these liberated individuals released when unburdened by government restrictions.

Initially, at least, his policies as president reflected these priorities, which meant dismantling the embryonic federal government, the army and navy, and all federal taxation programs, as well as placing the national debt, which stood at $112 million, on the road to extinction. These reforms enjoyed considerable success for two reasons. First, the temporary cessation of the war between England and France for European supremacy permitted American merchants to trade with both sides and produced unprecedented national prosperity. Second, in selecting Albert Gallatin as secretary of the Treasury, Jefferson placed one of the most capable managers of fiscal policy in the most strategic location. Gallatin, a Swiss-born prodigy with impeccable Republican credentials, dominated the cabinet discussions alongside Madison, the ever-loyal Jefferson disciple who served as secretary of state.

Actually there were very few cabinet discussions because Jefferson preferred to do the bulk of business within the executive branch in writing. Crafting language on the page was his most obvious talent, and he required all cabinet officers to submit drafts of their recommendations, which he then edited and returned for their comments. The same textual approach applied to his dealings with Congress. All of his annual messages were delivered in writing rather than in person. Indeed, apart from his two inaugural addresses, there is no record of Jefferson delivering any public speeches whatsoever. In part this was a function of his notoriously inadequate abilities as an orator, but it also reflected his desire to make the office of the presidency almost invisible. His one gesture at visibility was to schedule weekly dinners when Congress was in session, which became famous for the quality of the wine, the pell-mell seating arrangements, and informal approach to etiquette—a clear defiance of European-style decorum.

The major achievement of his first term was also an act of defiance, though this time it involved defying his own principles. In 1803 Napoleon decided to consolidate his resources for a new round of the conflict with England by selling the vast Louisiana region, which stretched from the Mississippi Valley to the Rocky Mountains. Although the asking price, $15 million, was a stupendous bargain, assuming the cost meant substantially increasing the national debt. More significantly, what became known as the Louisiana Purchase violated Jefferson's constitutional scruples. Indeed, many historians regard it as the boldest executive action in American history. But Jefferson never wavered, reasoning that the opportunity to double the national domain was too good to miss. The American West always triggered Jefferson's most visionary energies, seeing it, as he did, as America's future, the place where the simple republican principles could be constantly renewed. In one fell swoop he removed the threat of a major European power from America's borders and extended the life span of the uncluttered agrarian values he so cherished. Even before news that the purchase was approved reached the United States in July 1803, Jefferson dispatched his private secretary, Meriwether Lewis, to lead an expedition to explore the new acquisition and the lands beyond, all the way to the Pacific.

If the Louisiana Purchase was the crowning achievement of Jefferson's presidency, it also proved to be the high point from which events moved steadily in the other direction. Although the Federalist Party was dead as a national force, pockets of Federalist opposition still survived, especially in New England. Despite his eloquent testimonials to the need for a free press, Jefferson was outraged by the persistent attacks on his policies and character from those quarters, and he instructed the attorneys general in the recalcitrant states to seek indictments, in clear violation of his principled commitment to freedom of expression. He was equally heavy-handed in his treatment of Aaron Burr, who was tried for treason after leading a mysterious expedition into the American Southwest allegedly designed to detach that region from the United States with Burr crowned as its benevolent dictator. The charges were never proved, but Jefferson demanded Burr's conviction despite the lack of evidence. He was overruled in the end by Chief Justice John Marshall, who sat as the judge in the trial.

But Jefferson's major disappointment had its origins in Europe with the resumption of the Napoleonic Wars, which resulted in naval blockades in the Atlantic and Caribbean that severely curtailed American trade and pressured the U.S. government to take sides in the conflict. Jefferson's response was the Embargo Act (1807), which essentially closed American ports to all foreign imports and American exports. The embargo assumed that the loss of American trade would force England and France to alter their policies, but this fond hope was always an illusion, since the embryonic American economy lacked the size to generate such influence and was itself wrecked by Jefferson's action. Moreover, the enforcement of the Embargo Act required the exercise of precisely those coercive powers by the federal government that Jefferson had previously opposed. By the time he left office in March 1809, Jefferson was a tired and beaten man, anxious to escape the consequences of his futile efforts to preserve American neutrality and eager to embrace the two-term precedent established by Washington.

During the last 17 years of his life Jefferson maintained a crowded and active schedule. He rose with the dawn each day, bathed his feet in cold water, then spent the morning on his correspondence (one year he counted writing 1,268 letters) and working in his garden. Each afternoon he took a two-hour ride around his grounds. Dinner, served in the late afternoon, was usually an occasion to gather his daughter Martha and her 12 children, along with the inevitable visitors. Monticello became a veritable hotel during these years, on occasion housing 50 guests. The lack of privacy caused Jefferson to build a separate house on his Bedford estate about 90 miles from Monticello, where he periodically fled for seclusion.

Three architectural projects claimed a considerable share of his attention. Throughout his life Monticello remained a work-in-progress that had the appearance of a construction site. Even during his retirement years, Jefferson's intensive efforts at completing the renovations never quite produced the masterpiece of neoclassical design he wanted to achieve and that modern-day visitors to Monticello find so compelling. A smaller but more architecturally distinctive mansion at Bedford, called Poplar Forest, was completed on schedule. It too embodied neoclassical principles but was shaped as a perfect octagon. Finally there was the campus of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, which Jefferson called his “academical village.”Jefferson surveyed the site, which he could view in the distance from his mountaintop, and chose the Pantheon of Rome as the model for the rotunda, the centerpiece flanked by two rows of living quarters for students and faculty. In 1976 the American Institute of Architects voted it “the proudest achievement of American architecture in the past 200 years.” Even the “interior” design of the University of Virginia embodied Jeffersonian principles, in that he selected all the books for the library, defined the curriculum, picked the faculty, and chaired the Board of Visitors. Unlike every other American college at the time, “Mr. Jefferson's university” had no religious affiliation and imposed no religious requirement on its students. As befitted an institution shaped by a believer in wholly voluntary and consensual networks of governance, there were no curricular requirements, no mandatory code of conduct except the self-enforced honor system, no president or administration. Every aspect of life at the University of Virginia reflected Jefferson's belief that the only legitimate form of governance was self-governance.

In 1812 his vast correspondence began to include an exchange with his former friend and more recent rival John Adams. The reconciliation between the two patriarchs was arranged by their mutual friend Benjamin Rush, who described them as “the North and South poles of the American Revolution.” That description suggested more than merely geographic symbolism, since Adams and Jefferson effectively, even dramatically, embodied the twin impulses of the revolutionary generation. As the “Sage of Monticello,” Jefferson represented the Revolution as a clean break with the past, the rejection of all European versions of political discipline as feudal vestiges, the ingrained hostility toward all mechanisms of governmental authority that originated in faraway places. As the “Sage of Quincy (Massachusetts),” Adams resembled an American version of Edmund Burke, which meant that he attributed the success of the American Revolution to its linkage with past practices, most especially the tradition of representative government established in the colonial assemblies. He regarded the constitutional settlement of 1787–88 as a shrewd compromise with the political necessities of a nation-state exercising jurisdiction over an extensive, eventually continental, empire, not as a betrayal of the American Revolution but an evolutionary fulfillment of its promise.

These genuine differences of opinion made Adams and Jefferson the odd couple of the American Revolution and were the primary reasons why they had drifted to different sides of the divide during the party wars of the 1790s. The exchange of 158 letters between 1812 and 1826 permitted the two sages to pose as philosopher-kings and create what is arguably the most intellectually impressive correspondence between statesmen in all of American history. Beyond the elegiac tone and almost sculpted serenity of the letters, the correspondence exposed the fundamental contradictions thatthe American Revolution managed to contain. As Adams so poignantly put it,“You and I ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other.” And because of Adams's incessant prodding, Jefferson was frequently forced to clarify his mature position on the most salient issues of the era.

One issue that even Adams and Jefferson could not discuss candidly was slavery. Jefferson's mature position on that forbidden subject represented a further retreat from any leadership role in ending the “peculiar institution.” In 1819, during the debate in Congress over the Missouri Compromise, he endorsed the expansion of slavery into all the western territories, precisely the opposite of the position he had taken in the 1780s. Though he continued to insist that slavery was a massive anomaly, he insisted even more strongly that it was wrong for the federal government to attempt any effort at emancipation. In fact he described any federal intrusion in the matter as a despotic act analogous to George III's imperial interference in colonial affairs or Hamilton's corrupt scheme to establish a disguised form of monarchy in the early republic. His letters to fellow Virginians during his last years reflect a conspiratorial mentality toward the national government and clear preference for secession if threatened with any mandatory plan for abolition.

Apart from slavery, the other shadow that darkened Monticello during Jefferson's twilight years was debt. Jefferson was chronically in debt throughout most of his life, in part because of obligations inherited from his father-in-law in his wife's dowry, mostly because of his own lavish lifestyle, which never came to terms with the proverbial bottom line despite careful entries in his account books that provided him with only the illusion of control. In truth, by the 1820s the interest on his debt was compounding at a faster rate than any repayment schedule could meet. By the end, he was more than $100,000—in modern terms several million dollars—in debt. An exception was made in Virginia law to permit a lottery that Jefferson hoped would allow his heirs to retain at least a portion of his property. But the massiveness of his debt overwhelmed all such hopes. Monticello, including land, mansion, furnishings, and the vast bulk of the slave population, was auctioned off the year after his death, and his surviving daughter, Martha, was forced to accept charitable contributions to sustain her family.

Before that ignominious end, which Jefferson never lived to see, he managed to sound one last triumphant note that projected his most enduring and attractive message to posterity. In late June 1826 Jefferson was asked to join the Independence Day celebrations in Washington, D.C., on the 50th anniversary of the defining event in his and the nation's life. He declined, explaining that he was in no condition to leave his mountaintop. But he mustered up one final surge of energy to draft a statement that would be read in his absence at the ceremony. He clearly intended it as his final testament. Though some of the language, like the language of the Declaration itself, was borrowed from others, here was the vintage Jeffersonian vision:

"May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all,) the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government.... All eyes are opened or opening to the rights of men. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few, booted and spurred, ready to ride them legitimately by the grace of God. These are grounds of hope for others; for ourselves, let the annual return of this day forever refresh our recollections of these rights, and an undiminished devotion to them."

Even as these words were being read in Washington, Jefferson went to his maker in his bed at Monticello at about half past noon on July 4, 1826. His last conscious words, uttered the preceding evening, were “Is it the Fourth?” Always a man given to Herculean feats of self-control, he somehow managed to time his own death to coincide with history. More remarkably, up in Quincy on that same day his old rival and friend also managed to die on schedule. John Adams passed away later in the afternoon. His last words—“Thomas Jefferson still lives”—were wrong at the moment but right for the future, since Jefferson's complex legacy was destined to become the most resonant and controversial touchstone in all of American history.

Noted events in his life were:

• Third President of the United: In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man."

This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.

Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As a "silent member" of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.

Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington's Cabinet. He resigned in 1793.

Sharp political conflict developed, and separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.

As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice-President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election.

When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.

During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic Wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson's attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular.

Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind "on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe."

Jefferson died on July 4, 1826.

Thomas married Martha Wayles [17061] [MRIN: 5735] on 1 Jan 1772 in "The Forest" Williamsburg, Virginia. Martha was born in 1748 in Charles City County, Virginia and died on 6 Sep 1782 in Monticello, Virginia at age 34.

General Notes: When Thomas Jefferson came courting, Martha Wayles Skelton at 22 was already a widow, an heiress, and a mother whose firstborn son would die in early childhood. Family tradition says she was accomplished and beautiful - - with slender figure, hazel eyes, and auburn hair - - and wooed by many. Perhaps a mutual love of music cemented the romance; Jefferson played the violin, and one of the furnishings he ordered for the home he was building at Monticello was a "forte-piano" for his bride.

They were married on New Years Day, 1772, at the bride's plantation home "The Forest", near Williamsburg. When they finally reached Monticello in a late January snowstorm to find no fire, no food, and the servants asleep, they toasted their new home with a leftover half-bottle of wine and "song and merriment and laughter." That night, on their own mountaintop, the love of Thomas Jefferson and his bride seemed strong enough to endure any adversity.

The birth of their daughter Martha in September increased their happiness. Within ten years the family gained five more children. Of them all, only two lived to grow up: Martha, called Patsy, and Mary called Maria or Polly.

The physical strain of frequent pregnancies weakened Martha Jefferson so gravely that her husband curtailed his political activities to stay near her. He served in Virginia's House of Delegates and as governor, but he refused an appointment by the Continental Congress as a commissioner to France. Just after New Years Day, 1781, a British invasion forced Martha to flee the capital in Richmond with a baby girl a few weeks old - - who died in April. In June the family barely escaped an enemy raid on Monticello. She bore another daughter the following May, and never regained a fair measure of strength. Jefferson wrote on May 20 that her condition was dangerous. After months of tending her devotedly, he noted in his account book for September 6, "My dear wife died this day at 11:45 A.M."

Apparently he never brought himself to record their life together; in a memoir he referred to ten years "in unchequered happiness." Half a century later his daughter Martha remembered his sorrow: "the violence of his emotion . . . to this day I not describe to myself." For three weeks he had shut himself in his room, pacing back and forth until exhausted. Slowly that first anguish spent itself. In November he agreed to serve as commissioner to France, eventually taking Patsy with him in 1784 and send for Polly later.

When Jefferson became President in 1801, he had been a widower for 19 years. He had become as capable of handling social affairs as political matters. Occasionally he called on Dolley Madison for assistance. It was Patsy - - now Mrs. Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. - - who appeared as the lady of the President's House in the winter of 1802 - 1803, when she spent seven weeks there. She was there again in 1805 - 1806, and gave birth to a son named for James Madison, the first child born in the White House. It was Martha Randolph with her family who shared Jefferson's retirement at Monticello until he died there in 1826.


Children from this marriage were:

   676 F    i. Martha Washington Jefferson [17062] was born on 27 Sep 1772 in Monticello, Virginia and died in 1836 at age 64.

   677 F    ii. Jane Randolph Jefferson [17072] was born on 3 Apr 1774 and died in 1775 at age 1.

   678 F    iii. Mary Jefferson [17063] was born on 1 Aug 1778 and died in 1804 at age 26.

   679 F    iv. Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson [17073] was born on 3 Nov 1780 and died in 1781 at age 1.

   680 F    v. Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson [17074] was born on 8 May 1782 and died in 1785 at age 3.

498. Martha Jefferson [18034] was born in 1746 and died in 1811 at age 65.

Martha married Dabney Carr [18041] [MRIN: 6079]. Dabney was born in 1743 and died in 1773 at age 30.

Children from this marriage were:

   681 F    i. Mary Carr [30134] was born on 7 Mar 1768 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   682 F    ii. Lucy Carr [30135] was born on 7 Mar 1768 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   683 M    iii. Peter Carr [30137] was born on 2 Jan 1770 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   684 M    iv. Samuel Carr [30138] was born on 9 Oct 1771 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

   685 M    v. Dabney Carr [30140] was born on 27 Apr 1773 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

504. Isham Randolph [30142] was born on 27 Mar 1771 in St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Isham married Nancy Coupland [30173] [MRIN: 10129] about 1795.

Children from this marriage were:

   686 F    i. Julia Randolph [30174] .

   687 F    ii. Jane Randolph [30175] .

   688 F    iii. Fannie P. Randolph [30176] .

   689 M    iv. D. Coupland Randolph [30177] .

506. Archibald Cary Randolph [30144] was born in 1769 in Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1813 at age 44.

Archibald married Lucy Burwell [30151] [MRIN: 10127], daughter of Nathaniel Burwell [34196] and Susanna Grymes [34195], on 6 Apr 1797. Lucy was born on 20 Nov 1777 and died on 22 Mar 1810 at age 32.

Children from this marriage were:

   690 M    i. Dr. Philip Grymes Randolph [30152] .

   691 M    ii. Isham Randolph [30153] .

   692 F    iii. Susan Grymes Randolph [30154] .

   693 F    iv. Mary Cary Randolph [30155] .

   694 M    v. Dr. Robert Carter Randolph [30156] .

   695 F    vi. Lucy Burwell Randolph [30157] .

507. Mary Randolph [30145] was born on 1 Feb 1773 in Ampthill, Chesterfield County, Virginia.

Mary married Randolph Harrison [30158] [MRIN: 10128] on 20 Mar 1790.

Children from this marriage were:

   696 M    i. Thomas Randolph Harrison [30159] .

   697 M    ii. Carter Henry Harrison [30160] .

   698 M    iii. Archibald Morgan Harrison [30161] .

   699 F    iv. Jane Cary Harrison [30162] .

   700 M    v. Randolph Harrison [30163] .

   701 M    vi. Rev. Peyton Harrison [30164] .

   702 M    vii. William Mortimer Harrison [30165] .

   703 F    viii. Mary Randolph Harrison [30166] .

   704 F    ix. Susanna Isham Harrison [30167] .

   705 F    x. Lucia Cary Harrison [30168] .

   706 F    xi. Catherine Lilbourne Harrison [30169] .

   707 F    xii. Williana Mortimer Harrison [30170] .

   708 F    xiii. Virginia Randolph Harrison [30171] .

   709 F    xiv. Nannie Hartwell Harrison [30172] .

513. Susan Randolph [16013] .

Susan married Benjamin Harrison [23565] [MRIN: 11582].

General Notes: Of Berkeley County, Virginia.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 710 F    i. Lucy Harrison [23544] .

514. Jane Randolph [16014] .

Jane married Archibald Bolling [16010] [MRIN: 7968] on 20 Mar 1749.

Children from this marriage were:

   711 F    i. Sarah Bolling [34205] .

Sarah married Joseph Cabell Megginson [34206] [MRIN: 11583].

   712 F    ii. Ann Everard Bolling [34207] .

Ann married Samuel Shepard Duval [34211] [MRIN: 11584].

Ann next married Joseph Cabell [34212] [MRIN: 11585].

   713 F    iii. Elizabeth Meade Bolling [34208] .

   714 M    iv. John Bolling [34209] .

   715 M    v. Blair Bolling [34210] .

519. Anne Cary [34237] died on 6 Mar 1789.

Anne married Thomas Mann Randolph [34238] [MRIN: 11600], son of Col. William Randolph [15979] and Maria Judith Page [15982]. Thomas was born about 1741 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1793 about age 52.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 490)

520. Jane Cary [30141] .

Jane married Thomas Isham Randolph [15988] [MRIN: 10125], son of Isham Randolph [15908] and Jane Rogers [15909].

General Notes: SRC: Birth Record from the Register of St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia (William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol 15, No. 2, pgs 113-123)

(Duplicate Line. See Person 393)

523. Sarah Cary [34241] .

Sarah married Archibald Bolling [16010] [MRIN: 11602] before 1748.

The child from this marriage was:

   716 M    i. Archibald Cary Bolling [34242] .

525. Henry Randolph [15947] .

Henry married Lucy Ward [34218] [MRIN: 5308].

The child from this marriage was:

   717 M    i. Henry Randolph [15948] .

526. Brett Randolph [16027] .

Brett married Ann Randolph [34219] [MRIN: 11591] on 7 May 1782 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA.

Children from this marriage were:

   718 M    i. Richard Kidder Randolph [34226] .

Richard married Elizabeth Jane Montague [34227] [MRIN: 11595] on 28 Jan 1819 in Powhatan County, Virginia.

   719 M    ii. Howard Randolph [34228] .

   720 M    iii. Patrick Randolph [34229] .

   721 M    iv. Brett Randolph [34230] .

   722 F    v. Ann Meade Randolph [34231] .

Ann married Joseph Michaux [34232] [MRIN: 11596] on 5 Feb 1822 in Powhatan County, Virginia.

   723 F    vi. Mary Susan Randolph [34233] .

Mary married Francis Watkins [34234] [MRIN: 11597] on 21 Dec 1820 in Powhatan County, Virginia.

528. Richard Randolph [15965] was born on 9 May 1770 in Virginia and died in 1796 at age 26.

General Notes: Richard Randolph, the eldest brother of Randolph of Roanoke, married his first cousin Judith. Richard was 19 and his lady love only 15 at the time, and the marriage, which took place the following year, proved one of the most tragic happenings of Virginia society of their generation. If the wise mother of Judith had been less subservient to the opinion of her husband and had actively opposed the union about which she had such evident foreboding, much sorrow might have been avoided.

Richard's character was lovable but weak, as his letters from childhood show, and poor Judith was a most unhappy wife. Richard's death followed shortly after the trial in which he and Nancy Randolph, his wife's sister, were accused of infanticide. Of that crime their vindication was complete, but it was followed by gossip and slander which were certainly contributing causes of Richard's death.

Of his two sons, Tudor and St. George (one named for his stepfather's brother, Thomas Tudor Tucker, and the other for his stepfather himself). The one died of consumption in the south of England, the other lived long as a deaf-mute and a madman, and the fact that with them, the line of John Randolph of Matoax and Bizarre ended, was probably the cause of much of the sorrow and bitterness which clouded the life of the last survivor of the family of John Randolph of Roanoke.

(see Ann Cary Randolph for the story of "Bizarre Plantation")

Noted events in his life were:

• SRC:University of Chicago Library.

Richard married Judith Randolph [17206] [MRIN: 5786], daughter of Thomas Mann Randolph [34238] and Anne Cary [34237], on 20 Dec 1789 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA. Judith was born on 24 Nov 1772 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   724 M    i. St. George Randolph [17215] .

   725 M    ii. Tudor Randolph [17216] .

531. Maj. Anderson Stith [34220] .

Anderson married Joanna Bassett [34221] [MRIN: 11592], daughter of William Bassett [34222] and Elizabeth Churchill [34223].

The child from this marriage was:

   726 M    i. Bassett Stith [34224] died on 13 Jan 1816 in Halifax, North Carolina.

Bassett married Mary Long [34225] [MRIN: 11594].

533. Unknown Dawson [34308] .

Unknown married.

His child was:

   727 M    i. William Johnson Dawson [34310] died in 1789 in Bertie County, North Carolina.

General Notes: U.S. Congressman 1793-1795, North Carolina.

535. Edmund Jennings Randolph [15999] was born on 10 Aug 1753 in Tazewell, Williamsburg, Virginia and died on 12 Sep 1813 in Clark County, Virginia at age 60.

General Notes: Edmund Jennings Randolph was born in Williamsburg, Virginia on August 10, 1753. He attended the College of William and Mary and studied law in his father's office. He was a supporter of the Revolution and served as General George Washington's aide-de-camp in 1775. Randolph was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a member of the Constitutional Convention. He was elected Attorney General of Virginia in 1776, served until 1782, and served as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788.

On September 26, 1789, Randolph was appointed the first Attorney General of the United States by President Washington. In 1794, he was appointed Secretary of State. He served in this position until 1795.

-------

(b. Aug. 10, 1753, Williamsburg, Va. [U.S.]—d. Sept. 12, 1813, Clark county, Va.), Virginia lawyer who played an important role in drafting and ratifying the U.S. Constitution and served as attorney general and later secretary of state in George Washington's cabinet.

After attending William and Mary College, Randolph studied law in the office of his father, who was then the king's attorney in the Virginia colony. The approach of the American Revolution caused a split in the family: the father, with his wife and daughters, left for England in 1775, while Edmund threw in his lot with the rebellious colonists.

The young lawyer served briefly as an aide to General Washington in the siege (1776) of the British at Boston and then returned to Virginia to care for the estate of his uncle, Peyton Randolph. He was elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1776 and served on the committee that drew up a bill of rights and a state constitution. The Virginia Assembly elected him attorney general of the state, and he also served intermittently (1779–82) as a delegate to the Continental Congress.

In 1786 Randolph headed the Virginia delegation to the Annapolis Convention, and that same year he was elected governor of Virginia. As a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787), he presented the influential Virginia Plan and served on the Committee on Detail that prepared a first draft of the proposed constitution. He did not sign the final draft, however, because he wanted more protection of the rights of states and of individuals. Nevertheless, in the Virginia Convention of 1788 he used his influence to bring about that state's ratification of the Constitution.

After President Washington took office in 1789, he appointed Randolph—who had handled much of Washington's personal legal work—to the post of U.S. attorney general. Upon Thomas Jefferson's resignation as secretary of state in December 1793, Randolph was chosen to replace him. As England and France were then at war and there was strong support in the United States for both antagonists, Randolph's attempt to steer a middle course was difficult. While the Jay Treaty (1794) with England was under consideration, he performed the delicate task of maintaining friendly relations with France. He also paved the way for the signing (1795) of Pinckney's Treaty (or the Treaty of San Lorenzo) with Spain,which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.

Randolph's governmental service was brought to an end by an intercepted diplomatic dispatch from the French minister at Philadelphia, charging that he had shown a willingness to accept money from the French in return for influencing the U.S. government against Great Britain. Though the charges were not proved, Randolph resigned on Aug. 19, 1795. He returned to Virginia and resumed his law practice, acting in 1807 as senior counsel for Aaron Burr at his trial for treason.

Edmund married Elizabeth Carter Nicholas [16259] [MRIN: 5325] on 29 Aug 1776 in Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   728 F    i. Susan Beverley Randolph [16260] was born in 1781 and died on 12 Oct 1836 at age 55.

   729 F    ii. Unknown Randolph [16261] was born about 1781 in Richmond, Henrico County, Virginia.

   730 F    iii. Unknown Randolph [16262] was born about 1783 in Lexington, Virginia.

   731 M    iv. Unknown Randolph [16263] was born in 1783 and died in 1786 at age 3.

   732 F    v. Edmonia Madison Randolph [16264] was born on 17 Apr 1787 and died in Oct 1847 at age 60.

   733 M    vi. Peyton Randolph [16265] was born in 1787 in Gloucester, Virginia and died in 1828 at age 41.

Peyton married Maria Ward [34184] [MRIN: 11577] on 15 Mar 1806 in Amelia County, Virginia.

   734 F    vii. Lucy Nelson Randolph [16266] was born in 1789.

546. Susanna Grymes [34195] was born in 1751 and died on 7 Jul 1788 at age 37.

Susanna married Nathaniel Burwell [34196] [MRIN: 11581]. Nathaniel was born on 15 Apr 1750 and died on 29 Mar 1814 at age 63.

Children from this marriage were:

   735 M    i. Carter Burwell [34200] was born on 16 Oct 1773 and died on 2 Feb 1819 at age 45.

   736 M    ii. Philip Burwell [34201] was born on 15 Jan 1776 and died on 11 Feb 1849 at age 73.

+ 737 F    iii. Lucy Burwell [30151] was born on 20 Nov 1777 and died on 22 Mar 1810 at age 32.

   738 M    iv. Nathaniel Burwell [34202] was born on 18 Feb 1779 and died on 11 Jan 1849 at age 69.

   739 M    v. Lewis Burwell [34203] was born on 24 Jan 1783 and died on 24 Feb 1826 at age 43.

   740 M    vi. Robert Carter Burwell [34204] was born on 24 Jul 1785 and died on 22 Aug 1813 at age 28.

561. Mary Randolph [16084] .

Mary married Henry Archer [10405] [MRIN: 8058] in 1776 in Virginia.

General Notes: Henry took an oath as second Lieutenant 3 Oct 1777 and resigned 2 March 1781. In 1783 Chesterfield COunty Henry Archer is listed as head of a family of ten with twenty-four slaves. Not all of the children were his, most likely. Some may have belonged to a neice who lived with them, Elizabeth Branch.


The child from this marriage was:

   741 M    i. Dr. John Randolph Archer [10406] was born in 1777.

General Notes: Attended medical school in Edinburgh. Held a life estate of 2,810 acres known as "Clover Forest" in 1820.

John married Frances Cook Tabb [23762] [MRIN: 8059].

562. Elizabeth Randolph [16085] was born about 1745 in Amelia County, Virginia.

Elizabeth married Samuel Sherwin [16086] [MRIN: 5333] in Dec 1763.

The child from this marriage was:

   742 F    i. Sophia Sherwin [16087] .

563. Susannah Messenger [19054] was born on 30 Nov 1704 in Wallingford, New Haven, Connecticut.

Susannah married Ebenezer Hopkins [19055] [MRIN: 6545] on 7 Jun 1727 in Hartford, Connecticut. Ebenezer was born on 24 Jun 1699 in Hartford, Connecticut and died c1784 in Shaftsbury, Vermont at age 85.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 743 F    i. Tabitha Hopkins [19056] was born on 16 Oct 1745 in Harwinton, CT.

564. Miriam Harry [19001] died on 19 Mar 1809.

Miriam married Record Hussey [19002] [MRIN: 6520] on 2 Sep 1756. Record died on 5 Apr 1784 in Warrington, York County, Pennsylvania.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 744 F    i. Lydia Hussey [19003] was born on 27 Mar 1757 in York County, Pennsylvania and died on 21 Sep 1843 in Washington County, Pennsylvania at age 86.

565. Samuel Grant Jr [18613] was born in 1659 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT and died on 8 May 1710 at age 51.

Samuel married Grace Miner [18614] [MRIN: 6382] on 11 Apr 1688 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT. Grace was born on 20 Sep 1670 in Stratford, CT and died on 16 Apr 1753 at age 82.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 745 M    i. Noah Grant [18615] was born on 11 Dec 1693 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT and died on 10 Oct 1727 in Tolland, CT at age 33.

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566. Abigail Bowen [18160] was born on 5 Jul 1700 and died on 16 Sep 1775 at age 75.

Abigail married Caleb Kendrick [18161] [MRIN: 6143] in Sep 1721. Caleb was born on 8 Mar 1694 and died on 31 Mar 1771 at age 77.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 746 M    i. Benjamin Kendrick [18162] was born on 30 Jan 1723 and died on 13 Nov 1812 at age 89.

567. Rutherford Hayes [18241] was born on 4 Jan 1787 in Brattleboro, Vermont and died on 20 Jul 1822 in Delaware, Delaware County, Ohio at age 35.

Rutherford married Sophia Birchard [18242] [MRIN: 6185] on 13 Sep 1813 in Wilmington, Vermont. Sophia was born on 15 Apr 1792 in Wilmington, Vermont and died on 30 Oct 1866 in Columbus, Ohio at age 74.

The child from this marriage was:

   747 M    i. 19th President Rutherford Birchard Hayes [18243] was born on 4 Oct 1822 in Delaware, Ohio and died on 17 Jan 1893 in Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio at age 70.

General Notes: Rutherford Birchard Hayes 19th president of the United States (1877–81), who brought post-Civil War Reconstruction to an end in the South and who tried to establish new standards of official integrity after eight years of corruption in Washington, D.C. He was the only president to hold office by decision of an extraordinary commission of congressmen and Supreme Court justices appointed to rule on contested electoral ballots.

Hayes was the son of Rutherford Hayes, a farmer, and Sophia Birchard. After graduating from Kenyon College at the head of his class in 1842, Hayes studied law at Harvard, where he took a bachelor of laws degree in 1845. Returning to Ohio, he established a successful legal practice in Cincinnati, where he represented defendants in several fugitive-slave cases and became associated with the newly formed Republican Party. In 1852 he married Lucy Ware Webb, a cultured and unusually well-educated woman for her time. After combat service with the Union army, he was elected to Congress (1865–67) and then to the Ohio governorship (1868–76).

In 1875, during his third gubernatorial campaign, Hayes attracted national attention by his uncompromising advocacy of a sound currency backed by gold. The following year he became his state's favorite son at the national Republican nominating convention, where a shrewdly managed campaign won him the presidential nomination. Hayes's unblemished public record and high moral tone offered a striking contrast to widely publicized accusations of corruption in the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant (1869–77). An economic depression, however, and Northern disenchantment with Reconstruction policies in the South combined to give Hayes's Democratic opponent, Samuel J. Tilden, a popular majority, and early returns indicated a Democratic victory in the electoral college as well. Hayes's campaign managers challenged the validity of the returns from South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, and as a result two sets of ballots were submitted from the three states. The ensuing electoral dispute became known as the Tilden-Hayes affair. Eventually a bipartisan majority of Congress created a special Electoral Commission to decide which votes should be counted. As originally conceived, the commission was to comprise seven Democrats, seven Republicans, and one independent, the Supreme Court justice David Davis. Davis refused to serve, however, and the Republican Joseph P. Bradley was named in his place. While the commission was deliberating, Republican allies of Hayes engaged in secret negotiations with moderate Southern Democrats aimed at securing acquiescence to Hayes's election. On March 2, 1877, the commission voted along strict party lines to award all the contested electoral votes to Hayes, who was thus elected with 185 electoral votes to Tilden's 184. The result was greeted with outrage and bitterness by some Northern Democrats, who thereafter referred to Hayes as “His Fraudulency.”

As president, Hayes promptly made good on the secret pledges made during the electoral dispute. He withdrew federal troops from states still under military occupation, thus ending the era of Reconstruction (1865–77). His promise not to interfere with elections in the former Confederacy ensured a return there of traditional white Democratic supremacy. He appointed Southerners to federal positions, and he made financial appropriations for Southern improvements. These policies aroused the animosity of a conservative Republican faction known as the Stalwarts, who were further antagonized by the president's efforts to reform the civil service by substituting nonpartisan examinations for political patronage. Hayes's demand for the resignation of two top officials in the New York custom house (including Chester Arthur, the future president) provoked a bitter struggle with New York senator Roscoe Conkling.

During the national railroad strikes of 1877, Hayes, at the request of state governors, dispatched federal troops to suppress rioting. His administration was under continual pressure from the South and West to resume silver coinage, outlawed in 1873. Many considered this proposal inflationary, and Hayes sided with the Eastern, hard-money (gold) interests. Congress, however, overrode his veto of the Bland-Allison Act (1878), which provided for government purchase of silver bullion and restoration of the silver dollar as legal tender. In 1879 Hayes signed an act permitting women lawyers to practice before the Supreme Court.

Hayes refused renomination by the Republican Party in 1880, contenting himself with one term as president. In retirement he devoted himself to humanitarian causes, notably prison reform and educational opportunities for Southern black youth.

Rutherford married Lucy Ware Webb [18244] [MRIN: 6186] on 30 Dec 1852 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Lucy was born on 28 Aug 1831 in Chillicote, Ohio and died on 25 Jun 1889 in Fremont, Ohio at age 57.

569. Alphonso Taft [18275] was born on 5 Nov 1810 and died on 21 May 1891 at age 80.

Alphonso married Louisa Maria Torrey [18276] [MRIN: 6204]. Louisa was born on 11 Sep 1827 and died on 8 Dec 1907 at age 80.

The child from this marriage was:

   748 M    i. 27th President William Howard Taft [18277] was born on 15 Sep 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio and died on 8 Mar 1930 in Washington, D. C. at age 72.

General Notes: 27th president of the United States (1909–13) and 10th chief justice of the United States (1921–30). As the choice of President Theodore Roosevelt to succeed him and carry on the progressive Republican agenda, Taft as president alienated the progressives—and later Roosevelt—thereby contributing greatly to the split in Republican ranks in 1912, to the formation of the Bull Moose Party (also known as the Progressive Party), and to his humiliating defeat that year in his bid for a second term.

The son of Alphonso Taft, secretary of war and attorney general (1876–77) under President Ulysses S. Grant, and Louisa Maria Torrey, Taft graduated second in his Yale class of 1878, studied law, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880. Drawn to politics in the Republican Party, he served in several minor appointive offices until 1887, when he was named to fill the unfinished term of a judge of the superior court of Ohio. The following year he was elected to a five-year term of his own, the only time he ever attained office via popular vote other than his election to the presidency. From 1892 to 1900 he served as a judge of the United States Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, where he made several decisions hostile to organized labor. He upheld the use of an injunction to stop a strike by railroad workers, and he declared illegal the use of a secondary boycott. On the other hand, he upheld the rights of workers to organize, to join a union, and to strike, and he extended the power of the injunction to enforce antitrust laws.

Taft resigned his judgeship on March 15, 1900, to accept appointment by President William McKinley to serve as chairman of the Second Philippine Commission. Charged with organizing civil government in the islands following the Spanish-American War (1898), Taft displayed considerable talent as an executive and administrator. In 1901 he became the first civilian governor of the Philippines, concentrating in that post on the economic development of the islands. Fond of and very popular among the Philippine people, Taft twice refused to leave the islands when offered appointment to the Supreme Court by President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1904 he agreed to return to Washington to serve as Roosevelt's secretary of war, with the stipulation that he could continue to supervise Philippine affairs.

Although dissimilar in both physique and temperament, the rotund, easygoing Taft and the muscular, almost-manic Roosevelt nonetheless became close friends; the president regarded his secretary of war as a trusted adviser. When Roosevelt declined to run for reelection, he threw his support to Taft, who won the 1908 Republican nomination and defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the electoral college by 321 votes to 162. Progressive Republicans, who had found their champion in Theodore Roosevelt, now expected Roosevelt's handpicked successor to carry forward their reform agenda.

However, progressives soon found abundant reason to be disappointed with Taft.

Temperamentally, he lacked Roosevelt's compelling leadership qualities, which had inspired people to charge into battle against all that was wrong in American society. Politically, Taft offended progressives when he failed to appoint any from their ranks to his cabinet. He further angered progressives when he backed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff of 1909, a highly protectionist measure that ironically was the product of a special session of Congress called (by Taft) to revise tariff rates downward. Progressives, who favored lower tariffs, expected a veto. When Taft not only signed the tariff but called it “the best bill that the party has ever passed,” the rupture in Republican ranks seemed unlikely to be mended.

Despite his close relationship with Roosevelt, Taft as president aligned himself with the more conservative members in the Republican Party. He did prove to be a vigorous trustbuster, however, launching twice as many antitrust prosecutions as had his progressive predecessor. He also backed conservation of natural resources, another key component of the progressive reform program. But when he fired Gifford Pinchot—head of the Bureau of Forestry, ardent conservationist, and close friend of Roosevelt—Taft severed whatever support he still had among Republican progressives.

Roosevelt returned from an African safari in 1910, and progressives quickly urged him to come out publicly in opposition to his political protégé. At first Roosevelt declined to criticize Taft by name, but by 1912 a breach between the former friends was clearly evident. When Roosevelt decided to challenge Taft for the Republican presidential nomination, the two attacked each other mercilessly in the Republican primary elections. The primary results proved beyond doubt that Republican voters wanted Roosevelt to be the party's standard-bearer in 1912, but Taft's forces controlled the convention and secured the nomination for the incumbent. Believing that the convention had been rigged and that their man had been cheated out of the nomination he deserved, Republican progressives bolted their party to form the Bull Moose (or Progressive) Party and nominated Roosevelt as their presidential candidate.

The split in Republican ranks assured the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Roosevelt came in a distant second, and Taft, capturing less than a quarter of the popular vote, won just two states—Utah and Vermont. In the electoral college, Taft set a record for the poorest performance by an incumbent president seeking reelection: He won a mere 8 electoral votes compared with 88 for Roosevelt and 435 for Wilson.

As president, Taft frequently claimed that “politics makes me sick.” Never eager for the office, he had been prodded to pursue it by his wife, Helen Herron Taft, whom he had married in 1886. As first lady she was a key political adviser to her husband.

On his departure from the White House Taft returned to Yale, where he became a professor of constitutional law. With the entry of the United States into World War I, he served on the National War Labor Board, and at the war's conclusion he strongly supported American participation in the League of Nations. In 1921 President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft chief justice of the United States, launching what was probably the happiest period in Taft's long career in public service. He promptly took steps to improve the efficiency of the Supreme Court, which had fallen far behind in its work. His influence was decisive in securing passage of the Judge's Act of 1925, which gave the Supreme Court greater discretion in choosing its cases so that it could focus more attention on constitutional questions and other issues of national importance.

Although generally conservative in his judicial philosophy, Taft was no rigid ideologue. His approval of court injunctions, for example, was limited by his insistence that injunctions could not be employed to interfere with the rights of workers to organize and strike. His most important contribution to constitutional law was his opinion in Myers v. United States (1926) upholding the authority of the president to remove federal officials, a much-belated endorsement of the position taken by Andrew Johnson with respect to the Tenure of Office Act in his impeachment trial in 1868.

Suffering from heart disease, Taft resigned as chief justice on February 3, 1930, and he died a little more than a month later.

William married Helen Herron [18278] [MRIN: 6205] on 19 Jun 1886 in Cincinatti, Ohio. Helen was born on 2 Jun 1861 in Cincinnati, Ohio and died on 22 May 1943 in Washington, D. C. at age 81.

570. Nathan Jewett [18307] .

Nathan married.

His child was:

+ 749 F    i. Elizabeth Jewett [18308] .


574. 12th President Zachary Taylor [12939] was born on 24 Nov 1784 in Barboursville, Orange County, Virginia and died on 9 Jul 1850 in Washington D. C. at age 65.

General Notes: 12th President of the United States. A career soldier who never voted and served fewer than 500 days in the White House.

Zachary Taylor was a member of several prominent families. One forebearer was William Brewster, a Mayflower Pilgrim. James Madison was Taylor's second cousin and Robert E. Lee was also a kinsman. His father was a Lt Col in the Revolutionary War and his mother was Sarah Dabney Strother.

Taylor was born in Orange County, Virginia on November 24, 1784. As an infant he moved with his family to Jefferson County, Kentucky and grew to manhood on a farm near Louisville. He had little, if any schooling.

In 1808 he was commissioned a first lieutenant of infantry. He fought in the Black Hawk War and in the Indian fighting in Florida, winning the Battle of Okeechobee in 1837. In early 1846 he advanced to the supply base at Point Isabel, Brownsville, Texas. Nearby on April 25, 1846, 1,600 Mexican soldiers had crossed the river and surrounded an American detachment, and killed and captured it's members. This was the start of the Mexican War. After strengthening defenses at Point Isabel, Taylor and with a force of 2,228 marched on a search mission found himself surrounded by a blocking action of the Mexican Army on his return leg. The Mexicans outnumbered him two to one. On May 8th Mexican General Mariano Arista opened cannon fire and Taylor replied. Arista was surprised and fell back five miles.

Taylor gave chase. When the two forces met again, a stand-off resulted until many casualties were inflicted on both sides. The Mexican left flank eventually began to collapse and the Mexican Army, who had suffered three times the casualties as Taylor's force, retreated back across the Rio Grande.

Taylor was promoted to Major General and was given a troop of 6,641 to launch an attack on Monterrey, Northern Mexico's largest community. The attack began on September 21, 1846. It was urban, door to door fighting lasting three days. The Mexican General Pedro de Ampudia sued for a negotiated withdrawal; he would retreat and abandon the city if he could take his soldiers with him. Taylor accepted.

President James K. Polk, fearful of a popular General transferred all of Taylor's experienced soldiers to Winfield Scott leaving only 500 regulars among a force of 4,760.

Polk had given Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna safe passage through American lines in the hope he would assist in a peace negotiation. Santa Anna instead attacked Taylor, thus the Battle of Buena Vista on February 22-23, 1847. After two days Santa Anna retreated from the rugged terrain giving victory to Taylor.
---------------------

born November 24, 1784, Montebello, Virginia, U.S.
died July 9, 1850, Washington, D.C.


12th president of the United States (1849–50). Elected on the ticket of the Whig Party as a hero of the Mexican War (1846–48), he died only 16 months after taking office.

Taylor's parents, Richard Taylor and Mary Strother, migrated to Kentucky from Virginia shortly after Zachary, the third of their nine children, was born. After spending his boyhood on the Kentucky frontier, Taylor enlisted in the army in 1806 and was commissioned first lieutenant in the infantry in 1808. In 1810 he married Margaret Mackall Smith, with whom he had six children. His daughter Sarah Knox Taylor married Jefferson Davis, the future president of the Confederate States of America, in 1835, and his son Robert Taylor fought in the Civil War as a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army.

Taylor served in the army for almost 40 years, finally advancing to the rank of major general (1846). He commanded troops in the field in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War (1832), and the second of the Seminole Wars in Florida (1835–42), in which he won promotion to the rank of brigadier general for his leadership in the Battle of Lake Okeechobee (1837). In 1840 he was assigned to a post in Louisiana and established his home in Baton Rouge.

Soon after the annexation of Texas (1845), President James K. Polk ordered Taylor and an army of 4,000 men to the Rio Grande, opposite the Mexican city of Matamoros. A detachment of Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and engaged Taylor's forces in a skirmish (April 25, 1846) that marked the beginning of the Mexican War (or Mexican-American War). Two weeks later Mexican troops again crossed the river to challenge Taylor, whose forces decisively defeated the invaders on two successive days in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma (May 8 and 9). On May 13 the United States formally declared war on Mexico. Taylor then led his troops across the Rio Grande and advanced toward Monterrey, capturing the city on September 22–23 and granting the Mexican army an eight-week armistice, an action that displeased Polk. Taylor further alienated Polk by writing a letter, which found its way into the press, criticizing Polk and his secretary of war, William L. Marcy. Polk then ordered Taylor to confine his actions to those necessary for defensive purposes and transferred Taylor's best troops to the army of General Winfield Scott. The following February, however, Taylor disobeyed these orders and with his diminished force marched south and, in the Battle of Buena Vista, won a brilliant victory over a Mexican army that outnumbered his troops by about four to one.

Having thus won the north of Mexico, Taylor emerged as a hero and began to be seen by Whig politicians as a possible presidential candidate. At the Whig Party convention in 1848 Taylor gained the nomination on the fourth ballot. He defeated the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass, in the general election, winning the electoral college vote 163 to 127.

Taylor's brief administration was beset with problems, the most perplexing of which was the controversy over the extension of slavery into the newly acquired Mexican territories. By 1848 Taylor had come to oppose the creation of new slave states, and in December 1849 he called for immediate statehood for California, whose new constitution explicitly prohibited slavery. Southerners in Congress, who feared a permanent majority of free states in the Senate, fought bitterly against the proposal, and the controversy was not finally resolved until September of the following year (two months after Taylor's death), with the adoption of the Compromise of 1850. A further problem was the revelation in mid-1850 of financial improprieties on the part of three members of Taylor's cabinet. Deeply humiliated, Taylor, who prided himself on honesty, decided to reorganize his cabinet, but before he could do so he died suddenly of an attack of cholera. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore.



Noted events in his life were:

• Zachary Taylor: Twelfth President of the United States.

• Taylor Biography: Northerners and Southerners disputed sharply whether the territories wrested from Mexico should be opened to slavery, and some Southerners even threatened secession. Standing firm, Zachary Taylor was prepared to hold the Union together by armed force rather than compromise.

Born in Virginia in 1784, he was taken as an infant to Kentucky and raised on a plantation. He was a career officer in the Army, but his talk was most often of cotton raising. His home was in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and he owned a plantation in Mississippi.

Taylor did not defend slavery or southern sectionalism; 40 years in the Army made him a strong nationalist.

He spent a quarter of a century policing the frontiers against Indians. In the Mexican War he won major victories at Monterrey and Buena Vista.

President Polk, disturbed by General Taylor's informal habits of command and perhaps his Whiggery as well, kept him in northern Mexico City. Taylor, incensed, thought that "the battle of Buena Vista opened the road to the city of Mexico and the halls of Montezuma, that others might revel in them."

"Old Rough and Ready's" homespun ways were political assets. His long military record would appeal to northerners; his ownership of 100 slaves would lure southern votes. He had not committed himself on troublesome issues. The Whigs nominated him to run against the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass, who favored letting the residents of territories decide for themselves whether they wanted slavery.

In protest against Taylor the slaveholder and Cass the advocate of "squatter sovereignty", northerners who opposed extension of slavery into territories formed a Free Soil Party and nominated Martin Van Buren. In a close election, the Free Soilers pulled enough votes away from Cass to elect Taylor.

Although Taylor had subscribed to Whig principles of legislative leadership, he was not inclined to be a puppet of Whig leaders in Congress. He acted at times as though he were above both parties and politics. As disheveled as always, Taylor tried to run his administration in the same rule-of-thumb fashion with which he fought the Indians.

Traditionally, people could decide whether they wanted slavery when they drew up new state constitutions. Therefore, to end the dispute over slavery in new areas, Taylor urged settlers in New Mexico and California to draft constitutions and apply for statehood, bypassing the territorial stage.

Southerners were furious, since neither state constitution was likely to permit slavery; Members of Congress were dismayed, since they felt the President was usurping their policy-making prerogatives. In addition, Taylor's solution ignored several acute side issues: the northern dislike of the slave market operating in the District of Columbia; and the southern demands for a more stringent fugitive slave law.

In February 1850 President Taylor had held a stormy conference with southern leaders who threatened secession. He told them that if necessary to enforce the laws, he personally would lead the Army. Persons "taken in rebellion against the Union, he would hang . . . with less reluctance than he had hanged deserters and spies in Mexico." He never wavered.

Then events took an unexpected turn. After participating in ceremonies at the Washington Monument on a blistering July 4, Taylor fell ill; within five days he was dead. After his death, the forces of compromise triumphed, but the war Taylor had been willing to face came 11 years later. In it, his only son Richard served as a general in the Confederate Army.

• Cause of Death: Some historians believe that President Taylor might not have died of gastrointestinal ailments, but might have been poisoned with arsenic - his death having come at a critical time when the north/south strife in Congress had been reaching new emotional heights. The President had informed Congress of his position on slavery had refused to compromise.

Zachary married Margaret Mackall Smith [16835] [MRIN: 5626], daughter of Walter Smith [17064] and Ann Mackall [17065], on 21 Jun 1810 in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Margaret was born on 21 Sep 1788 in Calvert County, Maryland and died on 14 Aug 1852 in East Pascagoula, Mississippi at age 63.

General Notes: After the election of 1848, a passenger on a Mississippi riverboat struck up a conversation with easy-mannered Gen. Zachary Taylor, not knowing his identity. The passenger remarked that he didn't think the general qualified for the Presidency - - was the stranger "a Taylor man"? "Not much of one," came the reply. The general went on to say that he hadn't voted for Taylor, partly because his wife was opposed to sending "Old Zack" to Washington, "where she would be obliged to go with him!" It was a truthful answer.

Moreover, the story goes that Margaret Taylor had taken a vow during the Mexican War: If her husband returned safely, she would never go into society again. In fact she never did, though prepared for it by genteel upbringing.

"Peggy" Smith was born in Calvert County, Maryland, daughter of Ann Mackall and Walter Smith, a major in the Revolutionary War according to family tradition. In 1809, visiting a sister in Kentucky, she met young Lieutenant Taylor. They were married the following June, and for a while the young wife stayed on the farm given them as a wedding present by Zachary's father. She bore her first baby there, but cheerfully followed her husband from one remote garrison to another along the western frontier of civilization. An admiring civilian official cited her as one of the "delicate females . . . reared in tenderness" who had to educate "worthy and most interesting" children at a fort in Indian country.

Two small girls died in 1820 of what Taylor called "a bilious fever," which left their mother's health impaired; three girls and a boy grew up. Knowing the hardships of a military wife, Taylor opposed his daughter's marrying career soldiers - - but each eventually married into the Army.

The second daughter, Knox, married Lt. Jefferson Davis in gentle defiance of her parents. In a loving letter home, she imagined her mother skimming milk in the cellar or going out to feed the chickens. Within three months of her wedding, Knox died of malaria. Taylor was not reconciled to Davis until they fought together in Mexico; in Washington the second Mrs. Davis became a good friend of Mrs. Taylor's, often calling on her at the White House.

Though Peggy Taylor welcomed friends and kinfolk in her upstairs sitting room, presided at the family table, met special groups at her husbands side, and worshiped regularly at St. John's Episcopal Church, she took no part in formal social functions. She relegated all the duties of official hostess to her youngest daughter, Mary Elizabeth, then 25 and recent bride to Lt. Col. William W. S. Bliss, adjutant and secretary to the President. Betty Bliss filled her role admirably. One observer thought that her manner blended "the artlessness of a rustic belle and grace of a duchess."


Children from this marriage were:

   750 F    i. Ann Mackall Taylor [17069] was born in 1811 and died in 1875 at age 64.

   751 F    ii. Sarah Knox Taylor [17066] was born in 1814 and died in 1835 at age 21.

General Notes: Died from Malaria.

Sarah married Jefferson Davis [17067] [MRIN: 5737].

   752 F    iii. Octavia P. Taylor [17070] was born in 1816 and died in 1820 at age 4.

   753 F    iv. Margaret Smith Taylor [17071] was born in 1819 and died in 1820 at age 1.

   754 F    v. Mary Elizabeth Taylor [17068] was born in 1824 and died in 1909 at age 85.

   755 M    vi. Richard Taylor [16836] was born on 27 Jan 1826 in "Springfields", Louisville, Kentucky and died in Apr 1879 in New York City at age 53.

Noted events in his life were:

• General Richard Taylor CSA: Richard Taylor was born January 27, 1826 at "Springfields" near Louisville, Kentucky. The son of former President Zachary Taylor, he was educated in Europe, then Harvard and Yale. Taylor was also the former brother-in-law of future Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and a powerful planter and Louisiana state senator. He joined the Confederacy and, with almost no previous military experience, took command of the 9th Louisiana Infantry Regiment in July 1861. Proving himself an able combat commander, he was promoted to Brigadier General on October 21, 1861, Major General on July 28, 1862 and Lieutenant General to rank from April 8, 1864. He served in Virginia, Mississippi and Louisiana and is remembered for his victory over Major General Nathaniel P. Banks at Mansfield, Louisiana and his successes in the Red River Campaign. After the Civil War, Taylor wrote his "Destruction and Reconstruction" (1879). The memoir was publish a week before his death in New York City on April 12, 1879.

580. Abiah Hyde [18393] was born on 27 Dec 1749 in Norwich, CT and died on 23 Aug 1788 in Norwich, CT at age 38.

Abiah married Rev. Aaron Cleveland II [18394] [MRIN: 6268] on 12 Apr 1768 in Norwich, CT. Aaron was born on 2 Feb 1744 in East Haddam, CT and died on 21 Sep 1815 in New Haven, CT at age 71.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 756 M    i. William Cleveland [18395] was born on 20 Dec 1770 in Norwich, CT and died on 18 Aug 1837 in Black Rock, New York at age 66.


582. Abigail Smith [18426] was born on 22 Nov 1744 in Weymouth, Massachusetts and died on 28 Oct 1818 in Quincy, Massachusetts at age 73.

General Notes: Married at the home of her parents in Weymouth, Massachusetts. As a child she was too sick to send to school. Thus she was "self-educated".

Her wedding attire was: a square-necked gown of white challis. The groom wore a dark blue coat, contrasting light breeches and white stockings, a gold embroidered satin waistcoat and buckles shoes.

As First Lady she moved to Washington, the first to do so. There her heath suffered and she returned to Massachusetts where she remained for the remainder of her life. Died of Typhoid Fever October 28, 1818.



Abigail married 2nd President John Adams [18427] [MRIN: 6285], son of John Adams [20090] and Susanna Boylston [20091], on 25 Oct 1764 in Weymouth, Massachusetts. John was born on 30 Oct 1735 in Quincy, Massachusetts and died on 4 Jul 1826 in Quincy, Massachusetts at age 90.

General Notes: born October 30, 1735, Braintree [now in Quincy], Mass. [U.S.]
died July 4, 1826, Quincy

An early advocate of American independence from Great Britain, major figure in the Continental Congress (1774–77), author of the Massachusetts constitution (1780), signer of the Treaty of Paris (1783), first American ambassador to the Court of St. James (1785–88), first vice president (1789–97) and second president (1797–1801) of the United States. Although Adams was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the most significant statesmen of the revolutionary era, his reputation faded in the 19th century, only to ascend again during the last half of the 20th century. The modern edition of his correspondence prompted are discovery of his bracing honesty and pungent way with words, his importance as a political thinker, his realistic perspective on American foreign policy, and his patriarchal role as founder of one of the most prominent families in American history.

Adams was the eldest of the three sons of Deacon John Adams and Susanna Boylston of Braintree, Massachusetts. His father was only a farmer and shoemaker, but the Adams family could trace its lineage back to the first generation of Puritan settlers in New England. A local selectman and a leader in the community, Deacon Adams encouraged his eldest son to aspire toward a career in the ministry. In keeping with that goal, Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1755. For the next three years, he taught grammar school in Worcester, Massachusetts, while contemplating his future. He eventually chose law rather than the ministry and in 1758 moved back to Braintree, then soon began practicing law in nearby Boston.

In 1764 Adams married Abigail Smith, a minister's daughter from neighboring Weymouth. Intelligent, well-read, vivacious, and just as fiercely independent as her new husband, Abigail Adams became a confidante and political partner who helped to stabilize and sustain the ever-irascible and highly volatile Adams throughout his long career. The letters between them afford an extended glimpse into their deepest thoughts and emotions and provide modern readers with the most revealing record of personal intimacy between husband and wife in the revolutionary era. Their first child, Abigail Amelia, was born in 1765. Their first son, John Quincy, arrived two years later. Two other sons, Thomas Boylston and Charles, followed shortly thereafter.

By then Adams's legal career was on the rise, and he had become a visible member of the resistance movement that questioned Parliament's right to tax the American colonies. In 1765 Adams published A Dissertation on the Canon and Federal Law, which justified opposition to the recently enacted Stamp Act—an effort to raise revenue by requiring all publications and legal documents to bear a stamp—by arguing that Parliament's intrusions into colonial affairs exposed the inherently coercive and corrupt character of English politics. Intensely combative, full of private doubts about his own capacities but never about his cause, Adams became a leading figure in the opposition to the Townshend Acts (1767), which imposed duties on imported commodities (i.e., glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea). Despite his hostility toward the British government, in 1770 Adams agreed to defend the British soldiers who had fired on a Boston crowd in what became known as the Boston Massacre. His insistence on upholding the legal rights of the soldiers, who in fact had been provoked, made him temporarily unpopular but also marked him as one of the most principled radicals in the burgeoning movement for American independence. He had a penchant for doing the right thing, most especially when it made him unpopular.

In the summer of 1774, Adams was elected to the Massachusetts delegation that joined the representatives from 12 of 13 colonies in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress. He and his cousin, Samuel Adams, quickly became the leaders of the radical faction, which rejected the prospects for reconciliation with Britain. His “Novanglus” essays, published early in 1775, moved the constitutional argument forward another notch, insisting that Parliament lacked the authority not just to tax the colonies but also to legislate for them in any way. (Less than a year earlier, Thomas Jefferson had made a similar argument against parliamentary authority in A Summary View of the Rights of British America.)

By the time the Second Continental Congress convened in 1775, Adams had gained the reputation as "the Atlas of independence." Over the course of the following year, he made several major contributions to the patriot cause destined to ensure his place in American history. First, he nominated George Washington to serve as commander of the fledging Continental Army. Second, he selected Jefferson to draft the Declaration of Independence. (Both decisions were designed to ensure Virginia's support for the revolution.) Third, he dominated the debate in the Congress on July 2–4, 1776, defending Jefferson's draft of the declaration and demanding unanimous support for a decisive break with Great Britain. Moreover, he had written Thoughts on Government, which circulated throughout the colonies as the major guidebook for the drafting of new state constitutions.

Adams remained the central figure of the Continental Congress for the following two years. He drafted the Plan of Treaties in July 1776, a document that provided the framework for a treaty with France and that almost inadvertently identified the strategic priorities that would shape American foreign policy over the next century. He was the unanimous choice to head the Board of War and Ordnance and was thereby made in effect a one-man war department responsible for raising and equipping the American army and creating from scratch an American navy. As the prospects for a crucial wartime alliance with France improved late in 1777, he was chosen to join Benjamin Franklin in Paris to conduct the negotiations. In February 1778 he sailed for Europe, accompanied by 10-year-old John Quincy.

By the time Adams arrived in Paris, the treaty creating an alliance with France had already been concluded. He quickly returned home in the summer of 1779, just in time to join the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention. The other delegates, acknowledging his constitutional expertise, simply handed him the job of drafting what became the Massachusetts constitution (1780), which immediately became the model for the other state constitutions and—in its insistence on a bicameral legislature and the separation of powers—a major influence on the United States Constitution.

The Congress then ordered Adams to rejoin Franklin in Paris to lead the American delegation responsible for negotiating an end to the war with Britain. This time he took along his youngest son, Charles, as well as John Quincy, leaving Abigail to tend the farm and the other two children in Braintree. Not until 1784, almost five years later, was the entire family reunited in Paris. By then Adams had shown himself an unnatural diplomat, exhibiting a level of candor and a confrontational style toward both English and French negotiators that alienated Franklin, who came to regard his colleague as slightly deranged. Adams, for his part, thought Franklin excessively impressed with his own stature as the Gallic version of the American genius and therefore inadequately attuned to the important differences between American and French interests in the peace negotiations. The favorable terms achieved in the Treaty of Paris (1783) can be attributed to the effective blend of Franklin's discretion and Adams's bulldog temperament. Adams's reputation for emotional explosions also dates from this period. Recent scholarly studies suggest that he might have suffered from a hyperthyroid condition subsequently known as Graves' disease.

In 1784 Jefferson arrived in Paris to replace Franklin as the American minister at the French court. Over the next few months, Jefferson became an unofficial member of the Adams family, and the bond of friendship between Adams and Jefferson was sealed, a lifelong partnership and rivalry that made the combative New Englander and the elegant Virginian the odd couple of the American Revolution. Jefferson also visited the Adams family in England in 1785, after Adams had assumed his new post as American ambassador in London. The two men also joined forces, though Adams as the senior figure assumed the lead, in negotiating a $400,000 loan from Dutch bankers that allowed the American government to consolidate its European debts.

Because he was the official embodiment of American independence from the British Empire, Adams was largely ignored and relegated to the periphery of the court during his nearly three years in London. Still brimming with energy, he spent his time studying the history of European politics for patterns and lessons that might assist the fledgling American government in its efforts to achieve what no major European nation had managed to produce—namely, a stable republican form of government.

The result was a massive and motley three-volume collection of quotations, unacknowledged citations, and personal observations entitled A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America (1787). A fourth volume, Discourses on Davila (1790), was published soon after he returned to the United States. Taken together, these lengthy tomes contained Adams's distinctive insights as a political thinker. The lack of organization, combined with the sprawling style of the Defence, however, made its core message difficult to follow or fathom. When read in the context of his voluminous correspondence on political issues, along with the extensive marginalia he recorded in the several thousand books in his personal library, that message became clearer with time.

Adams wished to warn his fellow Americans against all revolutionary manifestos that envisioned a fundamental break with the past and a fundamental transformation in human nature or society that supposedly produced a new age. All such utopian expectations were illusions, he believed, driven by what he called "ideology," the belief that imagined ideals, so real and seductive in theory, were capable of being implemented in the world. The same kind of conflict between different classes that had bedeviled medieval Europe would, albeit in muted forms, also afflict the United States, because the seeds of such competition were planted in human nature itself. Adams blended the psychological insights of New England Puritanism, with its emphasis on the emotional forces throbbing inside all creatures, and the Enlightenment belief that government must contain and control those forces, to construct a political system capable of balancing the ambitions of individuals and competing social classes.

His insistence that elites were unavoidable realities in all societies, however, made him vulnerable to the charge of endorsing aristocratic rule in America, when in fact he was attempting to suggest that the inevitable American elite must be controlled, its ambitions channeled toward public purposes. He also was accused of endorsing monarchical principles because he argued that the chief executive in the American government, like the king in medieval European society, must possess sufficient power to check the ravenous appetites of the propertied classes. Although misunderstood by many of his contemporaries, the realistic perspective Adams proposed—and the skepticism toward utopian schemes he insisted upon—has achieved considerable support in the wake of the failed 20th-century attempts at social transformation in the communist bloc. In Adams's own day, his political analysis enjoyed the satisfaction of correctly predicting that the French Revolution would lead to the Reign of Terror and eventual despotism by a military dictator.

Soon after his return to the United States, Adams found himself on the ballot in the presidential election of 1789. He finished second to Washington (69 votes to 34 votes), which signaled three political realities: first, his standing as a leading member of the revolutionary generation was superseded only by that of Washington himself; second, his combative style and his recent political writings had hurt his reputation enough to preclude the kind of overwhelming support Washington enjoyed; third, according to the electoral rules established in the recent ratified Constitution, he was America's first vice president.

This meant that Adams was the first American statesman to experience the paradox of being a heartbeat away from maximum power while languishing in the political version of a cul-de-sac. Adams himself described the vice presidency as "the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived." His main duty was to serve as president pro tem of the Senate, casting a vote only to break a tie. During his eight years in office, Adams cast between 31 and 38 such votes, more than any subsequent vice president in American history. He steadfastly supported all the major initiatives of the Washington administration, including the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton, the Neutrality Proclamation (1793), which effectively ended the Franco-American Alliance of 1778, the forceful suppression of an insurrection in western Pennsylvania called the Whiskey Rebellion (1794), and the Jay Treaty (1795), a highly controversial effort to avoid war with England by accepting British hegemony on the high seas. When Washington announced his decision not to seek a third term in 1796, Adams was the logical choice to succeed him.

In the first contested presidential election in American history, Adams won a narrow electoral majority (71–68) over Jefferson, who thereby became vice president. Adams made an initial effort to bring Jefferson into the cabinet and involve him in shaping foreign policy, but Jefferson declined the offer, preferring to retain his independence. This burdened the Adams presidency with a vice president who was the acknowledged head of the rival political party, the Republicans. Additional burdens included: inheritance of Washington's cabinet, whom Adams unwisely decided to retain, and whose highest loyalty was to Washington's memory as embodied in Hamilton; a raging naval conflict with the French in the Caribbean dubbed the "quasi-war"; and the impossible task of succeeding—no one could replace—the greatest hero of the revolutionary era.

Despite Washington's plea for a bipartisan foreign policy in his farewell address (1796), the "quasi-war" produced a bitter political argument between Federalists, who preferred war with France to alienating Britain, and Republicans, who viewed France as America's only European ally and the French Revolution as a continuation of the American Revolution on European soil. Adams attempted to steer a middle course between these partisan camps, which left him vulnerable to political attacks from both sides. In 1797 he sent a peace delegation to Paris to negotiate an end to hostilities, but when the French directory demanded bribes before any negotiations could begin, Adams ordered the delegates home and began a naval buildup in preparation for outright war. The Federalist-dominated Congress called for raising a 30,000-man army, which Adams agreed to reluctantly. If Adams had requested a declaration of war in 1798, he would have enjoyed widespread popularity and virtually certain reelection two years later. Instead, he acted with characteristic independence by sending yet another, and this time successful, peace delegation to France against the advice of his cabinet and his Federalist supporters. The move ruined him politically but avoided a costly war that the infant American republic was ill-prepared to fight. It was a vintage Adams performance, reminiscent of his defense of British soldiers after the Boston Massacre, which was also principled and unpopular.

If ending the "quasi-war" with France was Adams's major foreign policy triumph, his chief domestic failure was passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798), which permitted the government to deport foreign-born residents and indict newspaper editors or writers who published "false, scandalous, and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States." A total of 14 indictments were brought against the Republican press under the sedition act, but the crudely partisan prosecutions quickly became infamous persecutions that backfired on the Federalists. Although Adams had signed the Alien and Sedition Acts under pressure from the Federalists in Congress, he shouldered most of the blame both at the time and in the history books. He came to regard the sedition act as the biggest political blunder of his life.

The election of 1800 again pitted Adams against Jefferson. Adams ran ahead of the Federalist candidates for Congress, who were swept from office in a Republican landslide. However, thanks to the deft maneuvering of Aaron Burr, all 12 of New York's electoral votes went to Jefferson, giving the tandem of Jefferson and Burr the electoral victory (73–65). Jefferson was eventually elected president by the House of Representatives, which chose him over Burr on the 36th ballot. In his last weeks in office, Adams made several Federalist appointments to the judiciary, including John Marshall as chief justice of the United States. These "midnight judges" offended Jefferson, who resented the encroachment on his own presidential prerogatives. Adams, the first president to reside in the presidential mansion in Washington, D.C., was also the first—and one of the very few—presidents not to attend the inauguration of his successor. On March 4, 1801, he was already on the road back to Quincy.

At age 65 Adams did not anticipate a long retirement. The fates proved more generous than he expected, providing him with another quarter century to brood about his career and life, add to the extensive marginalia in his books, settle old scores in his memoirs, watch with pride when John Quincy assumed the presidency, and add to his already vast and voluminous correspondence. In an extensive exchange of letters with Benjamin Rush, the Philadelphia physician and patriotic gadfly, Adams revealed his preoccupation with fame and developed his own theory of the role ambition plays in motivating man to public service. Along the way he placed on the record his own candid and often critical portraits of the other vanguard members of the revolutionary generation.

In 1812, thanks in part to prodding from Rush, he overcame his bitterness toward Jefferson and initiated a correspondence with his former friend and rival that totaled 158 letters. Generally regarded as the most intellectually impressive correspondence between American statesmen in all of American history, the dialogue between Adams and Jefferson touched on a host of timely and timeless subjects: the role of religion in history, the aging process, the emergence of an American language, the French Revolution, and the party battles of the 1790's. Adams put it most poignantly to Jefferson:"You and I ought not to die, before we have explained ourselves to each other."

More than the elegiac tone of the letters, the correspondence dramatized the contradictory impulses generated by the American Revolution and symbolized by the two aging patriarchs. Adams was the realist, the skeptic, the principled pessimist. Jefferson was the idealist, the romantic, the pragmatic optimist. As if according to a script written by providence, the “Sage of Quincy” and the “Sage of Monticello” died within hours of each other on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary to the day of the Declaration of Independence.

Summary of John Adams Pre-Presidential life Experience:
1. Named after his father.
2. 5' 6" tall.
3. Puritan. Unitarian branch of Congregationalism.
4. Taught to read by his father.
5. Excelled in math in his youth.
6. Four years at Harvard graduating in 1755.
7. Studied law and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1758.
8. Walked for exercise.
9. Courted Hannah Quincy daughter of Col. Josiah Quincy.
10. Successfully defended John Hancock in a smuggling case.
11. Defended the British Soldiers of the Boston Massacre.
12. Member of the Massachusetts Legislature 1770-1774.
13. Member of the Continental Congress 1774-1777.
14. Delegate to France 1778-1788.
15. Vice President 1789-1797.



Children from this marriage were:

   757 F    i. Abigail Adams [18430] was born on 14 Jul 1765 and died on 13 Aug 1813 at age 48.

General Notes: Broke off her engagement to Royall Tyler, a high-spirited irresponsible youth and married William Stephens Smith. She died of cancer.

Abigail married William Stephens Smith [23457] [MRIN: 7906] in 1784.

General Notes: Surveyor of the Port of New York. U.S. Congressman from 1813-1815.

+ 758 M    ii. 6th President John Quincy Adams [18428] was born on 11 Jul 1767 in Quincy, Massachusetts and died on 23 Feb 1848 in Speaker's Room. Congress, Washington D. C. at age 80.

   759 F    iii. Susanna Adams [20089] was born on 23 Dec 1768 and died on 4 Feb 1770 at age 1.

   760 M    iv. Charles Adams [18432] was born on 29 May 1770 and died about 1800 about age 30.

General Notes: Bright, engaging; died of alcoholism.

   761 M    v. Thomas Boylston Adams [18431] was born on 15 Sep 1772.

General Notes: In his first case as a trial lawyer, he defended the owners of a local brothel. He built a practice in Philadelphia and served as secretary to his brother, John Quincy Adams. He too drank excessively and died in debt.

585. Rebecca Smith [18439] was born c1734 and died on 25 Nov 1809 at age 75.

Rebecca married John Aspinwall [18440] [MRIN: 6290] on 5 Jun 1766. John died on 15 Jul 1774.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 762 M    i. John Aspinwall [18441] was born on 10 Feb 1774 and died on 6 Oct 1847 at age 73.

586. Hannah Ruck [18352] was born in 1702 and died about 1767 about age 65.

Hannah married Theophilus Lillie [18353] [MRIN: 6245] in 1725 in Boston, Massachusetts. Theophilus was born in 1690 and died in 1760 at age 70.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 763 M    i. John Lillie [18354] was born on 8 Aug 1728 in Boston, Massachusetts and died before 1766.

587. William Monroe [18490] was born in 1666 and died in 1737 at age 71.

William married.

His child was:

+ 764 M    i. Andrew Monroe [18491] died in 1735.

588. Major James Stephen Bulloch [18548] was born c1793 and died in 1849 at age 56.

James married Martha Stewart [18549] [MRIN: 6349]. Martha was born c1799 and died c1862 at age 63.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 765 F    i. Martha Bulloch [18550] was born on 8 Jul 1834 and died on 14 Feb 1884 at age 49.


591. Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee [12902] was born on 19 Jan 1756 in Stratford, Virginia, died on 25 Mar 1818 in Cumberland Island, Georgia at age 62, and was buried in Greene's Private Cemetery, Dungeness, Cumberland Island, Georgia.

General Notes: Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, born at Leesylvania near Dunfries, Virginia, was blonde, blue-eyed, and full of spirit. He graduated from Princeton in 1773 and returned home to prepared for war. His skill as a horseman, as well as his temperament, made him a natural cavalryman. He soon was commissioned as Captain in the fifth group of Virginia Light Dragoons and sent north to join the Continental Army.

Leading his men on lightning raids against enemy supply trains, Harry attracted the attention and admiration of General Washington and was rapidly promoted. In a surprise attack at Paulus Hook, New Jersey, he captured 400 British soldiers with the loss of only one man. His adroit horsemanship soon earned him the nickname "Light Horse Harry". When the military theatre shifted, he enjoyed equal success in the Southern Campaign.

Resigning his commission after the British surrender at Yorktown, Harry returned to Virginia to marry his cousin, the "divine Matilda" Lee. The wedding took place at Stratford and it is said that General Washington contributed several pipes of his best Madeira to the festive occasion. Matilda had inherited Stratford in the division of her father's estate and lived there with her new husband. The dashing young cavalryman, however, was no farmer. His interests in the livelier arena of politics led to Harry's election to the new Virginia House of Delegates. After only eight years of marriage, Matilda died in 1790, leaving three young children and a grief stricken husband.

Two years later, Harry was elected Governor of Virginia, serving three one-year terms. While living in Richmond, he fell in love with Ann Hill Carter of nearby Shirley Plantation. In 1793 they were married. His governorship behind him, he took his bride to Stratford.

Again, family life was interrupted by his appointment to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Upon the death of President George Washington, Harry was asked by Congress to deliver a tribute to his beloved general, describing him for posterity:

"First in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen . . . second to none in the humble and endearing scenes of private life."

After the death of his idol, Harry's fortunes began to decline rapidly. The support of a family of six coupled with disastrous land speculation, reduced him to financial poverty, then, on January 19, 1807, in the large upstairs room at Stratford where so many Lees had come into the world, Ann gave birth to their fifth son, Robert Edward, named after two of his mother's favorite brothers. As Robert was learning to walk, his father was carried off to a debtor's prison in Montross.

With characteristic courage in a 12 by 15 foot prison cell, Harry wrote his "Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States", still the standard text on that portion of the Revolutionary War. When the book was finished in 1810, the family moved to Alexandria where a new life on a modest scale was made possible by a legacy from Ann's father. Harry's eldest son, Henry, became master of Stratford.

Light Horse Harry's last years were marred by sorrow and pain. Internal injuries received when he was beaten by a mob as he defended a friend and freedom of the press in Baltimore, kept him in constant physical pain. He sought relief in the warm climate of the West Indies. When his health continued to decline, Harry attempted to return home but died on Cumberland Island, Georgia, in the home of the daughter of his former commander, Nathaniel Greene.
------------

By the Spring of 1790, American politicians such as George Washington and John Adams had cause to worry about the survival of the Union to which they had devoted their careers. Southerners remained angry over their inability to establish the capital on the Potomac and the northern demand that the federal government assume all state debts. Northerners expressed their frustrations openly, especially after the House rejected assumption on April 12. Prominent men in both sections began to question the viability of the Union. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee wrote Madison that he would "rather myself submit to all the hazards of war and risk the loss of everything dear to me in life, than to live under the rule of a fixed insolent northern majority."

LETTER TO REP JAMES MADISON OF VIRGINIA FROM HENRY LEE, April 3, 1790.

Dear Sir

I am induced to address you on a subject which violates the rule I had lately prescribed to myself with respect to our public affairs.

A youth the son of Mr. Thomas L. Lee to whom I believe you was intimately known met me this morning on the road.

Bred to the mercantile line in one of the most respectable houses in our country and cut off from his expectations there, by the death of his principal Mr. Ritchie who was killed the other day in a duel, he is anxious to obtain a place in some of the departments of the general government. He is very humble in his wishes & is most solicitous to produce a birth under a character from whose example he will derive instruction & on whose patronage he can rely. He mentioned Mr. Jefferson & said that his deceased father & Mr. J he understood had been very friendly from an early acquaintance. I promised to write Mr. J on the subject which I have accordingly done & will thank you if you remind him of the matter, provided you can do it consistently with your mode of conduct. If the government should continue to exist, which by the bye is more & more eventful, the introduction of the southern youth as clerks in the high departments of the nation seems to me to be as sure tho slow means of Aiding the southern influence. They become as it were from their official education owners of the ministerial functions if their conduct & talents correspond with their prospective stations.

I wish our southern gentlemen would in due time attend to this material truth - if they do not a monopoly will take place from the northern hives in this, as in everything else in their power.

On the score of propriety & repose I had determined to suppress my anxious attention to the prosperity of the national government, for I really know not what conduct I may feel myself bound to observe in consequence of the mad policy which seems to direct the doings of Congress.

Therefore for the sake of propriety I wish to be done with government. On the score of tranquility & peace I am also desirous to be quiet, for every day adds testimony of the growing ill will of the people here to the government. To risk repose when good can result from it & the object in view is clearly right, I hold to be the indefensible duty of every good citizen, nor will I ever disobey the sacred injunction, but to do it in reverse circumstances is pursuing the commands of temerity and folly. Henry already is considered as a prophet, his predictions are daily verifying. His declaration with respect to the division of interest which would exist under the constitution and predominate in all the doings of the government already has been undeniably proved.

But we are committed and we cannot be relieved I fear only by disunion. To disunite is dreadful to my mind, but dreadful as it is, I consider it a lesser evil than union on the present conditions.

I had rather myself submit to all the hazards of war and risk the loss of everything dear to me in life, than to live under the rule of a fixed insolent northern majority. At present this is the case, nor do I see any prospect of alteration or alleviation.

Change of the seat of government to the territorial center, direct taxation and the abolition of gambling systems of finance might and would effect a material change. But these suggestions are vain and idle. No policy will be adopted by Congress which does more or less tend to depress the south and exalt the north. I have heard it asserted that your vice president should say the southern people were formed by nature to subserve the convenience and interests of the north. Very soon will his assertion be thoroughly exemplified. How do you feel, what do you think, is your love for the constitution so ardent, as to induce you to adhere to it tho it should produce ruin to your native country. I hope not, I believe not. However I will be done for it is disagreeable to utter unpleasant opinions. Yours always-

H. Lee

1756 - Henry Lee is born in Leesylvania, Prince William County, Virginia
1773 - Henry Lee graduates from Princeton.
1776 - Henry Lee is commissioned a Captain in Bland's Regiment of Virginia Light Cavalry.
1777 - Joins General George Washington's main army.
1778 - January 20 - Lee skirmishes with Captain Banatre Tarleton at the Spread Eagle Tave near Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
1779 - August 19 - Lee captures the fort at Paulus Hook (Jersey City), New Jersey.
1779 - October 21 - Lee's Legion is formed with three companies of infantry to his cavalry.
1779 - November 6 - Lee is promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.
1781 - January 13 - Lee arrives in South Carolina.
1781 - January 24 - Lee joins Francis Marion (Swamp Fox) in actions at Georgetown, SC.
1781 - February 25 - Lee defeats Tory forces at Haw River, North Carolina.
1781 - March 15 - Lee is a part of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
1781 - April 15/23 - Lee and Francis Marion lay siege to Fort Watson, South Carolina
1781 - May 12 - Lee and Francis Marion secure the surrender of Fort Motte, South Carolina
1781 - May 15 - Lee secures the surrender of Fort Galphin, South Carolina
1781 - May 23/June 4 - Henry Lee supports the siege of Augusta, Georgia
1781 - June 8-19 - Henry Lee and Major General Nathaniel Greene lay siege to Post 96, South Carolina.
1781 - September 7 - Lee participates in the Battle of Eutaw Springs, South Carolina
1781 - October - Henry Lee is present at General George Washington's siege at Yorktown.
1781 - December 1 - Henry Lee sees action at Dorchester, South Carolina
1782 - February - Henry Lee is granted a leave of absence. He marries Matilda Lee.
1785 - Henry Lee is elected to Congress. Serves until 1788.
1790 - Matilda dies.
1791 - Henry Lee is elected governor of Virginia
1793 - Henry Lee marries Ann Carter Hill at Shirley Plantation, Virginia
1794 - Henry Lee commands troops at the Whiskey Rebellion.
1799 - Lee is elected to Congress
1802 - September 2 - Henry Lee's son, Sydney Smith Lee is born at Camden, New Jersey.
1807 - Henry Lee's son Robert Edward Lee is born at Stratford Hall, Virginia
1812 - Lee is severely injured during a riot - spends time in a debtors prison - writes Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department 1813 - Henry Lee sails for the West Indies to recuperate
1818 - March 25 - Henry Lee dies on Cumberland Island, Georgia.

Henry married Matilda Lee [12904] [MRIN: 4293], daughter of Philip Ludwell Lee [12780] and Elizabeth Steptoe [12779], in 1782. Matilda was born in 1764 in Stratford, Virginia and died in 1790 at age 26.

Noted events in her life were:

• Alt. Birth: Alt. Birth, 1764.

• Alt. Death: Alt. Death, Abt 1790.

Children from this marriage were:

   766 F    i. Lucy Grymes Lee [12921] was born in 1786 and died in 1860 at age 74.

+ 767 M    ii. Henry (Black Horse Harry) Lee [12922] was born in 1787 in Startford Hall, Northumberland, Virginia and died on 30 Jan 1838 in Paris, Frances at age 51.

Henry next married Ann Hill Carter [12897] [MRIN: 4292] in 1793 in Stratford Hall, Westmoreland County, Virginia. Ann was born in Oct 1773 in Shirley Plantation, James River, Virginia, died on 29 Jul 1829 in Ravensworth Plantation, Fairfax County, Virginia at age 55, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

Children from this marriage were:

   768 M    i. Algernon Sydney Lee [12908] was born on 2 Apr 1795 in Stratford, Virginia, died on 9 Aug 1796 in Westmoreland County, Virginia at age 1, and was buried in Sulley, Virginia.

   769 U    ii. Unknown Lee [12907] was born in 1797.

   770 M    iii. Charles Carter Lee [12909] was born on 8 Nov 1798 and died on 21 Mar 1871 at age 72.

   771 F    iv. Anne Kinloch Lee [12910] was born on 19 Jun 1800 and died on 20 Feb 1864 at age 63.

   772 M    v. Sydney Smith Lee [12911] was born on 2 Sep 1802 in Camden, New Jersey and died on 22 Jul 1869 at age 66.

+ 773 M    vi. Robert Edward Lee [12905] was born on 19 Jan 1807 in Stratford Hall, Virginia, died on 12 Oct 1870 in Lexington, Virginia at age 63, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

   774 F    vii. Catherine Mildred Lee [12912] was born on 27 Feb 1811 in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died in 1856 in Paris, France at age 45.

592. Charles Lee [12866] was born in 1758 in Alexandria County, Virginia, died on 24 Jun 1815 in Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 57, and was buried in Turkey Run Church.

General Notes: General Charles Lee. Served as Attorney General from 1795 - 1801 under President John Adams. He defended Aaron Burr and the famous treason trial.

Charles married Anne Lee [12854] [MRIN: 4288], daughter of Richard Henry Lee [12805] and Anne Gaskins Pinkard [12817], in 1789. Anne was born on 1 Dec 1770 in Chantilly, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 9 Sep 1804 in Alexandria County, Virginia at age 33.

Children from this marriage were:

   775 F    i. Anne Lucinda Lee [12868] was born in 1790 and died in 1845 at age 55.

   776 M    ii. Son Lee [12869] was born in 1791 and died in 1792 at age 1.

   777 M    iii. Richard Henry Lee [12870] was born in Feb 1793 and died in Mar 1793.

   778 M    iv. Charles Henry Lee [12871] was born in Oct 1794.

   779 M    v. William Authur Lee [12872] was born in Sep 1796.

   780 M    vi. Alfred Lee [12873] was born in 1799 and died in 1865 at age 66.

Charles next married Margaret Christian Scott [12867] [MRIN: 4287] in 1809. Margaret was born about 1795.

General Notes: Margaret had a previous marriage to Mr. Peyton. After Charles Lee passed away, she married John Glassell.


Children from this marriage were:

   781 M    i. Robert Eden Lee [12874] was born in 1810 and died in 1843 at age 33.

   782 F    ii. Elizabeth Gordon Lee [12875] was born in 1813.

   783 M    iii. Alexander Lee [12876] was born in 1815 and died in 1815.

596. Edmund Jennings Lee [12895] was born on 20 May 1772 and died on 30 May 1843 at age 71.

Edmund married Sarah Lee [12858] [MRIN: 4302], daughter of Richard Henry Lee [12805] and Anne Gaskins Pinkard [12817], in Feb 1789 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Sarah was born on 27 Dec 1775 in Chantilly, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 8 May 1837 in Alexandria County, Virginia at age 61.

Noted events in her life were:

• Alt. Birth: Alt. Birth, 27 Nov 1775.

Children from this marriage were:

   784 M    i. Edmund Jennings Lee [12941] was born in 1797 and died in 1877 at age 80.

   785 F    ii. Anne Harriotte Lee [12942] was born in 1799.

   786 F    iii. Sarah Lee [12943] .

   787 M    iv. William Fitzhugh Lee [12944] was born in 1804 in Alexandria County, Virginia and died on 19 May 1837 in Virginia at age 33.

William married Mary Catherine Simms Chilton [12945] [MRIN: 4306].

   788 F    v. Hannah Lee [12946] was born in 1806.

   789 M    vi. Cassius Francis Lee [12947] was born in 1808.

Cassius married Hannah Philippa Ludwell Hopkins [12948] [MRIN: 4307].

   790 F    vii. Susan Meade Lee [12949] was born in 1814.

   791 M    viii. Richard Henry Lee [12950] .

611. Hon. Robert Beverley [23496] was born on 12 Mar 1769 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died in May 1843 at age 74.

Robert married Jane Tayloe [23497] [MRIN: 7934], daughter of John Tayloe [23528] and Rebecca Plater [23529]. Jane was born in Mar 1777 in Mt. Airy, Richmond County, Virginia and died on 10 May 1816 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia at age 39.

Children from this marriage were:

   792 M    i. William Bradshaw Beverley [23530] was born in 1791 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia, died on 11 Nov 1866 in Selma, Loudon County, Virginia at age 75, and was buried in Leesburg, Virginia.

General Notes: Cotton Merchant. Graduate of Dickinson College.

+ 793 M    ii. James Bradshaw Beverley [23531] was born in 1797 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 15 Jun 1853 in Selma, Loudon County, Virginia at age 56.

   794 F    iii. Maria Beverley [23533] was buried in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia.

Maria married Dr. George Clarke [23534] [MRIN: 7951].

   795 F    iv. Rebecca Tayloe Beverley [23535] died on 28 Oct 1822 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia.

   796 F    v. Jane Bradshaw Beverley [23536] was born in 1805 and died on 22 Oct 1822 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia at age 17.

   797 F    vi. Roberta Beverley [23537] .

Roberta married William Bernard Lightfoot [23538] [MRIN: 7952], son of Phillip Lightfoot [23539] and Sally Sevigne Bernard [23540].

625. Anne Bland Eaton [15929] was born on 21 Dec 1763 and died on 6 Dec 1847 at age 83.

Anne married Col. Guilford Dudley [15937] [MRIN: 5314].

The child from this marriage was:

   798 F    i. Virginia Dudley [23599] .

Virginia married Thomas W. Cash [23600] [MRIN: 7991]. Thomas was born in Williamson County, Tennessee.

627. Henry St. George Tucker [15962] was born on 29 Dec 1780 in Chesterfield County, Virginia, died on 28 Aug 1848 in Virginia at age 67, and was buried in Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

General Notes: Attorney. Served in the U.S. Congress beginning 1815 and served two terms.

Henry St. George Tucker was born in 1780 in Chesterfield County, Virginia and followed in the path of his father, St. George Tucker. He was a lawyer and dabbled in poetry. Tucker studied at the College of William and Mary where he graduated in 1801. He was admitted to the bar and began his legal practice in Winchester, Virginia. He served as a member of the Virginia house and senate and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives where he served from 1815 to 1819. He was a superior court judge (1824-31), and was elected president of the Virginia Supreme Court in 1831. From 1841 to 1845 he was professor of law at the University of Virginia, before which he maintained a private law school. He was a soldier in the War of 1812 and author of both poetry and legal commentaries. His son, John Randolph Tucker (1823-1897), followed in his father's ways, as Henry St. George followed his father, St. George Tucker.

Tucker is buried at the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia.

Henry married Ann Evaline Hunter [15968] [MRIN: 7990] on 23 Sep 1806.

The child from this marriage was:

   799 M    i. John Randolph Tucker [23598] was born on 24 Dec 1823 in Winchester, Virginia and died in 1897 at age 74.

General Notes: John Randolph was born at Winchester, Virginia, on December 24, 1823, the son of Henry St. George Tucker and the grandson of St. George Tucker. Like his father, he was a lawyer, professor, and politician. He served as attorney general of Virginia (1857-65), professor and dean at Washington and Lee University (1870-74, 1889-97), and U.S. Representative (1875-87). He practiced law from 1865 to 97 and argued many cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Tucker is buried at Mt. Hebron Cemetery, Winchester, Virginia.

Noted events in his life were:

• SRC:University of West Virginia Library.

632. Ann Poythress Bland [34267] .

Ann married John Morrison [34266] [MRIN: 11613], son of Alexander Morrison [34256] and Anne Bland [34255]. John died in Mar 1790.

The child from this marriage was:

   800 M    i. Wallace Morrison [34269] .

636. John Morrison [34266] died in Mar 1790.

John married Ann Poythress Bland [34267] [MRIN: 11613], daughter of Richard Bland [13050] and Mary Bolling [13051].

(Duplicate Line. See Person 632)

646. Eliza Carter Randolph [16371] was born in Oct 1782 and died in 1866 in Fauquier County, Virginia at age 84.

Eliza married Maj. Thomas Turner [16379] [MRIN: 5451] in Oct 1798 in Charles City County, Virginia. Thomas was born in Apr 1772 and died in Jan 1839 at age 66.

The child from this marriage was:

   801 M    i. Edward Carter Turner [16391] was born on 5 Aug 1816 in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia, died about 1891 in Fauquier County, Virginia about age 75, and was buried in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia.

Edward married Mary Magill Randolph [16390] [MRIN: 5460], daughter of Robert Lee Randolph [16375] and Mary Buckner Thurston Magill [16388]. Mary was born in Nov 1833 in Eastern View, Fauquier County, Virginia.

Edward next married Sarah Jane Beverley [23543] [MRIN: 7955], daughter of James Bradshaw Beverley [23531] and Jane Johns Peters [23532], on 21 Oct 1840. Sarah was born on 22 Jun 1820 in Acrolophos, Georgetown, D.C. and died on 20 Feb 1865 in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 44.

650. Robert Lee Randolph [16375] was born in 1791.

Robert married Mary Buckner Thurston Magill [16388] [MRIN: 5458].

The child from this marriage was:

   802 F    i. Mary Magill Randolph [16390] was born in Nov 1833 in Eastern View, Fauquier County, Virginia.

Mary married Edward Carter Turner [16391] [MRIN: 5460], son of Maj. Thomas Turner [16379] and Eliza Carter Randolph [16371]. Edward was born on 5 Aug 1816 in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia, died about 1891 in Fauquier County, Virginia about age 75, and was buried in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia.

664. Judith Randolph [17206] was born on 24 Nov 1772 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia.

Judith married Richard Randolph [15965] [MRIN: 5786], son of John Randolph [15960] and Frances Bland [15959], on 20 Dec 1789 in Henrico (Goochland) County, VA. Richard was born on 9 May 1770 in Virginia and died in 1796 at age 26.

General Notes: Richard Randolph, the eldest brother of Randolph of Roanoke, married his first cousin Judith. Richard was 19 and his lady love only 15 at the time, and the marriage, which took place the following year, proved one of the most tragic happenings of Virginia society of their generation. If the wise mother of Judith had been less subservient to the opinion of her husband and had actively opposed the union about which she had such evident foreboding, much sorrow might have been avoided.

Richard's character was lovable but weak, as his letters from childhood show, and poor Judith was a most unhappy wife. Richard's death followed shortly after the trial in which he and Nancy Randolph, his wife's sister, were accused of infanticide. Of that crime their vindication was complete, but it was followed by gossip and slander which were certainly contributing causes of Richard's death.

Of his two sons, Tudor and St. George (one named for his stepfather's brother, Thomas Tudor Tucker, and the other for his stepfather himself). The one died of consumption in the south of England, the other lived long as a deaf-mute and a madman, and the fact that with them, the line of John Randolph of Matoax and Bizarre ended, was probably the cause of much of the sorrow and bitterness which clouded the life of the last survivor of the family of John Randolph of Roanoke.

(see Ann Cary Randolph for the story of "Bizarre Plantation")

Noted events in his life were:

• SRC:University of Chicago Library.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 528)

665. Anne Cary Randolph [17207] was born on 15 Sep 1774 in Tuckahoe Plantation, Goochland County, Virginia and died on 28 May 1837 in New York at age 62.

General Notes: The family resided at the Tuckahoe Plantation when Ann Cary was born. Her records show a birth in the St. James Northan Parish, Goochland County, Virginia.

Alan Pell Crawford -

The plantation called Bizarre was consumed by a fire that seems all to conveniently symbolic of the fate of a class that lived off the labor of African slaves. Sometimes all that remains, on some field that once produced the finest tobacco in the New World, are barns where the slaves hung the leaf to dry and the quarters where they slept.

One family that rose and fell with the antebellum tobacco economy, that built Bizarre and watched it burn, was the once-mighty Randolphs. One of the most important families in America at the time of its founding, the Randolphs were to Virginia what the Adams were to Massachusetts and the Roosevelts would be to New York - rich, socially prominent and politically fearsome.

The Randolphs amassed great wealth from tobacco, owned hundreds of slaves, built imposing mansions and produced generations of statesmen, generals and jurists. These include not only Edmund Randolph and Peyton Randolph but Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall and Robert E. Lee, whose mothers were all Randolphs. They also produced in 1774, Anne Cary "Nancy" Randolph, a high spirited girl whose story I've been researching for several years.

Nancy's story is the story of a family and its fall in the midst of wrenching social upheaval. That anything at all remains of the places where she grew up, suffered and endured is remarkable. The resourceful investigator who is determined to discover something of that vanished world - in little known places like Bizarre, and better known ones like Tuckahoe and Monticello - will not be disappointed.

Just about nobody knows precisely where Bizarre stood, nobody knows precisely what was going on there in the early 1790's when all the gossip started. That's when Nancy Randolph (Anne Cary), not yet 20, moved to the plantation to live with her big sister, Judith, and her sister's husband, Richard Randolph, who was the sister's cousin.

Nobody knows why Bizarre was called what it was, a mystery that has endured for centuries. The Randolphs never said. When the architect Benjamin Latrobe visited the plantation in June 1796, he noted in his journal that it was a "French name but not quite applicable to Mr. Richard Randolph's house at present for there was nothing bizarre about it that I can see." In French "bizarre" originally meant valorous and only later took on the more sinister connotation of the odd or fantastic that it has in English. Others through the years have speculated that the plantation was named for a wildflower that grows in the area, though even Virginia horticulture buffs seem never to have heard of such a plant.

In any case, the place will be remembered for Nancy Randolph alone, who seems an exotic enough specimen in her own right. Nancy was by every indication a fetching girl with a "little upturned nose", a gift for self-dramatization, remarkably little in the way of discretion, and oodles of sex appeal. Richard was a good-looking if somewhat directionless young man in his early twenties who had studied at Princeton and partied with the most sophisticated circles of Philadelphia society before coming home to Virginia to marry.

By the 1790's, when Nancy moved to Bizarre, the tobacco economy was collapsing and the way of life of the great Virginia slaveholding families had begun to disintegrate beneath their feet. Anti-slavery sentiment was building and the confidence of an entire class was crumbling. Many of the young men and women Nancy grew up with would never recover from the blow.

Almost as soon as Nancy arrived at Bizarre, visitors began to say that she and Richard were "too fond" of one another, considering that he was married to her sister and was their cousin besides. By the summer of 1792, Nancy began to gain weight without explanation, making people even more suspicious of her relationship with Richard. It was in the fall, when Richard and Nancy visited their cousins at Glentivar Plantation, that all hell broke loose.

The house at Glentivar, about 30 miles northeast of Farmville, near what is now Cartersville, was unfinished when the Randolphs came to call, with a pile of shingles in the yard. The original house is no longer standing. It was dismantled during the Randolphs' lifetime, but don't tell that to the old folks who rattle around in the brick house that replaced it on the property.

"A terrible crime happened here," one of them told me not long back. "There was a baby murdered in this house. We wish everybody would just forget about it."

That's unlikely, considering what happened - or was said to have happened.

On the last night of September, when everybody at Glentivar had gone to bed, Nancy's screams woke the household, but Richard blocked entry to her room. After the screaming stopped, someone - everybody assumed it was Richard - hustled downstairs, left the house and, moments later, returned.

The next morning, there were bloodstains on the staircase and the bedclothes. After the Randolphs left, Glentivar field hands told their master that they had discovered something in the shingle pile: a corpse of a white baby.

Storied Plantations - Virginia is like that. Around almost every bend of those country roads, just past the taxidermy shop and the abandoned filling station, there looms upon the hill a large and handsome plantation house with secrets it does not give up without a struggle. Tuckahoe, where Nancy was born, is one such house. Off River Road about 10 miles west of Richmond, Tuckahoe was built around 1710. Thomas Jefferson, a boyhood friend of Nancy's father, grew up there. "Built solely to answer the purposes of hospitality," in the words of one English visitor, Tuckahoe was a showplace when Nancy lived there and remains one today.

The grounds are always open to visitors, and the house, with its beautiful walnut paneling, can be toured if you call first and make an appointment. The character of the house and surrounding grounds is so well preserved that film crews regularly take over the property. Tuckahoe is also - those who have stayed there insist - conspicuously haunted. Shady ladies glide around its corridors, then disappear. A rocking chair is know to rock on its own, and invisible partygoers make merry in the middle of the night. An"unhappy bride" moves mournfully down the lane by the old stable.

It was not a happy place, certainly, when Nancy moved out from Tuckahoe and went to Bizarre. Her mother had died and her father had quickly married a rich family friend's very young daughter, despite the girl's objections. Nancy and her new stepmother quarreled from the start, and Nancy was kicked out. She went to live at Bizarre with her sister and brother-in-law. Things did not go more smoothly at Bizarre. After the ghastly night at Glentivar, slaves began to spread the story of their grisly discovery, and - fed up with the Randolphs' high handed ways - people of less exalted station put up a fuss. As a result, in the spring of 1793, Nancy and Richard were ordered to appear at Cumberland Court House, located midway between Farmville and Cartersville, and accused of "felonious murdering" their illegitimate child.

While Richard was locked up in the Cumberland jail, Nancy was released into the custody of the Randolph lawyers, two other well-known names from the period: a robust young John Marshall and a frail Patrick Henry. When court met on April 29, 1793, witnesses included Thomas Jefferson's daughter Patsy, who had married Nancy's brother Tom. Patsy said that, before the trip to Glentivar she had procured for Nancy a medicine called gum guaiacum, known to produce an abortion. Others testified that they had seen the defendants kiss. Some said they believed Nancy had been pregnant.

Because Virginia law prohibited slaves from testifying, there was no testimony from anyone who claimed to have seen the baby's corpse. Charges were dropped.

That was hardly the end of the story. The Randolphs returned to Bizarre. There, three years later, at 26, Richard suddenly died, under circumstances that remain mysterious. Nancy and her sister, the now widowed Judith, continued to live together, and as Judith stewed over evidence presented in court that Nancy and Richard may have been lovers, if not outright murderers - their relationship deteriorated. Before long, Judith - who by now called Nancy "the blaster of my happiness" - was treating her like one of the servants.

One of the few times Nancy left Bizarre was in the summer of 1800 when she was allowed to visit her Jefferson cousins at Monticello, near Charlottesville. Monticello is well worth a visit, but when Nancy was there, it did not look like it does today any more than Williamsburg - where she used to stay at the St. George Tucker House - looked like it does today.

By the time of American independence, Williamsburg was already in decline. When Nancy went to Monticello, she found the house in a "terrible state of dilapidation." Jefferson as usual was at work on the place, which resembled a construction site. Shortly after his death in 1826, the family labored under debts he left them and had to strip the place and sell its furnishings.

Money was also tight at Bizarre, especially after John Randolph - brother to Richard, cousin of Nancy, another storied member of the clan who is know as Randolph of Roanoke - began his notorious political career. After debating Patrick Henry at Charlotte Court House, he was elected to Congress, where he established a reputation as the wittiest orator in the Capitol. A historical marker describes the famous debate.

Convinced Nancy had poisoned his beloved brother Richard, John also commenced a lifelong campaign against her. Shortly after his return from Washington in 1805, he told her she was no longer welcome at Bizarre. She had better leave quickly, he said, because she had been taking "as many liberties" at Bizarre as she would "in a tavern".

At 31, unmarried, penniless and reduced "to a condition of total despair," Nancy headed back home to Tuckahoe. The mansion was by now abandoned, so that Nancy used aspen boughs to make a pallet and tried to sleep. For the next several months, she shifted from plantation to plantation, before moving to Richmond. There she took a room in the house of a couple who ran a disreputable riverfront amusement park near the site of the old Tredegar Iron Works, which manufactured cannons for the Confederate army. During her time in Richmond, Randolph of Roanoke would claim she supported herself by prostitution.

About the time Nancy left Richmond and headed for New York, John Randolph quarreled with Judith and moved to Roanoke Plantation. There, in a cluster of cabins that still stand today, he existed between congressional sessions in a condition of "savage solitude". He made this his home until his death in 1833. For much of the time he spent there, he read Byron, took opium and pursued his vendetta against Nancy.

One day, Nancy was visited at her Greenwich boardinghouse in New York by the rich Gouverneur Morris, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and an old friend of her fathers. Morris asked her to come to his Harlem River Estate, called Morrisania, as his housekeeper. With no better prospects, Nancy took the job. On December 25, 1809, Morris shocked family members he had invited to Christmas dinner by having a clergyman present and marrying her on the spot.



Anne married Gouverneur Morris [17213] [MRIN: 5785] on 25 Dec 1809 in Morrisania, New York. Gouverneur was born on 31 Jan 1752 in Morrisania, New York, died on 6 Nov 1816 in Morrisania, New York at age 64, and was buried in St. Annes's Episcopal Church Cemetery, The Bronx, New York.

General Notes: Excerpts from an article by Richard Brookhiser -

Gouverneur Morris, author of the Constitution and the most famous forgotten man in New York, is buried on a remnant of the 1,900 acre estate his family once owned in what is now the South Bronx. When the Number Six train stops at Brook Avenue and 138th Street, it leaves you on a poor but bustling main drag, dotted with fast food restaurants and cheap clothing and furniture outlets. If you walk a block east and three blocks north you come to St. Anne's, an old Episcopal Church built by Gouverneur Morris II in 1841 in honor of his mother. In the yard behind a fence stands a tablet erected by the state of New York in honor of Gouverneur Morris, listing his dates (1752 - 1816) and his accomplishments: his hand in two constitutions (New York and the United States), George Washington's minister to France, projector of the Erie Canal. Before I visited, I had called the rector to tell her that I was a biographer, and she kindly showed me the stained glass, the list on the sanctuary wall of seventeenth and eighteenth century Morrises, and Gouverneur's mausoleum, whose half sunken entrance is sheltered by a huge elm, the shape of an umbrella. There is nothing else to see.

The congregation, like the neighborhood, is almost entirely Hispanic, and I cannot imagine that they give much thought to the father of their church's founder. In this they are not alone. Only the most comprehensive guides to the city mention Morris's grave. Morris himself has been the subject of only nine books (two of them in French). Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence probably gets nine books written about him every five years. Amazingly, there are now three biographies of Morris in the works.

One barrier to Morris' fame has been his first name, how to pronounce it. Another has been the curse of New York. If the author of the Constitution had been born in Boston or Virginia, his grave would have walking tours and heritage trails. There would be a statue and great pronouncements by the founding fathers. Yet, there is a deeper reason for Morris' obscurity; he does not fit the template of what we think of as a founding father. Morris was a funny man. The Founders mostly were not and we would not wish them to have been otherwise for they had serious work to do. Franklin could be funny when he chose to be, John Adams was funny when he couldn't help it which was usually when he was enumerating the vices of some enemy. But Washington leading his troops, Jefferson and Madison contemplating their theories, and Hamilton balancing the books were all earnest men, not to be distracted from their duties.

A good joke always distracted Morris. The one story about him that everyone knows is about a humorous bet. Alexander Hamilton offered to buy Morris dinner if he could go up to Washington, president of the Convention, hero of the Revolution, and father of his country, slap him on the shoulder and say, "My dear General, I am glad to see you looking so well." Morris executed the shoulder slap and won the dinner. Afterwards he said the look Washington gave him had been one of the worst moments of his life. The story is probably not true. But it tells us something about what others thought of Morris' character, his contemporaries expected a light heart from him.

Another way in which Morris stands out from his peers is not evident to us, though it was to him and that is his background - all those forefathers listed on the wall of St. Anne's. Most of the Founders were men of wealth or at least middling means. Several of them had been involved in colonial politics before the imperial system began showing its pre-revolutionary strains in the mid-1760's. Morris belonged to the governing elite of three colonies. Gouverneur's grandfather, Lewis Morris, was the leader of one of the two factions that divided the New York colonial assembly between then, broadly speaking, the lineup pitted merchants and Anglican vs landowners and other Protestants. In this role, Grandfather Morris tormented colonial governors of New York so successfully that London had to buy off by making him governor of New Jersey. Gouverneur's uncle, Robert Hunter Morris became governor of Pennsylvania. When he took the job he asked a leading politician, Benjamin Franklin how he would get along with the colonies' legislators. Franklin told him he would get along well, so long as he did not quarrel with them. "You know I love disputing," the new governor answered. "It is one of my great pleasures." For Gouverneur Morris, power lacked the charm of unfamiliarity. It was something he could always take or leave because his family had taken so much of it.

A third distinguishing characteristic of Gouverneur Morris can only be called affliction. Morris was handsome, intelligent, rich and successful. He also lived through more than his share of troubles, two of them especially painful and disfiguring. When he was home from school at age 14, he upset a kettle of boiling water on his right side, burning his arm so badly that the doctor who attended him feared gangrene. The arm was saved but one man who saw it, or heard of it, described the limb as fleshless.

As if to emphasis some point about the frailty of flesh, fate next deprived Morris of a leg. When he was 28 years old, he was mounting a carriage in haste and when the horses started up, his left foot was caught in the spokes of the wheel and the ankle was mangled. The doctors who attended him - his own was out of town - removed the leg below the knee. When his own doctor returned, he opined that the leg could have been saved.

Morris never complained except when he occasionally slipped on muddy cobblestones. But every day when he looked at himself he saw what he lacked. The founders who fought in the Revolution saw death and destruction but that is what soldiers expect. Franklin and Hamilton rose from poverty, and Hamilton from shame, but they could imagine that they had put it all behind them.. Morris bore the inescapable mark of two heavy blows. Perhaps as a result he believed even less than his realistic colleagues that all problems could be fixed by human ingenuity.

He was certainly unusually sympathetic to fellow sufferers. In the stress of the American Revolution, one of Morris' friends, by no means a die hard Tory but unwilling to become an active rebel, felt obliged to move to England. "I would to God," Morris wrote, "that every tear could be wiped from every eye. But as long as there are men, so long it will and must happen that they will minister to the miseries of each other . . . it is your misfortune to be one out of the many who have suffered. In your philosophy, in yourself, in the consciousness of acting as you think right, you are to seek consolation." To his aged mother, at a time when public business kept them apart, he offered a measure of grave hope. "There is enough of sorrow in this world, without looking into the futurity for it. Hope is best. If it happens, well; if not, it well then be time enough to be afflicted and at any rate the intermediate space well filled."

When the Constitutional Convention met in 1787, Morris had been living in Philadelphia, first as a congressman and assistant superintendent of finance, then as a lawyer and businessman, for nine years; he was chosen to serve as a delegate from Pennsylvania rather than his native New York. He had not sought the appointment which took him by surprise, but he threw himself into the Convention's work, giving more speeches than any other delegate, even though he missed a month of meetings, and serving on the Committee of Style, which gave him the job of putting all the resolutions into words. Unlike Jefferson when he wrote the Declaration of Independence, Morris mostly worked up pre-existing material, though he did it well. "The finish given to the style and arrangement of the Constitution fairly belongs to the pen of Mr. Morris," said James Madison. "A better choice could not have been made." The preamble, however, was altogether Morris' own. The draft supplied by the Committee of Detail simply began: "We the people of the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts . . ." and so on, through Georgia. Morris transformed this into a little essay on the ends of government, whose authority he derived from "the people of the United States," as citizens of the whole, not of its parts.

His first experience of constitution writing had come in 1777 when he was a member of the New York Provincial Congress that had the task of writing the state's first post-independence constitution in Kingston, New York.

At 25, Morris was one of the youngest members but he and his good friends John Jay and Robert Livingston took leading roles in the deliberations.

At neither the state nor the national convention, nor at any time in his career was Morris a democrat. His first political letter, written when he was 22, described a turbulent New York City meeting in 1774 to discuss British inequities. Young Morris observing the scene from a balcony, wrote this haughty description. "The mob being to think and reason. Poor reptiles! It is with them a vernal morning, they are struggling to cast off their winter's slough, they bask in the sunshine, and ere noon they will bite." He never changed these views. In Kingston in 1777 he moved to raise the property qualifications for voting in Assembly elections to about $780. In Philadelphia in 1787 he argued that the few and the many were inevitable rivals, and that each be given a house of the legislature to dominate, to prevent their contentions from rending the state.

In Philadelphia, Morris gave his anti-reptilian politics an additional twist, arguing that enfranchising the poor would empower the rich.. "Give the votes to people who have no property, and they will sell them to the rich who will be able to buy them." Anyone who would dismiss this argument out of hand should be required to explain what the endless battles over campaign finance reforms are about, if not the fear that rich contributors will buy lawmakers.

Even though the Morris family had owned slaves for generations, Morris unsuccessfully moved that the New York constitution condemn slavery and he gave a blazing anti-slavery speech at the Constitutional Convention, attacking his home state among others.

Morris defended freedom of religion opposing friend John Jay when Jay said, "he would erect a wall of brass against Catholicism in New York". It was not out of sympathy that he took this position, rather he believed it was his position as public servant to take a social position that benefited all. His credo; "I plead the cause of humanity." Morris believed humanity had rights, even those he called reptiles.

Succeeding Jefferson as Minister to France, Morris stayed in Europe until 1799, earning the money that would enable him to buy the Morris estate from his half-brothers. He returned to the United States in time to witness the demise of Federalists, his own political party. When Jefferson and the victorious Republicans attacked the judiciary, the last Federalist bastion by cutting down the number of federal judges and impeaching a Federalist Justice of the Supreme Court, Morris became alarmed. When they launched the War of 1812, he despaired. He thought the war unwinnable. He thought the constitution he wrote a failure.

Counterbalancing this misjudgment were two autumnal achievements. Morris was an early advocate of the Erie Canal. He served as a commissioner and explored routes himself, trekking through the swamps of western New York.

On Christmas Day 1809, Morris hosted a dinner party, which he described in his diary, "I marry this day Anne Cary Randolph, no small surprise to my guests." Well might they have been surprised, since Nancy Randolph was 22 years younger than her new husband, and his housekeeper.

Her story is as interesting as his.

In the last year of his life, Morris corrected his biggest political mistake; "If our country be delivered, what does it signify whether those who save it wear a federal or democratic cloak?"

Morris died November 1816 in the same room in which he was born.

Gouverneur Morris 1752 - 1816
. Residence, Westchester County, New York
. Born in Morrisania, Bronx, Bronx County, New York
. Delegate to the Constitutional Congress, 1777
. Member of New York State Assembly 1777-78
. Member U. S. Constitutional Convention 1787
. Minister to France 1792-94
. U. S. Senator from New York 1800-03





The child from this marriage was:

   803 M    i. Gouverneur Morris [16020] was born on 9 Feb 1813 in Morrisania, New York.

710. Lucy Harrison [23544] .

Lucy married Edward Randolph [15974] [MRIN: 7965], son of Edward Randolph [15879] and Elizabeth Graves [15972].

(Duplicate Line. See Person 415)

737. Lucy Burwell [30151] was born on 20 Nov 1777 and died on 22 Mar 1810 at age 32.

Lucy married Archibald Cary Randolph [30144] [MRIN: 10127], son of Thomas Isham Randolph [15988] and Jane Cary [30141], on 6 Apr 1797. Archibald was born in 1769 in Goochland County, Virginia and died in 1813 at age 44.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 506)

743. Tabitha Hopkins [19056] was born on 16 Oct 1745 in Harwinton, CT.

Tabitha married Abiathar Millard [19057] [MRIN: 6546] on 30 Sep 1761 in Amenia, Dutchess County, New York. Abiathar was born on 22 Jun 1744 in Rehoboth, Bristol County, Massachusetts and died about 1811 in Penfield, Ontario County, New York about age 67.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 804 F    i. Pheobe Millard [19058] was born on 12 Aug 1781 in Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts and died on 2 Apr 1831 in Locke, Cayuga, New York at age 49.

744. Lydia Hussey [19003] was born on 27 Mar 1757 in York County, Pennsylvania and died on 21 Sep 1843 in Washington County, Pennsylvania at age 86.

Lydia married Jacob Griffith [19004] [MRIN: 6521] on 16 Apr 1778. Jacob was born on 27 Feb 1757 in Warrington Township, York County, Pennsylvania and died on 2 Apr 1841 in Clover Hill, Washington County, Pennsylvania at age 84.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 805 M    i. Amos Griffith [19005] was born c1798 and died in 1871 at age 73.

745. Noah Grant [18615] was born on 11 Dec 1693 in Windsor, Hartford County, CT and died on 10 Oct 1727 in Tolland, CT at age 33.

Noah married Martha Huntington [18616] [MRIN: 6383]. Martha was born on 6 Dec 1696 in Norwich, Connecticut and died on 26 Aug 1779 in Tolland, Connecticut at age 82.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 806 M    i. Capt Noah Grant Jr [18617] was born on 12 Jul 1719 and died after 20 Sep 1756.

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746. Benjamin Kendrick [18162] was born on 30 Jan 1723 and died on 13 Nov 1812 at age 89.

Benjamin married Sarah Harris [18163] [MRIN: 6144] on 1 Mar 1750. Sarah was born on 22 Jan 1729 and died on 27 May 1818 at age 89.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 807 F    i. Anna Kendrick [18164] was born on 30 Oct 1768 and died on 7 Dec 1838 at age 70.

749. Elizabeth Jewett [18308] .

Elizabeth married Unknown Comstock [18309] [MRIN: 6222].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 808 F    i. Betsey Comstock [18310] .

756. William Cleveland [18395] was born on 20 Dec 1770 in Norwich, CT and died on 18 Aug 1837 in Black Rock, New York at age 66.

William married.

His child was:

+ 809 M    i. Rev. Richard Falley Cleveland [18396] was born in 1804 in Norwich, CT and died on 1 Oct 1853 in Holland Patent, New York at age 49.


758. 6th President John Quincy Adams [18428] was born on 11 Jul 1767 in Quincy, Massachusetts and died on 23 Feb 1848 in Speaker's Room. Congress, Washington D. C. at age 80.

General Notes: born July 11, 1767, Braintree [now Quincy], Mass. [U.S.]
died Feb. 23, 1848, Washington, D.C., U.S.


The eldest son of President John Adams and sixth president of the United States (1825–29). In his prepresidential years he was one of America's greatest diplomats (formulating, among other things, what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine); in his postpresidential years (as U.S. congressman, 1831–48) he conducted a consistent and often dramatic fight against the expansion of slavery.

John Quincy Adams entered the world at the same time that his maternal great-grandfather, John Quincy, for many years a prominent member of the Massachusetts legislature, was leaving it; hence his name. He grew up as a child of the American Revolution. He watched the Battle of Bunker Hill from Penn's Hill and heard the cannons roar across the Back Bay. His patriot father, John Adams, at that time a delegate to the Continental Congress, and his patriot mother, Abigail Smith Adams, had a strong molding influence on his education after the war had deprived Braintree of its only schoolmaster. In 1778 and again in 1780 the boy accompanied his father to Europe. He studied at a private school in Paris in 1778–79 and at the University of Leiden, Netherlands, in 1780. Thus, at an early age he acquired an excellent knowledge of the French language and a smattering of Dutch. In 1780, also, he began to keep regularly the diary that forms so conspicuous a record of his doings and those of his contemporaries through the next 60 years of American history. Self-appreciative, like most of the Adams clan, he once declared that, if his diary had been even richer, it might have become "next to the Holy Scriptures, the most precious and valuable book ever written by human hands."

In 1781, at the age of 14, he accompanied Francis Dana, United States envoy to Russia, as his private secretary and interpreter of French. Dana, after lingering for more than a year in St. Petersburg, was not received by the Russian government, so in 1782, Adams, returning by way of Scandinavia, Hanover, and the Netherlands, joined his father in Paris. There he acted, in an informal way, as an additional secretary to the American commissioners in the negotiation of the treaty of peace that concluded the American Revolution. Instead of remaining in London with his father, who had been appointed United States minister to the Court of St. James's, he chose to return to Massachusetts, where he attended Harvard College, graduating in 1787. He then read law at Newburyport under the tutelage of Theophilus Parsons, and in 1790 he was admitted to the bar in Boston. While struggling to establish a practice, he wrote a series of articles for the newspapers in which he controverted some of the doctrines in Thomas Paine's Rights of Man. In another later series he ably supported the neutrality policy of George Washington's administration as it faced the war that broke out between France and England in 1793. These articles were brought to President Washington's attention and resulted in Adams's appointment as U.S. minister to the Netherlands in May 1794.

The Hague was then the best diplomatic listening post in Europe for the War of the First Coalition against Revolutionary France. Young Adams's official dispatches to the secretary of state and his informal letters to his father, who was then the vice president, kept the government well informed of the diplomatic activities and wars of the distressed Continent and the danger of becoming involved in the European vortex. These letters were also read by President Washington: some of Adams's phrases, in fact, appeared in Washington's Farewell Address of 1796. During the absence of Thomas Pinckney, the regular United States minister to Great Britain, Adams transacted public business in London with the British Foreign Office relating to the exchange of ratifications of the Jay Treaty of 1794 between the United States and Great Britain. In 1796 Washington, who came to regard young Adams as the ablest officer in the foreign service, appointed him minister to Portugal, but before his departure his father became president and changed the young diplomat's destination to Prussia.

John Quincy Adams was married in London in 1797, on the eve of his departure for Berlin, to Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775–1852), daughter of the United States consul Joshua Johnson, a Marylander by birth, and his wife, Katherine Nuth, an Englishwoman. Adams had first met her when he was 12 years old and his father was minister to France. Fragile in health, she suffered from migraine headaches and fainting spells. Yet she proved to be a gracious hostess who played the harp and was learned in Greek, French, and English literature. Accompanying her husband on his various missions in Europe, she came to be regarded as one of the most-traveled women of her time.

Johnson was not, however, Adams's first love. When he was 14 years old, he had had a "crush" on an actress he saw perform in France, and for years afterward, he confessed, she was in his dreams. At age 22 he fell deeply in love with one Mary Frazier but was dissuaded from marrying her by his mother, who insisted that he was not able to support a wife. Ultimately, Adams could see that, in marrying a rich heiress like Louisa Johnson, he might be able to enjoy the leisure to pursue a career as a writer, but her family suffered business reverses and declared bankruptcy only a few weeks after the wedding.

The union had many stormy moments. Adams was cold and often depressed, and he admitted that his political adversaries regarded him as a“gloomy misanthropist" and "unsocial savage." His wife is said to have regretted her marriage into the Adams family. The loss of two sons in adulthood—and a daughter in infancy—may have heightened the strains between husband and wife. The eldest son, George Washington Adams, was a gambler, womanizer, and alcoholic whose death by drowning may have been suicide. The second son, John Adams II, succumbed to alcohol. He remains the only son of a president who was married in the President's (White) House. On that occasion, the president unbent and danced the Virginia reel. A third son, Charles Francis Adams, brought honor to the family name once again, being elected to the House of Representatives and serving as United States minister to England during the American Civil War.

While in Berlin, Adams negotiated (1799) a treaty of amity and commerce with Prussia. Recalled from Berlin by President Adams after the election of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency in 1800, the younger Adams reached Boston in 1801 and the next year was elected to the Massachusetts Senate. In 1803 the Massachusetts legislature elected him a member of the Senate of the United States.

Up to this time John Quincy Adams was regarded as belonging to the Federalist Party, but he found its general policy displeasing. He was frowned upon as the son of his father by the followers of Alexander Hamilton and by reactionary groups, and he soon found himself practically powerless as an unpopular member of an unpopular minority. Actually he was not then, and indeed never was, a strict party man; all through his life, ever aspiring to higher public service, he considered himself a “man of my whole country.” Adams arrived in Washington too late to vote for ratification of the treaty for the purchase of Louisiana, which had been opposed by the other Federalist senators, but he voted for the appropriations to carry it into effect and announced that he would have voted for the purchase treaty itself. Nevertheless, he joined his Federalist colleagues in voting against a bill to enable the president to place officials of his own appointment in control of the newly acquired territory; such a bill, Adams vainly protested, overstepped the constitutional powers of the presidency, violated the right of self-government, and imposed taxation without representation. In December 1807 he supported President Jefferson's suggestion of an embargo to essentially stop all commerce with other nations (an attempt to gain British recognition of American rights) and vigorously urged instant action, saying: “The President has recommended the measure on his high responsibility. I would not consider, I would not deliberate; I would act!” Within five hours the Senate had passed the embargo bill and had sent it to the House of Representatives. Support of this measure, hated by the Federalists and unpopular in New England because it stifled the region's economy, cost Adams his seat in the Senate. His successor was chosen on June 3, 1808, several months before the usual time of electing a senator for the next term, and five days later Adams resigned. In the same year he attended the Republican congressional caucus, which nominated James Madison for the presidency, and thus he allied himself with that party. From 1806 to 1809 Adams was Boylston professor of rhetoric and oratory at Harvard College.

In 1809 President Madison sent Adams to Russia to represent the United States at the court of Tsar Alexander I. He arrived at St. Petersburg at the psychologically important moment when the Tsar had made up his mind to break with Napoleon. Adams therefore met with a favorable reception and a disposition to further the interests of American commerce in every possible way. From this vantage point he watched and reported Napoleon's invasion of Russia and the final disastrous retreat and dissolution of France's Grand Army. On the outbreak of the war between the United States and England in 1812, he was still in St. Petersburg. That September the Russian government suggested that the Tsar was willing to act as mediator between the two belligerents. Madison precipitately accepted this proposition and sent Albert Gallatin and James Bayard to act as commissioners with Adams, but England would have nothing to do with it. In August 1814, however, these gentlemen, with Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell, began negotiations with English commissioners that resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24 of that year. Adams then visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and next went to London, where, with Clay and Gallatin, he negotiated (1815) a “Convention to Regulate Commerce and Navigation.” Soon afterward he became U.S. minister to Great Britain, as his father had been before him, and as his son, Charles Francis Adams, was to be after him. After accomplishing little in London, he returned to the United States in the summer of 1817 to become secretary of state in the cabinet of President James Monroe. This appointment was primarily due to his diplomatic experience but also due to the president's desire to have a sectionally well-balanced cabinet in what came to be known as the Era of Good Feeling.

As secretary of state, Adams played the leading part in the acquisition of Florida. Ever since the acquisition of Louisiana, successive administrations had sought to include at least a part of Florida in that purchase. In 1819, after long negotiations, Adams succeeded in getting the Spanish minister to agree to a treaty in which Spain would abandon all claims to territory east of the Mississippi River, the United States would relinquish all claims to what is now Texas, and a boundary of the United States would be drawn (for the first time) from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This Transcontinental Treaty was perhaps the greatest victory ever won by a single man in the diplomatic history of the United States. Adams himself was responsible for the idea of extending the country's northern boundary westward from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific—considered a stroke of diplomatic genius. To use his own word, it marked a triumphant “epocha” in U.S. continental expansion. Before the Spanish government ratified the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819, however, Mexico (including Texas) had thrown off allegiance to the mother country, and the United States had occupied Florida by force of arms.

As secretary of state, Adams was also responsible for conclusion of the treaty of 1818 with Great Britain, laying down the northern boundary of the United States from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains along the line of latitude 49° N. Years later, as a member of the House of Representatives, he supported latitude 49° N as the boundary of Oregon from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean: “I want that country for our Western pioneers.” In fact, President James K. Polk's Oregon treaty of 1846 drew that boundary along the line of 49°. The Monroe Doctrine rightly bears the name of the president who in 1823 assumed the responsibility for its promulgation, but its formulation was the work of John Quincy Adams more than of any other single man.

As President Monroe's second term drew to a close in 1824, there was a lack of good feeling among his official advisers, three of whom—Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, and Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford—aspired to succeed him. Henry Clay, speaker of the House, and General Andrew Jackson were also candidates. Calhoun was nominated for the vice presidency. Of the other four, Jackson received 99 electoral votes for the presidency, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37; because no one had a majority, the decision was made by the House of Representatives, which was confined in its choice to the three candidates who had received the largest number of votes. Clay, who had for years assumed a censorious attitude toward Jackson, cast his influence for Adams, whose election was thereby secured on the first ballot. A few days later Adams offered Clay the office of secretary of state, which he accepted. Jackson's supporters charged a "corrupt bargain" and turned Adams's term in office into a four-year campaign to win for their man what they regarded as his rightful place, the presidency.

Up to this point Adams's career had been almost uniformly successful, but his presidency (1825–29), during which the country prospered, was in most respects a political failure because of the virulent opposition of the Jacksonians. Adams worked hard, rising between four and six o'clock in the morning and often going for a walk around the city or for a swim in the Potomac River before breakfast. Once he almost drowned as the sleeves of his blouse filled with water and weighed him down. But he knew he was not a man of the people. He had admitted in his inaugural address that he was "less possessed of your confidence...than any of my predecessors." He favored, among other forward-looking proposals, creating a national university and a national astronomical observatory; he wished the western territories to be held in trust by the federal government and developed only gradually; and he proposed a vast expansion of the country's roads with federal aid. Congress turned a generally deaf ear to his initiatives.

In 1828 Jackson was elected president over Adams, with 178 electoral votes to Adams's 83. It was during Jackson's administration that irreconcilable differences developed between his followers and those of Adams, the latter becoming known as the National Republicans, who, with the Anti-Masons, were the precursors of the Whigs. Adams's intense dislike of Jackson and what he represented remained unabated. When Harvard College in 1833 awarded Jackson an honorary degree, Adams refused to attend the ceremony at his alma mater. He avowed that he would not "be present to witness [Harvard's] disgrace in conferring its highest honors upon a barbarian who could not write a sentence of grammar and could hardly spell his own name."

Adams had retired to private life in 1829 in the Massachusetts town of Quincy, but only for a brief period; in 1830, supported largely by members of the Anti-Masonic movement (a political force formed initially in opposition to Freemasonry), he was elected a member of the national House of Representatives. When it was suggested to him that his acceptance of this position would degrade a former president, Adams replied that no person could be degraded by serving the people as a representative in Congress or a selectman of his town. He served in the House of Representatives from 1831 until his death, in 1848. But he had not abandoned his hopes for a reelection to the presidency—whether as nominee of the Anti-Masonic Party (in which he was very active as long as that party had political possibilities) or of the National Republican Party or of a union of both or even of the later Whig Party—always in his own mind as a “man of the whole nation.” Gradually, these hopes faded.

Adams's long second career in Congress was at least as important as his earlier career as a diplomat. Throughout, he was conspicuous as an opponent of the expansion of slavery and was at heart an Abolitionist, though he never became one in the political sense of the word. In 1839 he presented to the House of Representatives a resolution for a constitutional amendment providing that every child born in the United States after July 4, 1842, should be born free; that, with the exception of Florida, no new state should be admitted into the Union with slavery; and that neither slavery nor the slave trade should exist in the District of Columbia after July 4, 1845. The“gag rules,” a resolution passed by Southern members of Congress against all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives, effectively blocked any discussion of Adams's proposed amendment. His prolonged fight for the repeal of the gag rules and for the right of petition to Congress for the mitigation or abolition of slavery was one of the most dramatic contests in the history of Congress. These petitions, from individuals and groups of individuals from all over the Northern states, increasingly were sent to Adams, and he dutifully presented them. Adams contended that the gag rules were a direct violation of the First Amendment to the federal Constitution, and he refused to be silenced on the question, fighting indomitably for repeal in spite of the bitter denunciation of his opponents. Each year the number of antislavery petitions received and presented by him grew greatly. Perhaps the climax was in 1837 when Adams presented a petition from 22 slaves and, threatened by his opponents with censure, defended himself with remarkable keenness and ability. At each session the majority against him decreased until, in 1844, his motion to repeal the standing 21st (gag) rule of the House was carried by a vote of 108 to 80, and his long battle was over.

Another spectacular contribution by Adams to the antislavery cause was his championing of the cause of Africans arrested aboard the slave ship Amistad—slaves who had mutinied and escaped from their Spanish owners off the coast of Cuba and had wound up bringing the ship into United States waters near Long Island, New York. Adams defended them as freemen before the Supreme Court in 1841 against efforts of the administration of President Martin Van Buren to return them to their masters and to inevitable death. Adams won their freedom.

As a member of Congress—in fact, throughout his life—Adams supported the improvement of the arts and sciences and the diffusion of knowledge. He did much to conserve the bequest of James Smithson (an eccentric Englishman) to the United States and to create and endow the Smithsonian Institution with the money from Smithson's estate.

Perhaps the most dramatic event in Adams's life was its end. On February 21, 1848, in the act of protesting an honorary grant of swords by Congress to the generals who had won what Adams considered a “most unrighteous war” with Mexico, he suffered a cerebral stroke, fell unconscious to the floor of the House, and died two days later in the Capitol building. His obsequies in Washington and in his native Massachusetts assumed the character of a nationwide pageant of mourning. Senator Thomas Hart Benton, the main eulogist at the service in the Capitol, asked: "Where would death have found him except at the place of duty?"

Few men in American public life have possessed more independence, more public spirit, and more ability than did Adams. Still, throughout his political career he was handicapped by a certain personal reserve and austerity and coolness of manner that prevented him from appealing to the imaginations and affections of the people. He had few intimate friends, and not many men in American history have been regarded, during their lifetimes, with so much hostility or attacked with so much rancor by their political opponents.

John married Louisa Catherine Johnson [18429] [MRIN: 6286], daughter of Joshua Johnson [20083] and Catherine Nuth [20084], on 26 Jul 1797 in London, England. Louisa was born on 12 Feb 1775 in London, England and died on 15 May 1852 in Washington D. C. at age 77.

Children from this marriage were:

   810 M    i. George Washington Adams [20085] was born on 12 Apr 1801.

   811 M    ii. John Adams [20086] was born on 4 Jul 1803.

   812 M    iii. Charles Francis Adams [20087] was born on 18 Aug 1807.

   813 F    iv. Louisa Catherine Adams [20088] was born on 12 Aug 1811.

762. John Aspinwall [18441] was born on 10 Feb 1774 and died on 6 Oct 1847 at age 73.

John married Susan Howland [18442] [MRIN: 6291] on 27 Nov 1803. Susan was born on 20 May 1779 and died on 23 Dec 1852 at age 73.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 814 F    i. Mary Rebecca Aspinwall [18443] was born on 20 Dec 1809 and died on 24 Feb 1886 at age 76.

763. John Lillie [18354] was born on 8 Aug 1728 in Boston, Massachusetts and died before 1766.

John married Abigail Breck [18355] [MRIN: 6246] on 16 Aug 1754 in Boston, Massachusetts. Abigail was born on 19 Jun 1732 in Boston, Massachusetts and died on 28 Oct 1819 at age 87.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 815 F    i. Anna Lillie [18356] was born about 1760 in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Dec 1804 in Andover, Massachusetts about age 44.

764. Andrew Monroe [18491] died in 1735.

Andrew married.

His child was:

+ 816 M    i. Spence Monroe [18492] died in 1774.

765. Martha Bulloch [18550] was born on 8 Jul 1834 and died on 14 Feb 1884 at age 49.

Martha married Theordore Roosevelt [18551] [MRIN: 6350] on 22 Dec 1853. Theordore was born on 22 Sep 1831 and died on 9 Feb 1878 at age 46.

The child from this marriage was:

   817 M    i. 26th President Theodore Roosevelt [18552] was born on 27 Oct 1858 in New York and died on 6 Jan 1919 in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York at age 60.

General Notes: born October 27, 1858, New York, New York, U.S.
died January 6, 1919, Oyster Bay, New York

Went by the names Teddy Roosevelt and TR; 26th president of the United States (1901–09), writer, naturalist, and soldier. He expanded the powers of the presidency and of the federal government in support of the public interest in conflicts between big business and labor and steered the nation toward an active role in world politics, particularly in Europe and Asia. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1906 for mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War, and he secured the route and began construction of the Panama Canal (1904–14).

Roosevelt was the second of four children born into a long-established, socially prominent family of Dutch and English ancestry; his mother, Martha Bulloch of Georgia, came from a wealthy, slave-owning plantation family. In frail health as a boy, Roosevelt was educated by private tutors. From boyhood, he displayed intense, wide-ranging intellectual curiosity. He graduated from Harvard College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1880. He then studied briefly at Columbia Law School but soon turned to writing and politics as a career. In 1880 he married Alice Hathaway Lee, by whom he had one daughter, Alice. After his first wife's death, in 1886 he married Edith Kermit Carow, with whom he lived for the rest of his life at Sagamore Hill, an estate near Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. They had five children: Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, and Quentin.

As a child, Roosevelt had suffered from severe asthma, and weak eyesight plagued him throughout his life. By dint of a program of physical exertion, he developed a strong physique and a lifelong love of vigorous activity. He adopted “the strenuous life,” as he entitled his 1901 book, as his ideal, both as an outdoorsman and as a politician.

Elected as a Republican to the New York State Assembly at 23, Roosevelt quickly made a name for himself as a foe of corrupt machine politics. In 1884, overcome by grief by the deaths of both his mother and his wife on the same day, he left politics to spend two years on his cattle ranch in the Dakota Territory. Nonetheless, he did participate as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1884. His attempt to re-enter public life in 1886 was unsuccessful; he was defeated in a bid to become mayor of New York City. Roosevelt remained active in politics and again battled corruption as a member of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (1889–95) and as president of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners. Appointed assistant secretary of the navy by President William McKinley, he vociferously championed a bigger navy and agitated for war with Spain. When war was declared in 1898, he organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders, who were sent to fight in Cuba. Roosevelt was a brave and well-publicized military leader. The charge of the Rough Riders (on foot) up Kettle Hill during the Battle of Santiago made him the biggest national hero to come out of the Spanish-American War.

On his return, the Republican bosses in New York tapped Roosevelt to run for governor, despite their doubts about his political loyalty. Elected in 1898, he became an energetic reformer, removing corrupt officials and enacting legislation to regulate corporations and the civil service. His actions irked the party's bosses so much that they conspired to get rid of him by drafting him for the Republican vice presidential nomination in 1900, assuming that his would be a largely ceremonial role.

Elected with McKinley, Roosevelt chafed at his powerless office until September 14, 1901, when McKinley died after being shot by an assassin and he became president. Six weeks short of his 43rd birthday, Roosevelt was the youngest person ever to enter the presidency. Although he promised continuity with McKinley's policies, he transformed the public image of the office at once. He renamed the executive mansion the White House and threw open its doors to entertain cowboys, prizefighters, explorers, writers, and artists. His refusal to shoot a bear cub on a 1902 hunting trip inspired a toy maker to name a stuffed bear after him, and the teddy bear fad soon swept the nation. His young children romped on the White House lawn, and the marriage of his daughter Alice in 1905 to Representative Nicholas Longworth of Ohio became the biggest social event of the decade.

From what he called the presidency's “bully pulpit,” Roosevelt gave speeches aimed at raising public consciousness about the nation's role in world politics, the need to control the trusts that dominated the economy, the regulation of railroads, and the impact of political corruption. He appointed young, college-educated men to administrative positions. But active as he was, he was cautious in his approach to domestic affairs. Roosevelt recognized that he had become president by accident, and he wanted above all to be elected in 1904. Likewise, as sensitive as he was to popular discontent about big business and political machines, he knew that conservative Republicans who were bitterly opposed to all reforms controlled both houses of Congress. Roosevelt focused his activities on foreign affairs and used his executive power to address problems of business and labor and the conservation of natural resources.

Above all, Roosevelt relished the power of the office and viewed the presidency as an outlet for his unbounded energy. He was a proud and fervent nationalist who willingly bucked the passive Jeffersonian tradition of fearing the rise of a strong chief executive and a powerful central government. “I believe in a strong executive; I believe in power,” he wrote to British historian Sir George Otto Trevelyan. “While President, I have been President, emphatically; I have used every ounce of power there was in the office. ... I do not believe that any President ever had as thoroughly good a time as I have had, or has ever enjoyed himself as much.”

Despite his caution, Roosevelt managed to do enough in his first three years in office to build a platform for election in his own right. In 1902 he cajoled Republican conservatives into creating the Bureau of Corporations with the power to investigate businesses engaged in interstate commerce but without regulatory powers. He also resurrected the nearly defunct Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing a successful suit to break up a huge railroad conglomerate, the Northern Securities Company. Roosevelt pursued this policy of “trust-busting” by initiating suits against 43 other major corporations during the next seven years.

Also in 1902 Roosevelt intervened in the anthracite coal strike when it threatened to cut off heating fuel for homes, schools, and hospitals. The president publicly asked representatives of capital and labor to meet in the White House and accept his mediation. He also talked about calling in the army to run the mines, and he got Wall Street investment houses to threaten to withhold credit to the coal companies and dump their stocks. The combination of tactics worked to end the strike and gain a modest pay hike for the miners. This was the first time that a president had publicly intervened in a labor dispute, at least implicitly, on the side of workers. Roosevelt characterized his actions as striving toward a "Square Deal" between capital and labor, and those words became his campaign slogan in the 1904 election.

Once he won that election—overwhelmingly defeating the Democratic contender Alton B. Parker by 336 to 140 electoral votes—Roosevelt put teeth into his Square Deal programs. He pushed Congress to grant powers to the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate interstate railroad rates. The Hepburn Act of 1906 conveyed those powers and created the federal government's first true regulatory agency. Also in 1906, Roosevelt pressed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection acts, which created agencies to assure protection to consumers. The “muckrakers,” investigative journalists of the era, had exposed the squalid conditions of food-processing industries.

Roosevelt's boldest actions came in the area of natural resources. At his urging, Congress created the Forest Service (1905) to manage government-owned forest reserves, and he appointed a fellow conservationist, Gifford Pinchot, to head the agency. Simultaneously, Roosevelt exercised existing presidential authority to designate public lands as national forests in order to make them off-limits to commercial exploitation of lumber, minerals, and waterpower. Roosevelt set aside almost five times as much land as all of his predecessors combined, 194 million acres.

Roosevelt believed that nations, like individuals, should pursue the strenuous life and do their part to maintain peace and order, and he believed that “civilized” nations had a responsibility for stewardship of “barbarous” ones. He knew that taking on the Philippine Islands as an American colony after the Spanish-American War had ended America's isolation from international power politics—a development that he welcomed. Every year he asked for bigger appropriations for the army and navy. Congress cut back on his requests, but by the end of his presidency he had built the U.S. Navy into a major force at sea and reorganized the army along efficient, modern lines.

Several times during Roosevelt's first years in office, European powers threatened to intervene in Latin America, ostensibly to collect debts owed them by weak governments there. To meet such threats, he framed a policy statement in 1904 that became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that the United States would not only bar outside intervention in Latin American affairs but would also police the area and guarantee that countries there met their international obligations. In 1905, without congressional approval, Roosevelt forced the Dominican Republic to install an American "economic advisor," who was in reality the country's financial director.

Quoting an African proverb, Roosevelt claimed that the right way to conduct foreign policy was to “speak softly and carry a big stick.” Roosevelt resorted to big-stick diplomacy most conspicuously in 1903, when he helped Panama to secede from Colombia and gave the United States a Canal Zone. Construction began at once on the Panama Canal, which Roosevelt visited in 1906, the first president to leave the country while in office. He considered the construction of the canal, a symbol of the triumph of American determination and technological know-how, his greatest accomplishment as president. As he later boasted in his autobiography, “I took the Isthmus, started the canal and then left Congress not to debate the canal, but to debate me.” Other examples of wielding the big stick came in 1906 when Roosevelt occupied and set up a military protectorate in Cuba and when he put pressure on Canada in a boundary dispute in Alaska.

Roosevelt showed the soft-spoken, sophisticated side of his diplomacy in dealing with major powers outside the Western Hemisphere. In Asia he was alarmed by Russian expansionism and by rising Japanese power. In 1904–05 he worked to end the Russo-Japanese War by bringing both nations to the Portsmouth Peace Conference and mediating between them. More than just to bring peace, Roosevelt wanted to construct a balance of power in Asia that might uphold U.S. interests. In 1907 he defused a diplomatic quarrel caused by anti-Japanese sentiment in California by arranging the so-called Gentlemen's Agreement, which restricted Japanese immigration. In another informal executive agreement, he traded Japan's acceptance of the American position in the Philippines for recognition by the United States of the Japanese conquest of Korea and expansionism in China. Contrary to his bellicose image, Roosevelt privately came to favor withdrawal from the Philippines, judging it to be militarily indefensible, and he renounced any hopes of exerting major power in Asia.

During his second term Roosevelt increasingly feared a general European war. He saw British and U.S. interests as nearly identical, and he was strongly inclined to support Britain behind the scenes in diplomatic controversies. In secret instructions to the U.S. envoys to the Algeciras Conference in 1906, Roosevelt told them to maintain formal American non-involvement in European affairs but to do nothing that would imperil existing Franco-British understandings, the maintenance of which was “to the best interests of the United States.” Despite his bow toward non-involvement, Roosevelt had broken with the traditional position of isolation from affairs outside the Western Hemisphere. At Algeciras, U.S. representatives had attended a strictly European diplomatic conference, and their actions favored Britain and France over Germany.

The end of Roosevelt's presidency was tempestuous. From his bully pulpit, he crusaded against “race suicide,” prompted by his alarm at falling birth rates among white Americans, and he tried to get the country to adopt a simplified system of spelling. Especially after a financial panic in 1907, his already strained relations with Republican conservatives in Congress degenerated into a spiteful stalemate that blocked any further domestic reforms. Roosevelt also moved precipitously and high-handedly to punish a regiment of some 160 African American soldiers, some of whom had allegedly engaged in a riot in Brownsville, Texas, in which a man was shot and killed. Although no one was ever indicted and a trial was never held, Roosevelt assumed all were guilty and issued a dishonorable discharge to every member of the group, depriving them of all benefits; many of the soldiers were close to retirement and several held the Medal of Honor. When Congress decried the president's actions Roosevelt replied, “The only reason I didn't have them hung was because I could not find out which ones ... did the shooting.” This incident, along with his establishment of independent agencies within the executive branch and his bypassing of Congress and expanded use of executive orders to set aside public lands beyond the reach of the public, is why some historians see in Roosevelt's presidency the seeds of abuse that flowered in the administrations of later 20th-century presidents. Roosevelt's term ended in March 1909, just four months after his 50th birthday.

Immediately upon leaving office, Roosevelt embarked on a 10-month hunting safari in Africa and made a triumphal tour of Europe. On his return he was drawn back into politics. For a while, he tried not to take sides between progressive Republicans who supported his policies and those backing President William Howard Taft. Although Taft was Roosevelt's friend and hand-picked successor, he sided with the party's conservatives and worsened the split in the party. Both policy differences and personal animosity eventually impelled Roosevelt to run against Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912. When that quest failed, he bolted to form the Progressive Party, nicknamed the Bull Moose Party—in a letter to political kingmaker Mark Hanna, Roosevelt had once said “I am as strong as a bull moose and you can use me to the limit.” In the presidential campaign as the Progressive candidate, Roosevelt espoused a "New Nationalism" that would inspire greater government regulation of the economy and promotion of social welfare. Roosevelt spoke both from conviction and in hopes of attracting votes from reform-minded Democrats. This effort failed, because the Democrats had an attractive, progressive nominee in Woodrow Wilson, who won the election with an impressive 435 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 88. Roosevelt had been shot in the chest by a fanatic while campaigning in Wisconsin, but he quickly recovered.

Since the Progressive Party had managed to elect few candidates to office, Roosevelt knew that it was doomed, and he kept it alive only to bargain for his return to the Republicans. In the meantime, he wrote his autobiography and went on an expedition into the Brazilian jungle, where he contracted a near-fatal illness. When World War I broke out in 1914, he became a fierce partisan of the Allied cause. Although he had some slight hope for the 1916 Republican nomination, he was ready to support almost any candidate who opposed Wilson; he abandoned the Progressives to support the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes, who lost by a narrow margin. After the United States entered the war his anger at Wilson boiled over when his offer to lead a division to France was rejected. His four sons served in combat; two were wounded, and the youngest, Quentin, was killed when his airplane was shot down. By 1918 Roosevelt's support of the war and his harsh attacks on Wilson reconciled Republican conservatives to him, and he was the odds-on favorite for the 1920 nomination. But he died in early January 1919, less than three months after his 60th birthday.

Theodore married Edith Kermit Carow [18553] [MRIN: 6351] on 2 Dec 1886 in London, England. Edith was born on 6 Aug 1861 in Norwich, Connecticut and died on 30 Sep 1948 in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York at age 87.

General Notes: born August 6, 1861, Norwich, Connecticut, U.S.
died September 30 1948, Oyster Bay, New York


Edith Kermit Carow, American first lady (1901–09), the second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States. She was noted for institutionalizing the duties of the first lady and refurbishing the White House.

Edith Carow, the daughter of Charles Carow, a wealthy shipping magnate, and Gertrude Tyler Carow, knew her future husband, Theodore Roosevelt, from her early childhood. In his youth, Edith's father had traveled in Europe with Theodore's father, and after both men married their families continued to see each other socially. Edith grew up near the Roosevelt home in New York City, and she was especially close to Theodore's younger sister, Corinne, with whom she began attending a school for girls in 1871. Edith became an avid and discerning reader, and Theodore later boasted that her taste in literature was superior to his.

As the Carow family shipping fortune declined, Edith and her younger sister, Emily, found themselves in reduced circumstances, and they resided briefly with wealthy relatives of their mother. The family's financial difficulties, along with her father's excessive drinking, caused Edith considerable discomfort, and to shield herself from hurt she became an intensely private person.

While still in their early teens, Edith and Theodore developed a romantic relationship, but the romance ended abruptly, for reasons not entirely clear, while he was a student at Harvard. Not long afterward, Theodore began courting Alice Hathaway Lee, and they were married just months after he graduated in 1880. Edith attended the Boston wedding as a family friend, and she continued to see Theodore and his bride socially.

Alice Lee Roosevelt died in February 1884, soon after giving birth to a daughter, Alice Roosevelt. The distraught widower fled to his ranch in the Badlands of the Dakotas, leaving his child with his older sister in New York, and he and Edith did not see each other for some time. On one of his trips to New York he and Edith accidentally met, and their truncated teenage romance resumed. Theodore began seeing Edith privately, and on November 17, 1885, she agreed to marry him. The wedding took place in London, where the Carow women were trying to economize by living abroad, on December 2, 1886.

After a long European honeymoon, Edith and Theodore returned to live at the house that he had begun constructing for his first wife near Oyster Bay, Long Island. Formerly called Leeholm (the name chosen by his first wife), it was renamed Sagamore Hill and became the favored family retreat and Edith's principal residence for the rest of her life. She gave birth to five children (four sons and one daughter) between 1887 and 1897 and suffered at least one miscarriage. Soon after their marriage, they resumed custody of Theodore's daughter Alice.

The Roosevelts lived in Washington, D.C., in 1889–95, when Theodore was chairman of the United States Civil Service Commission, and again in 1897–98, when he was assistant secretary of the navy. Edith's introduction to Washington society gave her valuable preparation for her future job as first lady. While in Washington she also developed a network of literary companions, including the hard-to-please Henry Adams, author of one of the great autobiographies of Western literature and descendant of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. While Theodore was governor of New York (1899–1901), she presided over the large Executive Mansion in Albany, where she acquired the technique of distancing herself from callers at official receptions by using a hand-held bouquet as an attractive shield. Theodore was elected vice president in 1900 and became president on September 14, 1901, upon the death of President William McKinley by an assassin's bullet.

Once in the White House, Edith Roosevelt made her mark in several ways. In order to create more living space for her large family, she and the president arranged for the construction of a new West Wing to house the presidential offices, which until then had shared the second floor with the family living quarters. Many other presidential families had complained about the lack of space in the White House, but no one had come up with an acceptable solution—until the Roosevelts. In 1902 Theodore officially renamed the mansion the White House.

Edith also redesigned the interior of the mansion, working with the architectural firm of McKim Mead & White. A large staircase was removed on the main floor, making possible a much enlarged State Dining Room, and all the formal rooms were redecorated in the elegant, classically simple lines and colors that they retained for the next century. The new style marked a big change from the ornate, dark velvets and fringes of the late nineteenth century, which Edith's stepdaughter Alice wittily described as “late General Grant and early Pullman.” In keeping with her belief that the White House was a national treasure, Edith arranged for two important displays. On the ground floor, she directed the hanging of portraits of first ladies—“all the ladies...including myself,” she stipulated—and nearby she exhibited an enlarged collection of presidential china.

Edith changed the job of first lady in other ways, not all of them permanent. Even before moving into the White House she had hired a social secretary to help with official mail, and after Theodore became president the secretary's job expanded to include communicating with the press, issuing official information on the family as Edith directed, and serving as a conduit for news about official functions. Subsequent first ladies followed Edith's lead, and the social secretary became a valued part of the White House staff. Edith's other innovation, a regular meeting with the wives of Cabinet members to discuss moral standards and the appropriate level of spending on parties, struck some people as intrusive.

After she left the White House in 1909 Edith traveled widely but retained her home at Sagamore Hill. Following Theodore's death in 1919, she did more traveling, visiting Europe as well as South America, Africa, and Asia. Although she took few political stands, she appeared at the Republican National Convention in Madison Square Garden in 1932 to endorse fellow Republican Herbert Hoover in his presidential campaign against Franklin Roosevelt, who was married to Theodore's niece Eleanor Roosevelt.

Edith Kermit Roosevelt (as she signed her name) died at Sagamore Hill and was buried in the family plot at the cemetery nearby. Not everyone would have agreed with the White House aide who said that as first lady “she never made a mistake,” but her organizational skills served her well, and she is usually ranked in the top third of all those who held that job.

767. Henry (Black Horse Harry) Lee [12922] was born in 1787 in Startford Hall, Northumberland, Virginia and died on 30 Jan 1838 in Paris, Frances at age 51.

General Notes: He inherited Stratford Hall when he became of age in 1809 and was the last master of Stratford. After the death of his granddaughter in 1820, he had an affair with his sister-in-law, Elizabeth (his ward). Her new guardian sued him on Elizabeth's behalf. Henry was financially ruined and was forced to sell Stratford Plantation. The sale took place June 27, 1822. He and wife Anne moved to Paris, France about 1829 where he wrote a number of books.

Henry married Elizabeth McCarty [12925] [MRIN: 4296]. Elizabeth was born in 1796 in Virginia and died in 1879 in Stratford Hall, Virginia at age 83.

General Notes: Went to live at Stratford Hall with her sister Anne. She later had an affair with Harry Lee, her sister's husband, after the death of his daughter. The affair produced a child that died at birth. Later she married Henry Storke in 1826 and persuaded him to buy Stratford Hall. She lived there, dressed always in black from 1829 until her death fifty years later.


The child from this marriage was:

   818 U    i. Child Lee [12926] was born about 1821.

Henry next married Anne Robinson McCarty [12923] [MRIN: 4290] on 29 Mar 1817 in Virginia. Anne was born in 1798 in Virginia and died on 27 Aug 1840 in Passy, France at age 42.

General Notes: After the death of her daughter she became dependent on morphine. When the scandal broke concerning her husband's infidelity and the sale of Stratford, Anne left her husband and moved to Tennessee. There she cured herself of the habit of using drugs. In 1827 - 1828 she and Henry reunited and later settled in Paris, France.


The child from this marriage was:

   819 F    i. Daughter Lee [12924] was born in 1818 in Stratford Plantation, Virginia and died in 1820 in Startford Hall, Northumberland, Virginia at age 2.

General Notes: She died from a fall down a stairway in the mansion.



773. Robert Edward Lee [12905] was born on 19 Jan 1807 in Stratford Hall, Virginia, died on 12 Oct 1870 in Lexington, Virginia at age 63, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

General Notes: CSA General Robert E. Lee, eventually becoming the general in charge of all Confederate forces.

Robert E. Lee was born 1807 in Virginia, the son of Light Horse Harry Lee, famous for his conduct in the Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War. (Guilford Courthouse, Battle of - - District 96 campaign)

Robert E. Lee was educated at West Point graduating in 1827 second in his class. Eventually he was appointed Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point. He was commanding in Texas in 1860. Later he was offered command of the Union forces by Lincoln but declined, remaining loyal to Virginia although it is reported that he was not favorably disposed to the secession movement. Midway into the war, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy appointed Lee commander of all CSA military forces.

________________________________

ROBERT EDWARD LEE was born January 19, 1807 to Light Horse Harry and Ann Carter. He was the last of the Lees born at Stratford Hall to reach maturity. He lived there for only four years. His father, Light Horse Harry Lee died when he was eleven years old.

Robert E. Lee's decision to enter West Point was one of poor finances, he had no money. He wanted to attend Harvard. He entered West Point at age eighteen. At West Point he graduated second in his class having not received a single demerit during his four years, a notable achievement. By June 30, 1831 he was serving at Fort Monroe, Virginia as a Second Lieutenant. There he married Mary Ann Custis of Arlington. She was an only daughter of George Washington Parke Custis, the grandson of Martha Washington, the adopted daughter of George Washington. The couple moved into Arlington, the Custis house across the Potomac from Washington D. C.

He was promoted to First Lieutenant in 1836, Captain in 1838. He was wounded in the storming of Chapultepec in 1847. He became Superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy and was later appointed Colonel of Cavalry. He was in command of Texas by 1860. On the eve of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln offered him command of the Union Army, and while he was opposed to secession and slavery, Virginia had the stronger pull. He resigned his commission in the U. S. Army three days after Virginia withdrew from the Union.

Robert married Mary Anne Randolph Custis [12906] [MRIN: 4294] on 30 Jun 1831 in Arlington, Virginia. Mary was born on 1 Oct 1808 in Arlington, Virginia and died on 5 Nov 1873 in Lexington, Virginia at age 65.

General Notes: Known as "Molly".


Children from this marriage were:

   820 M    i. George Washington Custis Lee [12915] was born on 16 Sep 1832 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died on 18 Feb 1913 in Ravensworth, Fairfax, Virginia at age 80, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

General Notes: 1st in his class at West Point, 1854. Major General in the CSA. Saw action just prior to the surrender at Appomattox.

   821 F    ii. Mary Custis Lee [12916] was born on 12 Jul 1835 and died on 22 Nov 1918 at age 83.

+ 822 M    iii. William Henry Rooney Fitzhugh Lee [12917] was born on 31 May 1837 and died on 15 Oct 1891 at age 54.

   823 F    iv. Anne Carter Lee [12918] was born on 18 Jun 1839 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died on 20 Oct 1862 in Jones Spring, North Carolina at age 23, and was buried in Lexington, Virginia.

   824 F    v. Agnes Lee [12913] was born in 1841 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died on 15 Oct 1873 in Lexington, Virginia at age 32, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

   825 F    vi. Eleanor Agnes Lee [12919] was born in 1841 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia and died in 1873 in Lexington, Virginia at age 32.

+ 826 M    vii. Robert Edward Lee [12914] was born on 27 Oct 1843 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died in 1914 at age 71, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

   827 F    viii. Mildred Childe Lee [12920] was born in Feb 1846 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died in 1905 in Ravensworth, Arlington, Virginia at age 59, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

793. James Bradshaw Beverley [23531] was born in 1797 in Blandfield, Essex County, Virginia and died on 15 Jun 1853 in Selma, Loudon County, Virginia at age 56.

James married Jane Johns Peters [23532] [MRIN: 7950], daughter of David Peters [23541] and Sarah Jones [23542], on 6 May 1819 in Peter's Grove, Georgetown, D.C. Jane was born on 30 Nov 1800 and died in Feb 1863 in Ivon, Loudon County, Virginia at age 62.

Children from this marriage were:

   828 F    i. Sarah Jane Beverley [23543] was born on 22 Jun 1820 in Acrolophos, Georgetown, D.C. and died on 20 Feb 1865 in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 44.

Sarah married Edward Carter Turner [16391] [MRIN: 7955], son of Maj. Thomas Turner [16379] and Eliza Carter Randolph [16371], on 21 Oct 1840. Edward was born on 5 Aug 1816 in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia, died about 1891 in Fauquier County, Virginia about age 75, and was buried in Kinloch, The Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia.

   829 M    ii. Col. Robert Beverley [23545] was born on 4 Jul 1822 in Acrolophos, Georgetown, D.C. and died on 31 May 1901 in Avenel, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 78.

Robert married Jane Eliza Carter [23546] [MRIN: 7956], daughter of John Hill Carter [23547] and Susan Baynton Turner [23548], on 18 Jun 1843.

   830 F    iii. Rebecca Beverley [23549] was born on 18 Nov 1823 and died on 31 Aug 1897 in Roland, Fauquier County, Virginia at age 73.

Rebecca married Thomas Henderson [23550] [MRIN: 7958], son of Richard Henderson [23551] and Orra Moore [23552], on 17 Sep 1844.

   831 F    iv. Elizabeth Beverley [23553] was born on 10 Sep 1825 in Avenel, Fauquier County, Virginia, died on 31 Dec 1894 in Alexandria County, Virginia at age 69, and was buried in Episcopal Cemetery, Alexandria, Virginia.

Elizabeth married Gen. Montgomery Dent Corse [23554] [MRIN: 7960], son of John Corse [23555] and Julia Granville [23556], on 22 Nov 1862.

   832 M    v. William Beverley [23557] was born on 1 Jan 1829 in Selma, Loudoun County, Virginia and died on 10 Jan 1879 in Fountian Hill, Loudoun County, Virginia at age 50.

William married Frances Westwood Gray [23558] [MRIN: 7962] in 1853.

   833 F    vi. Mary Beverley [23559] was born on 6 Jan 1831 and died on 17 Apr 1915 in Ivon, Loudoun County, Virginia at age 84.

Mary married Capt. Arthur Mason Chichester [23560] [MRIN: 7963], son of George Mason Chichester [23561] and Mary Bowie [23562], on 25 Oct 1854.

804. Pheobe Millard [19058] was born on 12 Aug 1781 in Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts and died on 2 Apr 1831 in Locke, Cayuga, New York at age 49.

Pheobe married Nathaniel Fillmore [19059] [MRIN: 6547] in 1796 in Bennington, Vermont. Nathaniel was born on 19 Apr 1771 in Bennington, Vermont and died on 28 Mar 1863 in Aurora, New York at age 91.

The child from this marriage was:

   834 M    i. 13th President Millard Fillmore [19060] was born on 7 Jan 1800 in Locke, New York and died on 8 Mar 1874 in Buffalo, New York at age 74.

General Notes: born Jan. 7, 1800, Locke Township, N.Y., U.S.
died March 8, 1874, Buffalo, N.Y.

13th president of the United States (served 1850–53), whose insistence on federal enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 alienated the North and led to the destruction of the Whig Party. Elected vice president in 1848, he became chief executive on the death of President Zachary Taylor (July 1850).

Fillmore was born in a log cabin to a poor family and was apprenticed to a wool carder at age 15. He received little formal education until he was 18,when he managed to obtain six consecutive months of schooling. Shortly afterward he secured his release from apprenticeship and started work in a law office, and in 1823 he was admitted to the bar. He married his first wife, Abigail Powers, in 1826.

Fillmore entered politics in 1828 as a member of the democratic and libertarian Anti-Masonic Movement and Anti-Masonic Party. In 1834 he followed his political mentor, Thurlow Weed, to the Whigs and was soon recognized as an outstanding leader of the party's Northern wing. Following three terms in the New York state assembly (1829–32), he was elected to Congress (1833–35, 1837–43), where he became a devoted follower of Senator Henry Clay. Losing the New York gubernatorial election in 1844, he was easily elected the first state comptroller three years later. At the national Whig convention in 1848, Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War (1846–48), was nominated for president and Fillmore for vice president, largely through Clay's sponsorship.

Fillmore believed that Whig success at the polls heralded the rise of a truly national party that would occupy a middle ground between sectional extremists of both North and South. This outlook was embodied in Clay's Compromise of 1850, which sought to appease both sides on the slavery issue. Fillmore, though personally opposed to slavery, supported the compromise as necessary to preserving the Union. When the legislation was finally passed two months after Taylor's death, the new President Fillmore felt obligated to respect the provision that required the federal government to aid in the capture and return of runaway slaves to their former owners (the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850), and he publicly announced that, if necessary, he would call upon the military to aid in the enforcement of this statute. Although this section of the compromise assuaged the South and had the effect of postponing the Civil War for 10 years, it also meant political death for Fillmore because of its extreme unpopularity in the North.

Fillmore was an early champion of American commercial expansion in the Pacific, and in 1853 he sent a fleet of warships, under the command of Commodore Matthew C. Perry, to Japan to force its shogunate government to alter its traditional isolationism and enter into trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The resulting Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) led to similar agreements between Japan and other Western powers and marked the beginning of Japan's transformation into a modern state.

In 1852 Fillmore was one of three presidential candidates of a divided Whig Party in its last national election, which it lost. He ran again in 1856 as the candidate of the Know-Nothing party (also known as the American Party), finishing third behind Democrat James Buchanan and Republican John C. Fremont. Fillmore then retired to Buffalo, where he became a leader in the city's civic and cultural life. In 1858, some five years after the death of his wife Abigail, he married Caroline Carmichael McIntosh.

Millard married Abigail Powers [19061] [MRIN: 6548] on 5 Feb 1826 in Monrovia, New York. Abigail was born in 1798 in Saratoga County, New York and died on 30 Mar 1853 in Buffalo, New York at age 55.

General Notes: born March 13, 1798, Stillwater, New York, U.S.
died March 30, 1853, Washington, D.C.

Abigail Powers, American first lady (1850–53), the wife of Millard Fillmore, 13th president of the United States.

The last of the first ladies born in the 1700s, Abigail Powers was the daughter of Lemuel Powers, a Baptist minister, and Abigail Newland Powers. Her parents placed great importance on education, and Abigail, the youngest of seven children, developed an early interest in books. By age 16 she was teaching at a school in New Hope, New York, where Millard Fillmore was one of her students. Two years her junior, he came from circumstances even more modest than hers, but they shared a strong desire for learning.

After their marriage on February 5, 1826, Abigail supplemented the couple's income by continuing to teach, making her the first president's wife to work outside the home following marriage. Early in 1830 they moved to Buffalo, New York, where their home, with its large library, became a favorite gathering place for local intellectuals. As Millard's political career took him to the state assembly in Albany and then to Congress in Washington, D.C., Abigail often traveled with him, leaving their two children in Buffalo. An avid reader, she took advantage of these visits to discuss politics with him and their friends.

By the time Millard became vice president in 1849, Abigail's health had deteriorated, and she remained in Buffalo. Although she suffered headaches, rheumatism, and other maladies, she followed his work through letters and newspapers. After he became president in July 1850 following the death of President Zachary Taylor, she and their children moved to Washington, where their teenage daughter Mary often replaced her mother as hostess. Abigail preferred to spend her time reading, studying French, and playing the piano rather than greeting callers or standing in reception lines. Disappointed to find that the White House had no library, she persuaded Congress to appropriate money to start one.

Abigail's premonition that she would not live long proved true. She died as a result of the cold she caught during the inauguration of Franklin Pierce, her husband's successor. She was buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo, where her husband was also buried after his death in 1874.

Millard next married Caroline Michael MacIntosh [19062] [MRIN: 6549] about 1858.

805. Amos Griffith [19005] was born c1798 and died in 1871 at age 73.

Amos married Edith Price [19006] [MRIN: 6522] in 1820. Edith was born in 1801 and died in 1873 at age 72.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 835 F    i. Elizabeth Price Griffith [19007] was born on 28 Apr 1827 in West Pike Run, Washington County, Pennsylvania and died on 3 May 1923 in Whittier, California at age 96.

806. Capt Noah Grant Jr [18617] was born on 12 Jul 1719 and died after 20 Sep 1756.

Noah married Susannah Delano [18618] [MRIN: 6384] on 5 Nov 1746 in Tolland, Connecticut. Susannah was born on 23 Jun 1724 in Tolland, Connecticut and died on 16 Aug 1806 in Coventry, Connecticut at age 82.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 836 M    i. Capt. Noah Grant III [18619] was born on 20 Jun 1748 in Tolland, Connecticut and died on 14 Feb 1819 in Marysville, Kentucky at age 70.

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807. Anna Kendrick [18164] was born on 30 Oct 1768 and died on 7 Dec 1838 at age 70.

Anna married General Benjamin Pierce [18165] [MRIN: 6145] on 1 Feb 1790. Benjamin was born on 25 Dec 1757 and died on 8 Oct 1839 at age 81.

The child from this marriage was:

   837 M    i. 14th President Franklin Pierce [18166] was born on 23 Nov 1804 in Hillsboro, New Hampshire and died on 8 Oct 1869 in Concord, New Hampshire at age 64.

General Notes: Young Hickory, as he was sometimes called, was the 14th President of the United States (1853-57). He failed to deal effectively with the corroding sectional controversy over slavery in the decade preceding the American Civil War (1861-65).

The son of a governor of New Hampshire, Benjamin Pierce and the former Anna Kendrick, Franklin Pierce attended Bowdoin College in Maine, studied law in Northampton, Massachusetts, and was admitted to the bar in 1827. He married Jane Means Appelton, whose father was president of Bowdoin, in 1834.

Pierce entered political life in New Hampshire as a Democrat, serving in the state legislature (1829-33), the U. S. House of Representatives (1833-37) and the Senate (1837-42). Handsome, affable, charming and possessed of a certain superficial brilliance, Pierce made many friends in Congress, but his career there was otherwise undistinguished. He was a devoted supported of President Andrew Jackson but was continually overshadowed by older and more prominent men on the national scene. Resigning from the Senate for personal reasons, he returned to Concord, where he resumed his law practice and also served as federal district attorney.

Except for a brief stint as an officer in the Mexican War (1846-48), Pierce remained out of the public eye until the nominating convention of the Democratic Party in 1852. After a deadlock developed among supporters of the leading presidential contenders - Lewis Cass, Stephen A. Douglas, and James Buchanan - a coalition of New England and Southern delegates proposed "Young Hickory" and Pierce was nominated on the 49th ballot. The ensuing presidential campaign was dominated by the controversy over slavery and the finality of the Compromise of 1850. Although both Democrats and the Whigs declared themselves in favor of the compromise, the Democrats were more thoroughly united in their support. As a result, Pierce, who was almost unknown nationally, unexpectedly won the November election, defeating the Whig candidate Winfield Scott by 254 votes to 42 in the electoral college, but only by about 44,000 votes in the popular election. Pierce's triumph was quickly marred by tragedy, however, when a few weeks before his inauguration, he and his wife witnessed the death of their only surviving child, 11 year old Bennie, in a railroad accident. Jane Pierce, who had always opposed her husbands candidacy, never fully recovered from the shock.

At the time of his election, Pierce, age 47, was the youngest man to have been elected to the presidency. Representing the Eastern element of the Democratic Party, which was inclined for the sake of harmony and business prosperity to oppose antislavery agitation and generally to placate Southern opinion, Pierce tried to promote sectional unity by filling his cabinet with extremists from both sides of the slavery debate. He also attempted to sidestep the fierce sectional antagonisms of the domestic scene by ambitiously and aggressively promoting the extension of U. S. territorial and commercial interests abroad. In an effort to buy the island of Cuba from Spain, he ordered the U. S. Minister to Spain, Pierre Soule', to try to secure influence of European financiers on the Spanish government. The resulting diplomatic statement, the Ostend Manifesto (October 1854) was interpreted by the American public as a call to wrest Cuba from Spain by force, if necessary. The ensuing controversy forced the administration to disclaim responsibility for the document and to recall Soule'. In 1855 an American, William Walker, conducted a notorious expedition into Central America with the hope of establishing a proslavery government under the control of the United States. In Nicaragua he established himself as military dictator and then as president, and his dubious regime was recognized by the Pierce administration. A more lasting diplomatic achievement came form the expedition that President Millard Fillmore had sent to Japan in 1853 under Commodore Matthew C. Perry. In 1854 Pierce received Perry's report that his expedition had been successful and that U. S. ships would have limited access to Japanese ports. The Pierce administration also reorganized the diplomatic and consular service, and created the United States Court of Claims.

Among Pierce's domestic policies were preparations for a transcontinental railroad and the opening of the Northwest for settlement. In 1853, in order to create a southerly route to California, the U. S. minister to Mexico, James Gadsen, negotiated the purchase of almost 30,000 square miles of Mexican Territory for $10 million. Mainly to stimulate migration to the Northwest and to facilitate the construction of a central route to the Pacific, Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. This measure, which opened two new territories for settlement, included repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and provided that the status of territories as "free" or "slave" would be decided by popular sovereignty. The indignation aroused by the act and the resulting period of violent conflict in Kansas Territory were the main causes of the rise of the Republican Party in the mid-1850's. Owing to his ineptness in handling the situation in Kansas, Pierce was denied renomination by the Democrats and he remains the only president to be so repudiated by his party. After an extended tour of Eurpoe he retired to Concord. Always a heavy drinker, Pierce descended further into apparent alcoholism and he died in obscurity.

Franklin married Jane Means Appleton [18167] [MRIN: 6146] on 10 Nov 1834 in Amherst, New Hampshire. Jane was born on 12 Mar 1806 in Hampton, New Hampshire and died on 2 Dec 1863 in Andover, Massachusetts at age 57.

808. Betsey Comstock [18310] .

Betsey married Unknown Butler [18311] [MRIN: 6223].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 838 M    i. George Selden Butler [18312] .

809. Rev. Richard Falley Cleveland [18396] was born in 1804 in Norwich, CT and died on 1 Oct 1853 in Holland Patent, New York at age 49.

Richard married Anne Neal [18397] [MRIN: 6270] on 10 Sep 1829 in Baltimore, Maryland. Anne was born on 4 Feb 1806 in Baltimore, Maryland and died on 19 Jul 1882 in Holland Patent, New York at age 76.

The child from this marriage was:

   839 M    i. 22nd & 24th President Grover (Stephen) Cleveland [18398] was born on 18 Mar 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey and died on 24 Jun 1908 in Princeton, New Jersey at age 71.

General Notes: born March 18, 1837, Caldwell, N.J., U.S.
died June 24, 1908, Princeton, N.J.

Stephen Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885–89 and 1893–97) and the only president ever to serve two discontinuous terms. Cleveland distinguished himself as one of the few truly honest and principled politicians of the Gilded Age. His view of the president's function as primarily that of blocking legislative excesses made him quite popular during his first term, but that view cost him public support during his second term when he steadfastly denied a positive role for government in dealing with the worst economic collapse the nation had yet faced.

Cleveland was the son of Richard Falley Cleveland, an itinerant Presbyterian minister, and Ann Neal. The death of Grover Cleveland's father in 1853 forced him to abandon school in order to support his mother and sisters. After clerking in a law firm in Buffalo, New York, he was admitted to the bar in 1859 and soon entered politics as a member of the Democratic Party. During the Civil War he was drafted but hired a substitute so that he could care for his mother—an altogether legal procedure but one that would make him vulnerable to political attack in the future. In 1863 he became assistant district attorney of Erie county, New York, and in 1870–73 he served as county sheriff. With this slight political background and only modest success as a lawyer, the apparently unambitious Buffalo attorney launched perhaps the most meteoric rise in American politics.

In 1881, eight years after stepping down as sheriff, Cleveland was nominated for mayor by Buffalo Democrats who remembered his honest and efficient service in that office. He won the election easily. As Buffalo's chief executive he became known as the “veto mayor” for his rejection of spending measures he considered to be wasteful and corrupt. In 1882, without the support of the Tammany Hall Democratic machine in New York City, Cleveland received his party's nomination for governor, and he went on to crush his Republican opponent by more than 200,000 votes.

As governor of New York, Cleveland again used the veto frequently, even to turn down measures that enjoyed wide public support. His devotion to principle and his unstinting opposition to Tammany Hall soon earned him a national reputation—particularly among Americans disgusted with the frequent scandals of Gilded Age politics.

In 1884 the Democrats sought a presidential candidate who would contrast sharply with Republican nominee James G. Blaine, a longtime Washington insider whose reputation for dishonesty and financial impropriety prompted the Republican Mugwump faction to bolt their party. Cleveland's image was the opposite of Blaine's, and he seemed likely to draw Mugwump votes to the Democratic ticket. As a result, Cleveland won the Democratic nomination with ease.

During the campaign, Cleveland's image as the clean alternative to the supposedly sullied Blaine suffered serious damage when Republicans charged that the Democratic candidate had fathered a child out of wedlock some 10 years earlier. As Republicans joyously chortled, “Ma, ma, where's my pa?,” Cleveland remained undaunted, and he instructed Democratic leaders to “Tell the truth.” The truth, as Cleveland admitted, was that he had had an affair with the child's mother, Maria Halpin, and had agreed to provide financial support when she named him as the father, though he was uncertain whether the child was really his. Meanwhile, Democrats, trying to contrast Cleveland's reputation with Blaine's, chanted “Blaine Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine!” Late in the campaign, Blaine experienced an embarrassment of his own, when a supporter at a rally in New York City described the Democrats as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion”—a swipe at the city's Irish Catholics, many of whom Blaine hoped to lure into his camp. Although Blaine was present when the fateful words were spoken, he did nothing to dissociate himself from the remark. The general election was determined by electoral votes from New York state, which Blaine lost to Cleveland by fewer than 1,200 votes.

As president, Cleveland continued to act in the same negative capacity that had marked his tenures as mayor and governor. He nullified fraudulent grants to some 80,000,000 acres (30,000,000 hectares) of Western public lands and vetoed hundreds of pension bills that would have sent federal funds to undeserving Civil War veterans. Once again, Cleveland's rejection of wasteful and corrupt measures endeared the president to citizens who admired his honesty and courage. He also received credit for two of the more significant measures enacted by the federal government in the 1880s: the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), which established the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first regulatory agency in the United States, and the Dawes General Allotment Act (1887), which redistributed Indian reservation land to individual tribe members.

In 1886 Cleveland, a lifelong bachelor, married Frances Folsom, the daughter of his former law partner. Frances Cleveland, 27 years younger than her husband, proved to be a very popular first lady. To all appearances the marriage was a happy one, though during the 1888 presidential campaign she was forced to publicly refute Republican-spread rumors that Cleveland had beaten her during drunken rages.

The major issue of the 1888 presidential campaign was the protective tariff. Cleveland, running for reelection, opposed the high tariff, calling it unnecessary taxation imposed upon American consumers, while Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison defended protectionism. On election day, Cleveland won about 100,000 more popular votes than Harrison, evidence of the esteem in which the president was held and to the widespread desire for a lower tariff. Yet Harrison won the election by capturing a majority of votes in the electoral college (233 to 168), largely as a result of lavish campaign contributions from pro-tariff business interests in the crucial states of New York and Indiana.

Cleveland spent the four years of the Harrison presidency in New York City, working for a prominent law firm. When the Republican-dominated Congress and the Harrison administration enacted the very high McKinley Tariff in 1890 and made the surplus in the treasury vanish in a massive spending spree, the path to a Democratic victory in 1892 seemed clear. Cleveland won his party's nomination for the third consecutive time and then soundly defeated Harrison and Populist Party candidate James B. Weaver by 257 electoral votes to Harrison's 145, making Cleveland the only president ever elected to discontinuous terms.

Early in Cleveland's second term the United States sank into the most severe economic depression the country had yet experienced. Cleveland believed that the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890—which required the secretary of the treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver each month—had eroded confidence in the stability of the currency and was thus at the root of the nation's economic troubles. He called Congress into special session and, over considerable opposition from Southern and Western members of his own party, forced the repeal of the act. Yet the depression only worsened, and Cleveland's negative view of government began to diminish his popularity. Apart from assuring a sound—i.e., gold-backed—currency, he insisted the government could do nothing to alleviate the suffering of the many thousands of people who had lost jobs, homes, and farms. His popularity sank even lower when—distraught over the diminishing quantity of gold in the treasury—he negotiated with a syndicate of bankers headed by John Pierpont Morgan to sell government bonds abroad for gold. The deal succeeded in replenishing the government's gold supply, but the alliance between the president and one of the era's leading “robber barons” intensified the feeling that Cleveland had lost touch with ordinary Americans.

That the president cared more about the interests of big business than those of ordinary Americans seemed manifest in Cleveland's handling of the Pullman Strike in 1894. Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to quell violence at Pullman's railroad car facility, despite the objections of Illinois Governor John P. Altgeld. The strike was broken within a week, and the president received the plaudits of the business community. However, he had severed whatever support he still had in the ranks of labor.

In foreign policy Cleveland displayed the same courageous righteousness that characterized much of his domestic policy. He withdrew from the Senate, a treaty for the annexation of Hawaii when he learned how the Hawaiian leader, Queen Liliuokalani, had been overthrown in an American-led coup. He also refused to be swept along with popular sentiment for intervention on behalf of Cuban insurgents fighting for independence from Spain. Yet he was not totally immune to the new spirit of American assertiveness on the international stage. By invoking the Monroe Doctrine, for example, he forced Britain to accept arbitration of a boundary dispute between its colony of British Guiana (now Guyana) and neighboring Venezuela.

At the tumultuous Democratic convention in 1896, the party was divided between supporters of Cleveland and the gold standard and those who wanted a bimetallic standard of gold and silver designed to expand the nation's money supply. When William Jennings Bryan delivered his impassioned Cross of Gold speech, the delegates not only nominated the little-known Bryan for president but also repudiated Cleveland.

Cleveland retired to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became active in the affairs of Princeton University as a lecturer in public affairs and as a trustee (1901–08). As the rancor over the gold standard subsided with the return of prosperity, Cleveland regained much of the public admiration he had earlier enjoyed. Never again, however, would the Democratic Party adhere to the pro-business, limited-government views that so dominated his presidency, and Cleveland remains the most conservative Democrat to have occupied the White House since the Civil War.

Grover married Frances Folsom [18399] [MRIN: 6271] on 2 Jun 1886 in White House, Washington D. C. Frances was born on 21 Jul 1864 in Buffalo, New York and died on 29 Oct 1947 in Baltimore, Maryland at age 83.

General Notes: born July 21, 1864, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
died October 29, 1947, Baltimore, Maryland


Frances Folsom, also called (1913–47) Frances Cleveland Preston American first lady (1886–89; 1893–97), the wife of Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th president of the United States, and the youngest first lady in American history.

Frances Folsom was the only daughter of Emma Harmon Folsom and Oscar Folsom, a lawyer. She lived comfortably and was educated at private schools, but her life changed dramatically after her father died in a carriage accident in 1874. Although financially secure, “Frank,” as she was called, and her mother moved frequently, living briefly with various relatives in Minnesota and Michigan before returning to Buffalo, New York.

After her graduation from Wells College in Aurora, New York, in 1885, Frances and her mother toured Europe for a year. During this time Frances continued her long-standing correspondence with Grover Cleveland, the newly inaugurated president, who had been Oscar Folsom's law partner and executor and a close family friend from before the time of Frances's birth. (Cleveland had purchased Frances's first baby carriage.) After Frances and her mother visited the White House in the spring of 1885, rumors circulated that the bachelor president might marry Mrs. Folsom, but he proposed to Frances (by letter) just before she left for Europe. Although word spread about the impending marriage, Frances declined comment and went ahead with her travel plans. Soon after her return, they were married in the Blue Room of the White House on June 2, 1886, the first time an incumbent president wed in the mansion.

At 21 years of age, Frances was the youngest first lady in the nation's history, a distinction that attracted enormous attention. Advertisers began using her image in illustrations and sought her endorsements for their products, and many parents named their infant daughters after her. Her popularity partly explains the importance of a false rumor that circulated during the 1888 election, in which Grover ran unsuccessfully for a second term. After word spread that he had physically abused his young wife, she wrote a public letter which said that she wished that all the women of America could have husbands “as kind, attentive and considerate, and affectionate as mine.”

Like many presidential families, the Clevelands found the White House an uncomfortable place to live. In order to have more space and privacy, they rented a house outside Washington, D.C., and returned to the executive mansion for official functions, thus becoming the first incumbent president and his wife to live outside the White House since it was first occupied in 1800. By the time Grover won a second term in 1892, they had a young daughter, and Frances was pregnant with a second child. During his second term, when the family needed even more space, they lived in another rented house in Georgetown. During her husband's secret surgery for mouth cancer in July 1893, she successfully deflected reporters who were trying to locate him, thus helping keep from the public information that could have adversely affected the financial markets. On September 9, 1893, Frances gave birth to a daughter, who was the first child born to a sitting president.

She had another daughter in 1895 and two sons after leaving the White House in 1897. Frances and Grover Cleveland retired to Princeton, New Jersey, where Grover died on June 24, 1908. Frances married a Princeton archaeologist, Thomas Jex Preston, in 1913, becoming the first presidential widow to remarry. She died in 1947 and was buried beside Grover Cleveland in Princeton.

814. Mary Rebecca Aspinwall [18443] was born on 20 Dec 1809 and died on 24 Feb 1886 at age 76.

Mary married Isaac Roosevelt [18444] [MRIN: 6292] on 26 Apr 1827. Isaac was born on 21 Apr 1790 and died on 23 Oct 1863 at age 73.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 840 M    i. James Roosevelt [18445] was born in 1828 and died in 1900 at age 72.

815. Anna Lillie [18356] was born about 1760 in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Dec 1804 in Andover, Massachusetts about age 44.

Anna married Samuel Howard [18357] [MRIN: 6247] on 3 Apr 1777 in Boston, Massachusetts. Samuel was born about 1752 in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jan 1797 in Boston, Massachusetts about age 45.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 841 F    i. Harriet Howard [18358] was born on 27 May 1782 in Boston, Massachusetts and died on 27 Jul 1847 in Cambridge, Massachusetts at age 65.

816. Spence Monroe [18492] died in 1774.

Spence married Elizabeth (Eliza) Jones [18493] [MRIN: 6319].

The child from this marriage was:

   842 M    i. 5th President James Monroe [18494] was born on 28 Apr 1758 in Monroe's Creek, Westmoreland County, Virginia and died on 4 Jul 1831 in New York at age 73.

General Notes: born April 28, 1758, Westmoreland county, Va. [U.S.]
died July 4, 1831, New York, N.Y., U.S.

Fifth president of the United States (1817–25), who issued an important contribution to U.S. foreign policy in the Monroe Doctrine, a warning to European nations against intervening in the Western Hemisphere. The period of his administration has been called the Era of Good Feeling.

Monroe's father, Spence Monroe, was of Scottish descent, and his mother, Elizabeth Jones Monroe, of Welsh descent. The family were owners of a modest 600 acres in Virginia. At age 16 Monroe entered the College of William and Mary but in 1776 left to fight in the United States War of Independence. As a lieutenant he crossed the Delaware with General George Washington for what became the Battle of Trenton. Suffering a near fatal wound in the shoulder, Monroe was carried from the field. Upon recovering, he was promoted to captain for heroism, and he took part in the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown. Advanced to major, he became aide-de-camp to General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) and with him shared the suffering of the troops at Valley Forge in the cruel winter of 1777–78. Monroe was a scout for Washington at the Battle of Monmouth andserved as Lord Stirling's adjutant general.

In 1780, having resigned his commission in the army, he began the study of law under Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Virginia, and between the two men there developed an intimacy and a sympathy that had a powerful influence upon Monroe's later career. Jefferson also fostered a friendship between Monroe and James Madison.

Monroe was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1782 and was chosen a member of the governor's council. From 1783 to 1786 he served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the new nation. During his term he vigorously insisted on the right of the United States to navigate the Mississippi River, then controlled by the Spanish, and attempted, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, thereby removing one of the great defects in the existing central government. In 1786 Monroe, 27 years old, and Elizabeth Kortright of New York, 17 years old, were married. They had two daughters, Eliza Kortright and Maria Hester, and a son who died in infancy. Eliza often was at her father's side as official hostess when he was president, substituting for her ailing mother. Maria's marriage to a cousin, Samuel L. Gouverneur, in 1820 was the first wedding performed in the President's House, as the White House was then called.

Retiring from Congress in 1786, Monroe began practicing law at Fredericksburg, Virginia. He was chosen a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787 and in 1788 a member of the state convention at which Virginia ratified the new federal Constitution. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he vigorously opposed President George Washington's administration; nevertheless, in 1794 Washington nominated him as minister to France.

It was the hope of the administration that Monroe's well-known French sympathies would secure for him a favorable reception and that his appointment would also conciliate France's friends in the United States. His warm welcome in France and his enthusiasm for the French Revolution, which he regarded as a natural successor to the American Revolution, displeased the Federalists (the party of Alexander Hamilton, which encouraged close ties not to France but to England) at home. Monroe did nothing, moreover, to reconcile the French to the Jay Treaty, which regulated commerce and navigation between the United States and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary wars.

Without real justification, the French regarded the treaty as a violation of the French-American treaty of commerce and amity of 1778 and as a possible cause for war. Monroe led the French government to believe that the Jay Treaty would never be ratified by the United States, that the administration of George Washington would be overthrown as a result of the obnoxious treaty, and that better things might be expected after the election in 1796 of a new president, perhaps Thomas Jefferson. Washington, though he did not know of this intrigue, sensed that Monroe was unable to represent his government properly and, late in 1796, recalled him.

Monroe returned to America in the spring of 1797 and in the following December published a defense of his course in a pamphlet of 500 pages entitled A View of the Conduct of the Executive, in the Foreign Affairs of the United States. Washington seems never to have forgiven Monroe for this stratagem, though Monroe's opinion of Washington and Jay underwent a change in his later years. In 1799 Monroe was chosen governor of Virginia and was twice reelected, serving until 1802.

There was much uneasiness in the United States when Spain restored Louisiana to France by the Treaty of San Ildefonso in October 1800 (confirmed March 1801). The Spanish district administrator's subsequent withdrawal of the United States' “right of deposit” at New Orleans—the privilege of storing goods there for later reshipment—greatly increased this feeling and led to much talk of war. Resolved to settle the matter by peaceful measures, President Jefferson in January 1803 appointed Monroe envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to France to aid Robert R. Livingston, the resident minister, in purchasing the territory at the mouth of the Mississippi—including the island of New Orleans—authorizing him at the same time to cooperate with Charles Pinckney, the minister at Madrid, in securing from Spain the cession of East and West Florida. On April 18 Monroe was further commissioned as the regular minister to Great Britain.

Monroe joined Livingston in Paris on April 12, after the latter's negotiations were well under way, and the two ministers, on finding Napoleon willing to dispose of the entire province of Louisiana, decided to exceed their instructions and effect its purchase. Accordingly, on May 2, 1803, they signed a treaty and two conventions (antedated to April 30) whereby France sold Louisiana to the United States. The fact that Monroe signed the treaty along with Livingston did not hurt his political career at home, but he is not entitled to much credit for the diplomatic achievement.

In July 1803 Monroe left Paris and entered upon his duties in London, and in the autumn of 1804 he proceeded to Madrid to assist Pinckney in his efforts to define the Louisiana boundaries and acquire the Floridas. After negotiating until May 1805 without success, Monroe returned to London and resumed his negotiations concerning the impressment of American seamen and the seizure of American vessels. As the British ministry was reluctant to discuss these vexing questions, little progress was made, and in May 1806 Jefferson ordered William Pinkney of Maryland to assist Monroe.

The result of the deliberations was a treaty signed on December 31, 1806, which contained no provision against impressments and provided no indemnity for the seizure of goods and vessels. Accompanying its signature was a British reservation maintaining freedom of action to retaliate against imminent French maritime decrees. In passing over these matters Monroe and Pinkney had disregarded their instructions, and Jefferson was so displeased with the treaty that he returned it to England for revision.

Monroe returned to the United States in December 1807. He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in the spring of 1810. In the following winter he was again chosen governor, serving from January to November 1811, when he resigned to become secretary of state under James Madison, a position he held until March 1817. The direction of foreign affairs in the troubled period immediately preceding and during the War of 1812, with Great Britain, thus fell upon him. On September 27, 1814, after the capture of Washington, D.C., by the British, he was appointed secretary of war and discharged the duties of this office, in addition to those of the Department of State, until March 1815.

In 1816 Monroe was elected president of the United States as the Republican candidate, defeating Rufus King, the Federalist candidate; Monroe received 183 electoral votes and King, 34. By 1820, when he was reelected, receiving all the electoral votes but one, the Federalists had ceased to function as a party. The chief events of his calm and prosperous administration, which has been called the Era of Good Feeling, were the First Seminole War (1817–18); the acquisition of the Floridas from Spain (1819–21); the Missouri Compromise (1820), by which the first conflict over slavery under the Constitution was peacefully settled; recognition of the new Latin American states, former Spanish colonies, in Central and South America (1822); and—most intimately connected with Monroe's name—the enunciation, in the presidential message of December 2, 1823, of the Monroe Doctrine, which has profoundly influenced the foreign policy of the United States.

Not until 1848 when James K. Polk was president did the first reference to Monroe's statement as a "Doctrine" appear. The phrase Monroe Doctrine came into common use in the 1850s. The “principles of President Monroe,” as the message was referred to in Congress, consisted of three openly proclaimed dicta: no further European colonization in the New World, abstention of the United States from the political affairs of Europe, and nonintervention of Europe in the governments of the American hemisphere. In the diplomatic correspondence preceding the proclamation of these principles in the president's message was a fourth dictum not publicly associated with the doctrine until 1869: the United States opposed the transfer of any existing European colonies from one European sovereign to another.

It is generally concluded that Secretary of State John Quincy Adams was the sole author of the noncolonization principle of the doctrine; the principle of abstention from European wars and politics was common to all the fathers of American independence, inherited and expressed by the younger Adams all his professional life; in cabinet meetings, Adams also urged the dictum of nonintervention in the affairs of the nations of the Western Hemisphere. But Adams had no idea of proclaiming these dicta to the world. Monroe took responsibility for embodying them in a presidential message that he drafted himself. Modern historical judgment considers the Monroe Doctrine to be appropriately named.

President Monroe and his wife remained smitten by France after their sojourn there and with their daughters often spoke French together when they were in the White House. Elizabeth Monroe clothed herself in Paris creations and insisted on French etiquette and French cuisine at her table. Given the opportunity to refurnish the executive mansion when it was rebuilt after its destruction in 1814, the Monroes spent lavishly on gilded furniture, silverware, and various objets d'art imported from France. Some items that the president had purchased from impoverished French noble families while he was minister he now lent or sold to the government for use in the President's House at prices some considered suspiciously high, although Monroe was later cleared of impropriety.

The first lady, who was always in fragile health, suffered from an unidentified malady. She was often away from Washington for months at a time visiting her married daughters. To the considerable irritation of Washington society, she discontinued Dolley Madison's practice of paying courtesy calls on Washington hostesses. Still, Elizabeth Monroe was not without ardor; shortly after her arrival in France, during the Reign of Terror, she had helped to rescue Madame Lafayette, wife of the marquis de Lafayette, from prison and perhaps save her from the guillotine.

On the expiration of his second term Monroe retired to his home at Oak Hill, Virginia. In 1826 he became a regent of the University of Virginia and in 1829 was a member of the convention called to amend the state constitution. Having neglected his private affairs and incurred large expenditures during his missions to Europe and his presidency, he was deeply in debt and felt compelled to ask Congress to reimburse him. In 1826 Congress finally authorized the payment to him of $30,000. Almost immediately, adding additional claims, he went back to Congress seeking more money. Congress paid him another $30,000 in 1831, but he still did not feel satisfied. After his death Congress appropriated a small amount for the purchase of his papers from his heirs. Monroe died in 1831—like Jefferson and Adams before him on the Fourth of July—in New York City at the home of his daughter, Maria, with whom he was living after the death of his wife the year before. In 1858, the centennial year of his birth, his remains were reinterred with impressive ceremonies at Richmond, Virginia. After Liberia was created in 1821 as a haven for freed slaves, its capital city was named Monrovia in honour of the American president, who had supported the repatriation of blacks to Africa.

Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Quincy Adams, and many other prominent statesmen of Monroe's time all spoke loudly in his praise, but he suffers by comparison with the greater men of his time. Possessing none of their brilliance, he had, nevertheless, to use the words of John Quincy Adams, “a mind sound in its ultimate judgments, and firm in its final conclusions.” Some of Monroe's popularity undoubtedly stemmed from the fact that he was the last of the Revolutionary War generation, and he reminded people of those heady times when the struggle for independence was in the balance. Tall and stately in appearance, he still wore the knee britches, silk stockings, and cocked hat of those days, and many of his admirers said that he resembled George Washington.

James married Elizabeth Kortright [18495] [MRIN: 6320] on 16 Feb 1786 in Trinity E Church, New York. Elizabeth was born on 30 Jun 1768 in New York and died on 23 Sep 1830 in Oak Hill, Loudon County, Virginia at age 62.

822. William Henry Rooney Fitzhugh Lee [12917] was born on 31 May 1837 and died on 15 Oct 1891 at age 54.

William married Jab Bolling [17153] [MRIN: 5766].

Children from this marriage were:

   843 M    i. Robert Edward Lee [17154] .

Robert married Mary Middleton Pinckney [17155] [MRIN: 5767].

+ 844 M    ii. George Bolling Lee [17156] .

826. Robert Edward Lee [12914] was born on 27 Oct 1843 in Arlington Plantation, Virginia, died in 1914 at age 71, and was buried in Washington And Lee University Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia.

Robert married Charlotte Haxall [17164] [MRIN: 5771].

Robert next married Juliet Carter [17165] [MRIN: 5772].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 845 F    i. Anne Carter Lee [17166] .

+ 846 F    ii. Mary Lee [17168] .

835. Elizabeth Price Griffith [19007] was born on 28 Apr 1827 in West Pike Run, Washington County, Pennsylvania and died on 3 May 1923 in Whittier, California at age 96.

Elizabeth married Joshua Vickers Milhous [19008] [MRIN: 6523] on 23 Dec 1847 in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Joshua was born on 31 Dec 1820 in Colerain, Belmont County, Ohio and died on 15 Apr 1893 in Bigger Township, Indiana at age 72.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 847 M    i. Franklin Milhous [19009] was born on 4 Nov 1848 in Colerain, Belmont County, Ohio and died on 2 Feb 1919 in Whittier, California at age 70.

836. Capt. Noah Grant III [18619] was born on 20 Jun 1748 in Tolland, Connecticut and died on 14 Feb 1819 in Marysville, Kentucky at age 70.

Noah married Rachel Kelly [18620] [MRIN: 6385] on 4 Mar 1792 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. Rachel was born in Deerfield, Ohio.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 848 M    i. Jesse Root Grant [18621] was born on 23 Jan 1794 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania and died on 29 Jun 1873 in Covington, Kentucky at age 79.

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838. George Selden Butler [18312] .

George married.

His child was:

+ 849 F    i. Amy Gridley Butler [18313] .

840. James Roosevelt [18445] was born in 1828 and died in 1900 at age 72.

James married Sara Delano [18446] [MRIN: 6293] on 7 Oct 1880. Sara was born on 21 Sep 1854 and died on 7 Sep 1941 at age 86.

The child from this marriage was:

   850 M    i. 32nd President Franklin Delano Roosevelt [18447] was born on 30 Jan 1882 in Hyde Park, Dutchess County, New York and died on 12 Apr 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia at age 63.

General Notes: born January 30, 1882, Hyde Park, New York, U.S.
died April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Georgia


Franklin Delano Roosevelt, "FDR" 32nd president of the United States (1933–45). The only president elected to the office four times, Roosevelt led the United States through two of the greatest crises of the 20th century: the Great Depression and World War II. In so doing, he greatly expanded the powers of the federal government through a series of programs and reforms known as the New Deal, and he served as the principal architect of the successful effort to rid the world of German National Socialism and Japanese militarism.

Roosevelt was the only child of James and Sara Delano Roosevelt. The family lived in unostentatious and genteel luxury, dividing its time between the family estate in the Hudson River Valley of New York state and European resorts. Young Roosevelt was educated privately at home until age 14, when he entered Groton Preparatory School in Groton, Massachusetts. At Groton, as at home, he was reared to be a gentleman, assuming responsibility for those less fortunate and exercising Christian stewardship through public service.

In 1900 Roosevelt entered Harvard, where he spent most of his time on extracurricular activities and a strenuous social life; his academic record was undistinguished. It was during his Harvard years that he fell under the spell of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, the progressive champion who advocated a vastly increased role for the government in the nation's economy. It was also during his Harvard years that he fell in love with Theodore Roosevelt's niece, Eleanor Roosevelt, who was then active in charitable work for the poor in New York City. The distant cousins became engaged during Roosevelt's final year at Harvard, and they were married on March 17, 1905. Eleanor Roosevelt would later open her husband's eyes to the deplorable state of the poor in New York's slums.

Roosevelt attended Columbia University Law School but was not much interested in his studies. After passing the New York bar exam, he went to work as a clerk for the distinguished Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard, and Milburn, but he displayed the same attitude of indifference toward the legal profession as he had toward his education.

Motivated by his cousin Theodore, who continued to urge young men of privileged backgrounds to enter public service, Roosevelt looked for an opportunity to launch a career in politics. That opportunity came in 1910, when Democratic leaders of Dutchess county, New York, persuaded him to undertake an apparently futile attempt to win a seat in the state senate. Roosevelt, whose branch of the family had always voted Democratic, hesitated only long enough to make sure his distinguished Republican relative would not speak against him. He campaigned strenuously and won the election. Not quite 29 when he took his seat in Albany, he quickly won statewide and even some national attention by leading a small group of Democratic insurgents who refused to support Billy Sheehan, the candidate for the United States Senate backed by Tammany Hall, the New York City Democratic organization. For three months Roosevelt helped hold the insurgents firm, and Tammany was forced to switch to another candidate.

In the New York Senate Roosevelt learned much of the give-and-take of politics, and he gradually abandoned his patrician airs and attitude of superiority. In the process, he came to champion the full program of progressive reform. By 1911 Roosevelt was supporting progressive New Jersey governor Woodrow Wilson for the Democratic presidential nomination of 1912. In that year Roosevelt was reelected to the state senate, despite an attack of typhoid fever that prevented him from making public appearances during the campaign. His success was attributable in part to the publicity generated by an Albany journalist, Louis McHenry Howe. Howe saw in the tall, handsome Roosevelt a politician with great promise, and he remained dedicated to Roosevelt for the rest of his life.

For his work on behalf of Wilson, Roosevelt was appointed assistant secretary of the navy in March 1913. Roosevelt loved the sea and naval traditions, and he knew more about them than did his superior, navy secretary Josephus Daniels, with whom he was frequently impatient. Roosevelt tried with mixed success to bring reforms to the navy yards, which were under his jurisdiction, mean while learning to negotiate with labor unions among the navy's civilian employees.

After war broke out in Europe in 1914, Roosevelt became a vehement advocate of military preparedness, and following U.S. entry into the war in 1917, he built a reputation as an effective administrator. In the summer of 1918 he made an extended tour of naval bases and battlefields overseas. Upon his return, Eleanor Roosevelt discovered that her husband had been romantically involved with her social secretary, Lucy Mercer. She offered him a divorce; he refused and promised never to see Mercer again (a promise he would break in the 1940s). Although the Roosevelts agreed to remain together, their relationship ceased to be an intimate one.

At the 1920 Democratic convention Roosevelt won the nomination for vice president on a ticket with presidential nominee James M. Cox. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously on behalf of American entry into the League of Nations, but the Democrats lost in a landslide to the Republican ticket of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Roosevelt then became vice president of a bonding company, Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland, and entered into several other business ventures.

In August 1921, while on vacation at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Canada, Roosevelt's life was transformed when he was stricken with poliomyelitis. He suffered intensely, and for some time he was almost completely paralyzed. His mother urged him to retire to the family estate at Hyde Park, but his wife and Howe believed it essential that he remain active in politics. For his part, Roosevelt never abandoned hope that he would regain the use of his legs.

Unable to pursue an active political career as he recovered from polio, Roosevelt depended on his wife to keep his name alive in Democratic circles. Although initially very shy, Eleanor Roosevelt became an effective public speaker and an adroit political analyst under Howe's tutelage. As a result of her speaking engagements all over New York state, Roosevelt never faded entirely from the political scene, despite what seemed to be a career-ending affliction. In 1924 he made a dramatic appearance at the Democratic convention to nominate Alfred E. Smith, governor of New York, for president, and he repeated his nomination of Smith at the 1928 convention. Smith, in turn, urged Roosevelt to run for governor of New York in 1928. Roosevelt was at first reluctant but eventually agreed.

As he traveled by automobile around the state, Roosevelt demonstrated that his illness had not destroyed the youthful resilience and vitality that had led people such as Howe to predict great political success. He also showed that he had matured into a more serious person, one now with a keen appreciation for life's hardships. On election day Roosevelt won by 25,000 votes, even though New York state went Republican in the presidential election, contributing to Herbert Hoover's landslide victory over Smith.

Succeeding Smith as governor, Roosevelt realized he had to establish an administration distinct from that of his predecessor. Accordingly, he declined to appoint Smith's cronies to state office and did not look to Smith, the “Happy Warrior,” for guidance. Smith, already stung by his defeat for the presidency, was hurt by Roosevelt's apparent lack of gratitude, and a breach developed between the two men.

During his first term, Governor Roosevelt concentrated on tax relief for farmers and cheaper public utilities for consumers. The appeal of his programs, particularly in upstate New York, led to his reelection in 1930 by 725,000 votes. As the depression worsened during his second term, Roosevelt moved farther to the left, mobilizing the state government to provide relief and to aid in economic recovery. In the fall of 1931 he persuaded the Republican-dominated legislature to establish the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration, which eventually provided unemployment assistance to 10 percent of New York's families. His aggressive approach to the economic problems of his state, along with his overwhelming electoral victory in 1930, boosted Roosevelt into the front ranks of contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932.

Because winning the nomination then required a two-thirds vote in the Democratic convention, even a leading contender could be stopped with relative ease. It soon became apparent that Roosevelt's strongest opposition would come from urban and conservative Eastern Democrats still loyal to Smith; his strongest support was in the South and West. The opposition became stronger when John Nance Garner of Texas, speaker of the House of Representatives, won the California Democratic primary. But on the third ballot at the 1932 convention, Garner released his delegates to Roosevelt, who then captured the required two-thirds vote on the fourth ballot. Garner received the vice presidential nomination. Roosevelt then broke tradition by appearing in person to accept his party's nomination. In his speech before the delegates, he said, “I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.”

With the depression the only issue of consequence in the presidential campaign of 1932, the American people had a choice between the apparently unsuccessful policies of the incumbent Hoover and the vaguely defined New Deal program presented by Roosevelt. While Roosevelt avoided specifics, he made clear that his program for economic recovery would make extensive use of the power of the federal government. In a series of addresses carefully prepared by a team of advisers popularly known as the Brain Trust, he promised aid to farmers, public development of electric power, a balanced budget, and government policing of irresponsible private economic power. Besides having policy differences, the two candidates presented a stark contrast in personal demeanor as well. Roosevelt was genial and exuded confidence, while Hoover remained unremittingly grim and dour. On election day, Roosevelt received nearly 23 million popular votes to Hoover's nearly 16 million; the electoral vote was 472 to 59. In a repudiation not just of Hoover but also of the Republican Party, Americans elected substantial Democratic majorities to both houses of Congress.

In the four months between the election and Roosevelt's inauguration, President Hoover sought Roosevelt's cooperation in stemming the deepening economic crisis. But Roosevelt refused to subscribe to Hoover's proposals, which Hoover himself admitted would mean “the abandonment of 90 percent of the so-called new deal.” As a result, the economy continued to decline. By inauguration day—March 4, 1933—most banks had shut down, industrial production had fallen to just 56 percent of its 1929 level, at least 13 million wage earners were unemployed, and farmers were in desperate straits.

In his inaugural address Roosevelt promised prompt, decisive action, and he conveyed some of his own unshakable self-confidence to millions of Americans listening on radios throughout the land. “This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and prosper,” he asserted, adding, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

Roosevelt followed up on his promise of prompt action with “The Hundred Days”—the first phase of the New Deal, in which his administration presented Congress with a broad array of measures intended to achieve economic recovery, to provide relief to the millions of poor and unemployed, and to reform aspects of the economy that Roosevelt believed had caused the collapse. Roosevelt was candid in admitting that the initial thrust of the New Deal was experimental. He would see what worked and what did not, abandoning the latter and persisting with the former until the crisis was overcome.

His first step was to order all banks closed until Congress, meeting in special session on March 9, could pass legislation allowing banks in sound condition to reopen; this “bank holiday,” as Roosevelt euphemistically called it, was intended to end depositors' runs, which were threatening to destroy the nation's entire banking system. The bank holiday, combined with emergency banking legislation and the first of Roosevelt's regular national radio broadcasts (later known as “fireside chats”), so restored public confidence that when banks did reopen the much-feared runs did not materialize.

Two key recovery measures of The Hundred Days were the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) and the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA). The AAA established the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which was charged with increasing prices of agricultural commodities and expanding the proportion of national income going to farmers. Its strategy was to grant subsidies to producers of seven basic commodities—wheat, corn, hogs, cotton, tobacco, rice, and milk—in return for reduced production, thereby reducing the surpluses that kept commodity prices low. The subsidies were to be generated from taxes on the processing of the commodities. When the Supreme Court invalidated the tax in 1936, Roosevelt shifted the focus of the AAA to soil conservation, but the principle of paying farmers not to grow remained at the core of American agricultural policy for six decades. Although quite controversial when introduced—especially because it required the destruction of newly planted fields at a time when many Americans were going hungry—the AAA program gradually succeeded in raising farmers' incomes. However, it was not until 1941 that farm income reached even the inadequate level of 1929.

The NIRA was a two-part program. One part consisted of a $3.3 billion appropriation for public works, to be spent by the Public Works Administration (PWA). Had this money been poured rapidly into the economy, it might have done much to stimulate recovery. Since Roosevelt wanted to be sure the program would not invite fraud and waste, however, the PWA moved slowly and deliberately, and it did not become an important factor until late in the New Deal.

The other part of the NIRA was the National Recovery Administration (NRA), whose task was to establish and administer industry wide codes that prohibited unfair trade practices, set minimum wages and maximum hours, guaranteed workers the right to bargain collectively, and imposed controls on prices and production. The codes eventually became enormously complex and difficult to enforce, and by 1935 the business community, which at first had welcomed the NRA, had become disillusioned with the program and blamed Roosevelt for its ineffectiveness. In May of that year the Supreme Court invalidated the NRA, which by that time had few supporters in Congress or the administration.

Another important recovery measure was the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), a public corporation created in 1933 to build dams and hydroelectric power plants and to improve navigation and flood control in the vast Tennessee River basin. The TVA, which eventually provided cheap electricity to impoverished areas in seven states along the river and its tributaries, reignited a long-standing debate over the proper role of government in the development of the nation's natural resources. The constitutionality of the agency was challenged immediately after its establishment but was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1936.

The Hundred Days also included relief and reform measures, the former referring to short-term payments to individuals to alleviate hardship, the latter to long-range programs aimed at eliminating economic abuses. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) granted funds to state relief agencies, and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) employed hundreds of thousands of young men in reforestation and flood-control work. The Home Owners' Refinancing Act provided mortgage relief for millions of unemployed Americans in danger of losing their homes.

Reform measures included the Federal Securities Act, which provided government oversight of stock trading (later augmented by establishment of the Securities and Exchange Commission [SEC]), and the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, which prohibited commercial banks from making risky investments and established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to protect depositors' accounts.

By the fall of 1934, the measures passed during The Hundred Days had produced a limited degree of recovery; more importantly, they had regenerated hope that the country would surmount the crisis. Although the New Deal had alienated conservatives, including many businessmen, most Americans supported Roosevelt's programs. That support manifested itself in the congressional elections of 1934, in which Democrats added to their already substantial majorities in both houses.

Yet by 1935 Roosevelt knew he had to do more. Although the economy had begun to rise from its nadir during the winter of 1932–33, it was still far below its level before the stock market crash of 1929. Millions of Americans were still unemployed—many had been jobless for several years—and the destitute were beginning to listen to demagogues who criticized the New Deal for not going far enough. Roosevelt foresaw the possibility that in the 1936 presidential election he would face a significant third-party challenge from the left. To meet this threat, Roosevelt asked Congress to pass additional New Deal legislation—sometimes called the “Second New Deal”—in 1935. The key measures of the Second New Deal were the Social Security Act, the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and the Wagner Act. The Social Security Act for the first time established an economic “safety net” for all Americans, providing unemployment and disability insurance and old-age pensions. The WPA, headed by Roosevelt's close confidant Harry Hopkins, aimed to provide the unemployed with useful work that would help to maintain their skills and bolster their self-respect. Between 1935 and 1941 it employed a monthly average of 2.1 million workers on a variety of projects, including the construction of roads, bridges, airports, and public buildings; natural-resource conservation; and artistic and cultural programs such as painting public murals and writing local and regional histories. The Wagner Act (officially the National Labor Relations Act) reestablished labor's right to bargain collectively (which had been eliminated when the Supreme Court had invalidated the NRA), and it created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to adjudicate labor disputes. In addition to these hallmark measures, Congress also passed a major tax revision—labeled by its opponents as a “soak-the-rich” tax—that raised tax rates for persons with large incomes and for large corporations.

Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1936 with the firm support of farmers, laborers, and the poor. He faced the equally firm opposition of conservatives, but the epithets hurled at him from the right merely helped to unify his following. The Republican nominee, Governor Alfred M. Landon of Kansas, a moderate, could do little to stem the Roosevelt tide. Landon received fewer than 17 million votes to Roosevelt's nearly 28 million, and Roosevelt carried every state except Maine and Vermont.

Declaring in his second inaugural address that “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished,” Roosevelt was determined to push forward with further New Deal reforms. With large Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress, there remained only one obstacle to his objectives: the Supreme Court. During Roosevelt's first term, the court, which consisted entirely of pre-Roosevelt appointees, had invalidated several key New Deal measures, and cases challenging the Social Security Act and the Wagner Act were pending. To make the court more supportive of reform legislation, Roosevelt proposed a reorganization plan that would have allowed him to appoint one new justice for every sitting justice aged 70 years or older. Widely viewed as a court-packing scheme (even by Roosevelt's supporters), the reorganization bill provoked heated debate in Congress and eventually was voted down, which handed Roosevelt his first major legislative defeat. Meanwhile, the fight over court packing seemed to alter the Supreme Court's attitude toward the New Deal, and both the Social Security Act and the Wagner Act were upheld.

By 1937 the economy had recovered substantially, and Roosevelt, seeing an opportunity to return to a balanced budget, drastically curtailed government spending. The result was a sharp recession, during which the economy began plummeting toward 1932 levels. Chastened by the recession, Roosevelt now began to pay more attention to advisers who counseled deficit spending as the best way to counter the depression. Late in 1937 he backed another massive government spending program, and by the middle of 1938 the crisis had passed.

By 1938 the New Deal was drawing to a close. Conservative Southern Democrats openly opposed its continuation, and Roosevelt's attempt to defeat several of them in the 1938 Democratic primaries not only proved unsuccessful but also produced charges that the president was a dictator trying to conduct a “purge.” In the congressional elections that year the Republicans gained 80 seats in the House and 7 in the Senate. Despite continued Democratic majorities in both houses, an alliance of Republicans and conservative Democrats now blocked any further reform legislation.

By 1939 foreign policy was overshadowing domestic policy. From the beginning of his presidency, Roosevelt had been deeply involved in foreign-policy questions. Although he refused to support international currency stabilization at the London Economic Conference in 1933, by 1936 he had stabilized the dollar and concluded stabilization agreements with Great Britain and France. Roosevelt extended American recognition to the government of the Soviet Union, launched the Good Neighbor Policy to improve U.S. relations with Latin America, and backed reciprocal agreements to lower trade barriers between the U.S. and other countries.

Congress, however, was dominated by isolationists who believed that American entry into World War I had been mistaken and who were determined to prevent the United States from being drawn into another European war. Beginning with the Neutrality Act of 1935, Congress passed a series of laws designed to minimize American involvement with belligerent nations. Roosevelt accepted the neutrality laws but at the same time warned Americans of the danger of remaining isolated from a world increasingly menaced by the dictatorial regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan. Speaking in Chicago in October 1937, he proposed that peace-loving nations make concerted efforts to quarantine aggressors. Although he seemed to mean nothing more drastic than breaking off diplomatic relations, the proposal created such alarm throughout the country that he quickly backed away from even this modest level of international involvement. Then, in December, the Japanese sank an American gunboat, the USS Panay, on the Yangtze River in China. Most Americans feared that the attack would lead to war, and they were pleased when Roosevelt accepted Japan's apologies.

When World War II broke out in Europe in September 1939, Roosevelt called Congress into special session to revise the neutrality acts to permit belligerents—i.e., Britain and France—to buy American arms on a “cash-and-carry” basis; over the objections of isolationists, the cash-and-carry policy was enacted. When France fell to the Germans in the spring and early summer of 1940, and Britain was left alone to face the Nazi war machine, Roosevelt convinced Congress to intensify defense preparations and to support Britain with “all aid short of war.” In the fall of that year Roosevelt sent 50 older destroyers to Britain, which feared an imminent German invasion, in exchange for eight naval bases.

The swap of ships for bases took place during the 1940 presidential election campaign. Earlier in the year the Democrats had nominated Roosevelt for a third term, even though his election would break the two-term tradition honored since the presidency of George Washington. The Republican nominee, Wendell L. Willkie, represented a departure from the isolationist-dominated Republican Party, and the two candidates agreed on most foreign-policy issues, including increased military aid to Britain. On election day, Roosevelt defeated Willkie soundly—by 27 million to 22 million popular votes—though his margin of victory was less than it had been in 1932 and 1936. Roosevelt's support was reduced by a number of factors, including the court-packing scheme, the attempted “purge” of conservative Democrats in 1938, the breaking of the two-term tradition, and fears that he would lead the nation into war.

By inauguration day in 1941, Britain was running out of cash and finding it increasingly difficult—owing to German submarine attacks—to carry American arms across the Atlantic. In March 1941, after a bitter debate in Congress, Roosevelt obtained passage of the Lend-Lease Act, which enabled the United States to accept noncash payment for military and other aid to Britain and its allies. Later that year he authorized the United States Navy to provide protection for lend-lease shipments, and in the fall he instructed the navy to “shoot on sight” at German submarines. All these actions moved the United States closer to actual belligerency with Germany.

In August 1941, on a battleship off Newfoundland, Canada, Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued a joint statement, the Atlantic Charter, in which they pledged their countries to the goal of achieving “the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.” Reminiscent of the Four Freedoms that Roosevelt outlined in his annual message to Congress in January 1941, the statement disclaimed territorial aggrandizement and affirmed a commitment to national self-determination, freedom of the seas, freedom from want and fear, greater economic opportunities, and disarmament of all aggressor nations.

Yet it was in the Pacific rather than the Atlantic that war came to the United States. When Japan joined the Axis powers of Germany and Italy, Roosevelt began to restrict exports to Japan of supplies essential to making war. Throughout 1941, Japan negotiated with the United States, seeking restoration of trade in those supplies, particularly petroleum products. When the negotiations failed to produce agreement, Japanese military leaders began to plan an attack on the United States. According to one school of thought, this was exactly what Roosevelt wanted, for, by backing Japan into a corner and forcing it to make war on the United States, the president could then enter the European war in defense of Britain—the so-called “back door to war” theory. This controversial hypothesis continues to be debated today.

By the end of November, Roosevelt knew that an attack was imminent (the United States had broken the Japanese code), but he was uncertain where it would take place. To his great surprise, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, destroying nearly the entire U.S. Pacific fleet and hundreds of airplanes and killing about 2,500 military personnel and civilians. On December 8, at Roosevelt's request, Congress declared war on Japan; on December 11 Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.

At a press conference in December 1943, Roosevelt asserted that “Dr. New Deal” had been replaced by “Dr. Win the War.” The many New Deal agencies designed to provide employment during the Great Depression rapidly disappeared as war mobilization created more jobs than there were people to fill them. Full economic recovery, which had resisted Roosevelt's efforts throughout the 1930s, suddenly came about as a consequence of massive government spending on war production in the early 1940s.

From the start of American involvement in World War II, Roosevelt took the lead in establishing a grand alliance among all countries fighting the Axis powers. He met with Churchill in a number of wartime conferences at which differences were settled amicably. One early difference centered upon the question of an invasion of France. Churchill wanted to postpone such an invasion until Nazi forces had been weakened, and his view prevailed until the great Normandy Invasion was finally launched on “D-Day,” June 6, 1944. Meanwhile, American and British forces invaded North Africa in November 1942, Sicily in July 1943, and Italy in September 1943.

Relations with the Soviet Union posed a difficult problem for Roosevelt. Throughout the war the Soviet Union accepted large quantities of lend-lease supplies but seldom divulged its military plans or acted in coordination with its Western allies. Roosevelt, believing that the maintenance of peace after the war depended on friendly relations with the Soviet Union, hoped to win the confidence of Joseph Stalin. He, Stalin, and Churchill seemed to get along well when they met at Tehran, Iran, in November 1943. By the time the“Big Three” met again at the Yalta Conference in the Crimea, U.S.S.R., in February 1945, the war in Europe was almost over. At Yalta, Roosevelt secured Stalin's commitment to enter the war against Japan soon after Germany's surrender and to establish democratic governments in the nations of eastern Europe occupied by Soviet troops. Stalin kept his pledge concerning Japan but proceeded to impose Soviet satellite governments throughout eastern Europe.

Roosevelt had been suffering from advanced arteriosclerosis for more than a year before the Yalta Conference. His political opponents had tried to make much of his obviously declining health during the campaign of 1944, when he ran for a fourth term against Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York. But Roosevelt campaigned actively and won the election by a popular vote of 25 million to 22 million and an electoral college vote of 432 to 99. By the time of his return from Yalta, however, he was so weak that for the first time in his presidency he spoke to Congress while sitting down. Early in April 1945 he traveled to his cottage in Warm Springs, Georgia—the “Little White House”—to rest. On the afternoon of April 12, while sitting for a portrait, he suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage, and he died a few hours later. With him at his death were two cousins, Laura Delano and Margaret Suckley, and Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd (by then a widow), with whom he had renewed his relationship a few years before.

During his lifetime Franklin D. Roosevelt was simultaneously one of the most loved and most hated men in American history. His supporters hailed him as the savior of his nation during the Great Depression and the defender of democracy during World War II. Opponents criticized him for undermining American free-market capitalism, for unconstitutionally expanding the powers of the federal government, and for transforming the nation into a welfare state. It is generally accepted by all, however, that he was a brilliant politician, able to create a massive coalition of supporters that sustained the Democratic Party for decades after his death. There is also little argument that he was a talented administrator, able to retain leaders of diverse views within the executive branch. At his death most Americans were plunged into profound grief, testimony to the strong emotional attachment they felt for the man who had led them through two of the darkest periods in the nation's history. Although much of that emotion has dissipated over the years, Roosevelt's standing as one of the few truly great American presidents seems secure.

Franklin married Eleanor (Anna) Roosevelt [18448] [MRIN: 6294] on 17 Mar 1905 in New York. Eleanor was born on 11 Oct 1884 in New York and died on 7 Nov 1962 in New York at age 78.

General Notes: born October 11, 1884, New York, New York, U.S.
died November 7, 1962, New York City


Anna Eleanor Roosevelt American first lady (1933–45), the wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd president of the United States, and a United Nations diplomat and humanitarian. She was, in her time, one of the world's most widely admired and powerful women.

Eleanor was the daughter of Elliott Roosevelt and Anna Hall Roosevelt and the niece of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States. She grew up in a wealthy family that attached great value to community service. Both her parents died before she was 10, and she and her surviving brother (another brother died when she was 9) were raised by relatives. The death of Eleanor's father, to whom she had been especially close, was very difficult for her.

At age 15 Eleanor enrolled at Allenswood, a girls' boarding school outside London, where she came under the influence of the French headmistress, Marie Souvestre. Souvestre's intellectual curiosity and her taste for travel and excellence—in everything but sports—awakened similar interests in Eleanor, who later described her three years there as the happiest time of her life. Reluctantly, she returned to New York in the summer of 1902 to prepare for her “coming out” into society that winter. Following family tradition, she devoted time to community service, including teaching in a settlement house on Manhattan's Lower East Side.

Soon after Eleanor returned to New York, Franklin Roosevelt, her distant cousin, began to court her, and they were married on March 17, 1905, in New York City. His taste for fun contrasted with her own seriousness, and she often commented on how he had to find companions in pleasure elsewhere. Between 1906 and 1916 Eleanor gave birth to six children, one of whom died in infancy.

After Franklin won a seat in the New York Senate in 1911, the family moved to Albany, where Eleanor was initiated into the job of political wife. When Franklin was appointed assistant secretary of the navy in 1913, the family moved to Washington, D.C., and Eleanor spent the next few years performing the social duties expected of an “official wife,” including attending formal parties and making social calls in the homes of other government officials. For the most part she found these occasions tedious.

With the entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917, Eleanor was able to resume her volunteer work. She visited wounded soldiers and worked for the Navy–Marine Corps Relief Society and in a Red Cross canteen. This work increased her sense of self-worth, and she wrote later, “I loved it...I simply ate it up.”

In 1918 Eleanor discovered that Franklin had been having an affair with her social secretary, Lucy Mercer. It was one of the most traumatic events in her life, as she later told Joseph Lash, her friend and biographer. Mindful of his political career and fearing the loss of his mother's financial support, Franklin refused Eleanor's offer of a divorce and agreed to stop seeing Mercer. The Roosevelts' marriage settled into a routine in which both principals kept independent agendas while remaining respectful of and affectionate toward each other. But their relationship had ceased to be an intimate one. Later, Mercer and other glamorous, witty women continued to attract his attention and claim his time, and in 1945 Mercer, by then the widow of Winthrop Rutherfurd, was with Franklin when he died at Warm Springs, Georgia.

Franklin ran unsuccessfully for vice president on the Democratic ticket in 1920. At this time Eleanor's interest in politics increased, partly as a result of her decision to help in her husband's political career after he was stricken with poliomyelitis in 1921 and partly as a result of her desire to work for important causes. She joined the Women's Trade Union League and became active in the New York state Democratic Party. As a member of the Legislative Affairs Committee of the League of Women Voters, she began studying the Congressional Record and learned to evaluate voting records and debates.

When Franklin became governor of New York in 1929, Eleanor found an opportunity to combine the responsibilities of a political hostess with her own burgeoning career and personal independence. She continued to teach at Todhunter, a girls' school in Manhattan that she and two friends had purchased, making several trips a week back and forth between Albany and New York City.

During her 12 years as first lady, the unprecedented breadth of Eleanor's activities and her advocacy of liberal causes made her nearly as controversial a figure as her husband. She instituted regular White House press conferences for women correspondents, and wire services that had not formerly employed women were forced to do so in order to have a representative present in case important news broke. In deference to the president's infirmity, she helped serve as his “eyes and ears” throughout the nation, embarking on extensive tours and reporting to him on conditions, programs, and public opinion. These unusual excursions were the butt of some criticism and “Eleanor jokes” by her opponents, but many people responded warmly to her compassionate interest in their welfare. Beginning in 1936 she wrote a daily syndicated newspaper column, “My Day.” A widely sought-after speaker at political meetings and at various institutions, she showed particular interest in child welfare, housing reform, and equal rights for women and racial minorities.

In 1939, when the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused to let Marian Anderson, an African American opera singer, perform in Constitution Hall, Eleanor resigned her membership in the DAR and arranged to hold the concert at the nearby Lincoln Memorial; the event turned into a massive outdoor celebration attended by 75,000 people. On another occasion, when local officials in Alabama insisted that seating at a public meeting be segregated by race, Eleanor carried a folding chair to all sessions and carefully placed it in the center aisle. Her defense of the rights of African Americans, youth, and the poor helped to bring groups into government that formerly had been alienated from the political process.

After President Roosevelt's death in 1945, President Harry S. Truman appointed Eleanor a delegate to the United Nations (UN), where she served as chairman of the Commission on Human Rights (1946–51) and played a major role in the drafting and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). In the last decade of her life she continued to play an active part in the Democratic Party, working for the election of Democratic presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956.

In 1961 President John F. Kennedy appointed her chair of his Commission on the Status of Women, and she continued with that work until shortly before her death. She had not initially favored the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), saying it would take from women the valuable protective legislation that they had fought to win and still needed, but she gradually embraced it.

An indefatigable traveler, Eleanor Roosevelt circled the globe several times, visiting scores of countries and meeting with most of the world's leaders. She continued to write books and articles, and the last of her “My Day” columns appeared just weeks before her death, of a rare form of tuberculosis, in 1962. She is buried at Hyde Park, her husband's family home on the Hudson River and the site of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. In many ways, it was her library too, since she had carved out such an important record as first lady, one against which all her successors would be judged.

841. Harriet Howard [18358] was born on 27 May 1782 in Boston, Massachusetts and died on 27 Jul 1847 in Cambridge, Massachusetts at age 65.

Harriet married Samuel Prescott Phillips Fay [18359] [MRIN: 6248] on 31 Jul 1803 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Samuel was born on 10 Jan 1778 in Concord, Massachusetts and died on 18 May 1856 in Concord, Massachusetts at age 78.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 851 M    i. Samuel Howard Fay [18360] was born on 21 Jul 1804 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and died on 16 Aug 1847 in Brooklyn, New York at age 43.

844. George Bolling Lee [17156] .

George married Helen Keeney [17157] [MRIN: 5768].

Children from this marriage were:

   852 F    i. Mary Walker Lee [17158] .

Mary married Smith Bowman [17159] [MRIN: 5769].

+ 853 M    ii. Robert Edward Lee [17160] .

845. Anne Carter Lee [17166] .

Anne married Hanson Ely [17167] [MRIN: 5773].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 854 M    i. Hanson Ely [17170] .

+ 855 F    ii. Anne Carter Ely [17173] .

846. Mary Lee [17168] .

Mary married William Hunter deButts [17169] [MRIN: 5774].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 856 M    i. Robert Edward Lee deButts [17178] .

+ 857 M    ii. William Hunter deButts [17179] .

+ 858 F    iii. Mary Custis deButts [17182] .

847. Franklin Milhous [19009] was born on 4 Nov 1848 in Colerain, Belmont County, Ohio and died on 2 Feb 1919 in Whittier, California at age 70.

Franklin married Almira Park Burdg [19010] [MRIN: 6524] on 16 Apr 1879 in Jennings County, Indiana. Almira was born on 16 Sep 1849 in Columbiana County, Ohio and died on 23 Jul 1943 in Whittier, California at age 93.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 859 F    i. Hannah Milhous [19011] was born on 7 Mar 1885 in Butlerville, Jennings County, Indiana and died on 30 Sep 1967 at age 82.

848. Jesse Root Grant [18621] was born on 23 Jan 1794 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania and died on 29 Jun 1873 in Covington, Kentucky at age 79.

Jesse married Hannah Simpson [18622] [MRIN: 6386] on 24 Jun 1820 in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Hannah was born on 23 Nov 1798 in Horsham, Pennsylvania and died on 11 May 1883 in Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey at age 84.

The child from this marriage was:

   860 M    i. 18th President Ulysses Simpson Grant [18623] was born on 27 Apr 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio and died on 23 Jul 1885 in Mount McGregor, New York at age 63.

General Notes: born April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, Ohio, U.S.
died July 23, 1885, Mount McGregor, N.Y.

Hiram Ulysses Grant, U.S. general, commander of the Union armies during the late years (1864–65) of the American Civil War, and 18th president of the United States (1869–77).

Grant was the son of Jesse Root Grant, a tanner, and Hannah Simpson, and he grew up in Georgetown, Ohio. Detesting the work around the family tannery, Ulysses instead performed his share of chores on farmland owned by his father and developed considerable skill in handling horses. In 1839 Jesse secured for Ulysses an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, and pressured him to attend. Although he had no interest in military life, Ulysses accepted the appointment, realizing that the alternative was no further education. Grant decided to reverse his given names and enroll at the academy as Ulysses Hiram (probably to avoid having the acronym HUG embroidered on his clothing); however, his congressional appointment was erroneously made in the name Ulysses S. Grant, the name he eventually accepted, maintaining that the middle initial stood for nothing. He came to be known as U.S. Grant—Uncle Sam Grant—and his classmates called him Sam. Standing only a little over five-feet tall when he entered the academy, he grew more than six inches in the next four years. Most observers thought his slouching gait and sloppiness in dress did not conform with usual soldierly bearing.

Grant ranked 21st in a class of 39 when he graduated from West Point in 1843, but he had distinguished himself in horsemanship and showed such considerable ability in mathematics that he imagined himself as a teacher of the subject at the academy. Bored by the military curriculum, he took great interest in the required art courses and spent much leisure time reading classic novels. Upon graduation Grant was assigned as a brevet second lieutenant to the 4th U.S. Infantry, stationed near St. Louis, Missouri, where he fell in love with and married Julia Boggs Dent, the sister of his roommate at West Point.

In the Mexican War (1846–48) Grant showed gallantry in campaigns under General Zachary Taylor. He was then transferred to General Winfield Scott's army, where he first served as regimental quartermaster and commissary. Although his service in these posts gave him an invaluable knowledge of army supply, it did nothing to satiate his hunger for action. Grant subsequently distinguished himself in battle in September 1847, earning brevet commissions as first lieutenant and captain, though his permanent rank was first lieutenant. Despite his heroism, Grant wrote years later: “I do not think there was ever a more wicked war....I thought so at the time...only I had not moral courage enough to resign.”

On July 5, 1852, when the 4th Infantry sailed from New York for the Pacific coast, Grant left his growing family (two sons had been born) behind. Assigned to Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory (later Washington state), he attempted to supplement his army pay with ultimately unsuccessful business ventures and was unable to reunite his family. A promotion to captain in August 1853 brought an assignment to Fort Humboldt, California, a dreary post with an unpleasant commanding officer. On April 11, 1854, Grant resigned from the army. Whether this decision was influenced in any way by Grant's fondness for alcohol, which he reportedly drank often during his lonely years on the Pacific coast, remains open to conjecture.

Settling at White Haven, the Dents' estate in Missouri, Grant began to farm 80 acres given to Julia by her father. This farming venture was a failure, as was a real estate partnership in St. Louis in 1859. The next year Grant joined the leather goods business owned by his father and operated by his brothers in Galena, Illinois.

At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Grant helped recruit, equip, and drill troops in Galena, then accompanied them to the state capital, Springfield, where Governor Richard Yates made him an aide and assigned him to the state adjutant general's office. Yates appointed him colonel of an unruly regiment (later named the 21st Illinois Volunteers) in June 1861. Before he had even engaged the enemy, Grant was appointed brigadier general through the influence of Elihu B. Washburne, a U.S. congressman from Galena. On learning this news and recalling his son's previous failures, his father said, “Be careful, Ulyss, you are a general now—it's a good job, don't lose it!” To the contrary, Grant soon gained command of the District of Southeast Missouri, headquartered at Cairo, Illinois.

In January 1862, dissatisfied with the use of his force for defensive and diversionary purposes, Grant received permission from General Henry Wager Halleck to begin an offensive campaign. On February 16 he won the first major Union victory of the war, when Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River in Tennessee, surrendered with about 15,000 troops. When the garrison's commander, General Simon B. Buckner, requested his Union counterpart's terms for surrender, Grant replied, “No terms except unconditional surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.” For many, from that point on Grant's initials would stand for “unconditional surrender.”

Promoted to major general, Grant repelled an unexpected Confederate attack on April 6–7 at Shiloh Church, near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, but the public outcry over heavy Union losses in the battle damaged Grant's reputation, and Halleck took personal command of the army. However, when Halleck was called to Washington as general in chief in July, Grant regained command. Before the end of the year, he began his advance toward Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Displaying his characteristic aggressiveness, resilience, independence, and determination, Grant brought about the besieged city's surrender on July 4, 1863. When Port Hudson, Louisiana, the last post on the Mississippi, fell a few days later, the Confederacy was cut in half.

Grant was appointed lieutenant general in March 1864 and was entrusted with command of all the U.S. armies. His basic plan for the 1864 campaign was to immobilize the army of General Robert E. Lee near the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, while General William Tecumseh Sherman led the western Union army southward through Georgia. It worked. By mid-June, Lee was pinned down at Petersburg, near Richmond, while Sherman's army cut and rampaged through Georgia and cavalry forces under General Philip Sheridan destroyed railroads and supplies in Virginia. On April 2, 1865, Lee was forced to abandon his Petersburg defensive line, and the surrender of Lee's army followed on April 9 at Appomattox Court House. This surrender, in effect, marked the end of the Civil War. The South's defeat saddened Grant. As he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, he felt “sad and depressed...at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought.”

That Grant's army vastly outnumbered Lee's at the close of the conflict should not obscure Grant's achievements: the Union had numerical superiority in Virginia throughout the war, yet Grant was the first general to make these numbers count. Earlier, he had rebounded from initial defeat to triumph at Shiloh. His success as a commander was due in large measure to administrative ability, receptiveness to innovation, versatility, and the ability to learn from mistakes.

In late 1865 Grant, by then immensely popular, toured the South at President Andrew Johnson's request, was greeted with surprising friendliness, and submitted a report recommending a lenient Reconstruction policy. In 1866 he was appointed to the newly established rank of general of the armies of the United States. In 1867 Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and thereby tested the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, which dictated that removals from office be at the assent of Congress, and in August appointed Grant interim secretary of war. When Congress insisted upon Stanton's reinstatement, Grant resigned (January 1868), thus infuriating Johnson, who believed that Grant had agreed to remain in office to provoke a court decision.

Johnson's angry charges brought an open break between the two men and strengthened Grant's ties to the Republican Party, which led to his nomination for president in 1868. The last line of his letter of acceptance, “Let us have peace,” became the Republican campaign slogan. Grant's Democratic opponent was Horatio Seymour, former governor of New York. The race was a close one, and Grant's narrow margin of victory in the popular vote (300,000 ballots) may have been attributable to newly enfranchised black voters. The vote of the electoral college was more one-sided, with Grant garnering 214 votes, compared with 80 for Seymour.

Grant entered the White House on March 4, 1869, politically inexperienced and, at age 46, the youngest man theretofore elected president. His appointments to office were uneven in quality but sometimes refreshing. Notably, Grant named Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian who had served with him as a staff officer, commissioner of Indian affairs, and Grant's wife persuaded him to appoint Hamilton Fish secretary of state. Strong-willed and forthright, Julia Grant also later claimed credit for helping to persuade her husband to veto the Finance Bill, but she did not often involve herself in presidential decisions. She daringly—for that time—supported women's rights and considered Susan B. Anthony to be a friend. As a result, it is said, Anthony supported Grant when he ran for reelection in 1872, rather than the first woman candidate for the presidency, Victoria Claflin Woodhull of the Equal Rights Party, a splinter group that had bolted from the National Woman Suffrage Association convention.

Julia was not beautiful—she had a cast in her left eye and squinted—but Grant was attracted to her liveliness, and his devotion to her was unbounded. Photography was just becoming part of the political scene when Julia rose to prominence as first lady, and, self-conscious about her looks, she contemplated having surgery to correct her eyes. Grant vetoed the idea, saying he loved her as she was. Consequently, almost all pictures of her were taken in profile.

The Grants had four children. Their daughter, Nellie, became a national darling, and when she was married in the White House in 1874, the public was entranced by the details of the wedding. The executive mansion was also the home for both the president's father and his father-in-law, whose squabbling with each other was general knowledge and aroused considerable public amusement. Because the Gilded Age was at hand, Americans did not seem to mind that the Grants enjoyed ostentatious living. They redecorated the White House lavishly and entertained accordingly, with state dinners sometimes consisting of 29 courses complemented by nine French wines.

On March 18, 1869, Grant signed his first law, pledging to redeem in gold the greenback currency issued during the Civil War, thus placing himself with the financial conservatives of the day. He appointed the first Civil Service Commission, but after initially backing its recommendations, he abandoned his support for the group when faced with congressional intransigence. Grant was more persistent but equally unsuccessful when the Senate narrowly rejected a treaty of annexation with the Dominican Republic (which Grant had been persuaded would be of strategic importance to the building of a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans). His negotiation of the Treaty of Washington provided for the settlement by international tribunal of American claims against Great Britain arising from the wartime activities of the British-built Confederate raider Alabama, whose sale had violated Britain's declared neutrality.

Grant won reelection easily in 1872, defeating Horace Greeley, the editor of the New York Tribune and the candidate for the coalition formed by Democrats and Liberal Republicans, by some 800,000 votes in the popular election and capturing 286 of 366 electoral votes. During the campaign, newspapers discovered that prominent Republican politicians were involved in the Crédit Mobilier of America, a shady corporation designed to siphon profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. More scandal followed in 1875, when Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin Helm Bristow exposed the operation of the “Whiskey Ring,” which had the aid of high-placed officials in defrauding the government of tax revenues. When the evidence touched the president's private secretary, Orville E. Babcock, Grant regretted his earlier statement, “Let no guilty man escape.” Grant blundered in accepting the hurried resignation of Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who was impeached on charges of accepting bribes; because he was no longer a government official, Belknap escaped conviction. Discouraged and sickened, Grant closed his second term by assuring Congress, “Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent.”

Scandals have become the best-remembered feature of the Grant administration, obscuring its more positive aspects. Grant supported both amnesty for Confederate leaders and civil rights for former slaves. He worked for ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment and went to Capitol Hill to win passage of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, although he was largely ineffective in enforcing the civil rights laws and other tenets of Reconstruction. His 1874 veto of a bill to increase the amount of legal tender diminished the currency crisis during the next quarter century, and he received praise two years later for his graceful handling of the controversial election of 1876, when both Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Jones Tilden claimed election to the presidency.

After leaving office, Ulysses and Julia Grant set forth on a round-the-world trip in May 1877. Grant's reputation as the man who had saved the American Union having preceded him, he was greeted everywhere as a conquering hero. In Great Britain he and his wife were feted by Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle; they also met Benjamin Disraeli. In Germany they were greeted by Otto von Bismarck; and in Japan they shook hands with the emperor. Americans were delighted with these reports from overseas. The Grants themselves were left pondering their good fortune.

In 1879 Grant found that a faction of the Republican Party was eager to nominate him for a third term. Although he did nothing to encourage support, he received more than 300 votes in each of the 36 ballots of the 1880 convention, which finally nominated James A. Garfield. In 1881 Grant bought a house in New York City and began to take an interest in the investment firm of Grant and Ward, in which his son Ulysses, Jr., was a partner. Grant put his capital at the disposal of the firm and encouraged others to follow. In 1884 the firm collapsed, swindled by Ferdinand Ward. This impoverished the entire Grant family and tarnished Grant's reputation.

In 1884 Grant began to write reminiscences of his campaigns for the Century Magazine and found this work so congenial that he began his memoirs. Despite excruciating throat pain, later diagnosed as cancer, he signed a contract with his friend Mark Twain to publish the memoirs and resolved grimly to complete them before he died. In June 1885 the Grant family moved to a cottage in Mount McGregor, New York, in the Adirondack Mountains, and a month later Grant died there. A funeral cortege seven miles long accompanied his coffin to a temporary vault in New York City's Riverside Park. In 1897, on the 75th anniversary of his birth, his remains were removed to a magnificent neoclassical granite tomb at Riverside Drive on Morningside Heights in Manhattan. The project, supervised by the Grant Monument Association, was paid for by almost 100,000 contributions. A million people turned out for the dedication proceedings, with President William McKinley among the dignitaries in attendance.

Grant's Tomb, designed by the architect John Duncan, is one of the largest mausoleums in the world, 150 feet (45 meters) high, with a domed rotunda and allegorical relief figures representing episodes in Grant's life. Two figures representing victory and peace support a granite block containing Grant's epitaph, his own words, “Let us have peace.” The center crypt contains two sarcophagi. Julia Grant, who lived until 1902, was interred beside her husband, as they had planned. It was said that the idea of a single burial place for the both of them stemmed from Grant's visit to the tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain.

Grant completed his memoirs shortly before his death. Written with modesty and restraint, exhibiting equanimity, candor, and a surprisingly good sense of humor, they retain high rank among military autobiographies.

Ulysses married Julia Boggs Dent [18624] [MRIN: 6387] on 22 Aug 1848 in St. Louis, Missouri. Julia was born on 16 Feb 1826 in White Haven, St. Louis, Missouri and died on 14 Dec 1902 in Washington D. C. at age 76.
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849. Amy Gridley Butler [18313] .

Amy married Unknown Ayer [18314] [MRIN: 6225].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 861 F    i. Adele Augusta Ayer [18315] .

851. Samuel Howard Fay [18360] was born on 21 Jul 1804 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and died on 16 Aug 1847 in Brooklyn, New York at age 43.

Samuel married Susan Shellman [18361] [MRIN: 6249] on 5 Jul 1825 in Savannah, Georgia. Susan was born on 20 Feb 1808 in Savannah, Georgia and died on 12 Jan 1887 at age 78.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 862 F    i. Harriet Eleanor Fay [18362] was born on 29 Jun 1829 in Savannah, Georgia and died on 27 Feb 1924 in Boston, Massachusetts at age 94.

853. Robert Edward Lee [17160] .

Robert married Marjorie Tracy [17161] [MRIN: 5770].

Children from this marriage were:

   863 F    i. Tracy Lee [17162] .

   864 M    ii. Robert Edward Lee [17163] .

854. Hanson Ely [17170] .

Hanson married Lucy Carmichael [17171] [MRIN: 5775].

The child from this marriage was:

   865 M    i. Robert Lee Ely [17172] .

855. Anne Carter Ely [17173] .

Anne married Fred Zimmer [17174] [MRIN: 5776].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 866 F    i. Susan Carter Zimmer [17175] was born in 1954.

856. Robert Edward Lee deButts [17178] .

Robert married Adeline Ray [17180] [MRIN: 5778].

Children from this marriage were:

   867 M    i. Robert Edward Lee deButts [17195] was born in 1957.

   868 M    ii. William Fitzhugh deButts [17196] was born in 1957.

   869 F    iii. Rosaline B. deButts [17197] was born in 1962.

   870 F    iv. Hasseltine R. deButts [17198] was born in 1964.

857. William Hunter deButts [17179] .

William married Jane Sprague [17181] [MRIN: 5779].

Children from this marriage were:

   871 F    i. Jane Sprague deButts [17190] was born in 1954.

Jane married Thomas Rates [17191] [MRIN: 5782].

   872 F    ii. Helen Forest deButts [17192] was born in 1955.

   873 M    iii. William Hunter deButts [17193] was born in 1958.

William married Shelley Ingram [17194] [MRIN: 5783].

858. Mary Custis deButts [17182] .

Mary married Frederick Spencer [17183] [MRIN: 5780].

Children from this marriage were:

+ 874 F    i. Mary Custic Lee Spencer [17184] was born in 1956.

   875 F    ii. Martha R. Spencer [17186] was born in 1962.

   876 F    iii. Anne Bluford Spencer [17187] was born in 1970.

859. Hannah Milhous [19011] was born on 7 Mar 1885 in Butlerville, Jennings County, Indiana and died on 30 Sep 1967 at age 82.

Hannah married Francis Anthony Nixon [19012] [MRIN: 6525] on 25 Jun 1908 in Whittier, California. Francis was born on 3 Dec 1878 in Elk Township, Ohio and died on 4 Sep 1956 in La Habra, California at age 77.

The child from this marriage was:

   877 M    i. 37th President Richard Milhous Nixon [19013] was born on 13 Jan 1913 in Yorba Linda, California and died on 22 Apr 1994 in New York at age 81.

General Notes: born Jan. 9, 1913, Yorba Linda, Calif., U.S.
died April 22, 1994, New York, N.Y.

Richard Milhous Nixon 37th president of the United States (1969–74), who, faced with almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate Scandal, became the first American president to resign from office. He was also vice president (1953–61) under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Nixon was the second of five children born to Frank Nixon, a service station owner and grocer, and Hannah Milhous Nixon, whose devout Quakerism would exert a strong influence on her son. Nixon graduated from Whittier College in Whittier, California, in 1934 and from Duke University Law School in Durham, North Carolina, in 1937. Returning to Whittier to practice law, he met Thelma Catherine (“Pat”) Ryan, a teacher and amateur actress, after the two were cast in the same play at a local community theatre. The couple married in 1940.

In August 1942, after a brief stint in the Office of Price Administration in Washington, D.C., Nixon joined the navy, serving as an aviation ground officer in the Pacific and rising to the rank of lieutenant commander. Following his return to civilian life in 1946, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, defeating five-term liberal Democratic Congressman Jerry Voorhis in a campaign that relied heavily on innuendos about Voorhis's alleged communist sympathies. Running for reelection in 1948, Nixon entered and won both the Democratic and Republican primaries, thus eliminating the need to participate in the general election. As a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAAC) in 1948–50, he took a leading role in the investigation of Alger Hiss, a former State Department official accused of spying for the Soviet Union. In dramatic testimony before the committee, Whittaker Chambers, a journalist and former spy, claimed that in 1937 Hiss had given him classified State Department papers for transmission to a Soviet agent. Hiss vehemently denied the charge but was later convicted of perjury. Nixon's hostile questioning of Hiss during the committee hearings did much to make his national reputation as a fervent anticommunist.

In 1950 Nixon successfully ran for the United States Senate against Democratic Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas. After his campaign distributed “pink sheets” comparing Douglas's voting record to that of Vito Marcantonio, a left-wing representative from New York, the Independent Review, a small Southern California newspaper, nicknamed him “Tricky Dick.” The epithet later became a favourite among Nixon's opponents.

At the Republican convention in 1952, Nixon won nomination as vice president on a ticket with Eisenhower, largely because of his anticommunist credentials but also because Republicans thought he could draw valuable support in the West. In the midst of the campaign, the New York Post reported that Nixon had been maintaining a secret “slush fund” provided by contributions from a group of Southern California businessmen. Eisenhower was willing to give Nixon a chance to clear himself but emphasized that Nixon needed to emerge from the crisis “as clean as a hound's tooth.” On September 23, 1952, Nixon delivered a nationally televised address, the so-called “Checkers” speech, in which he acknowledged the existence of the fund but denied that any of it had been used improperly. To demonstrate that he had not enriched himself in office, he listed his family's financial assets and liabilities in embarrassing detail, noting that his wife Pat, unlike the wives of so many Democratic politicians, did not own a fur coat but only “a respectable Republican cloth coat.” The speech is perhaps best remembered for its maudlin conclusion, in which Nixon admitted accepting one political gift—a cocker spaniel that his six-year-old daughter Tricia had named Checkers. “Regardless of what they say about it,” he declared, “we are going to keep it.” Although Nixon initially thought that the speech had been a failure, the public responded favorably, and a reassured Eisenhower told him, “You're my boy.” The Eisenhower-Nixon ticket defeated the Democratic candidates, Adlai E. Stevenson and John Sparkman, with 34 million popular votes to their 27.3 million; the vote in the electoral college was 442 to 89.

During his two terms as vice president, Nixon campaigned actively for Republican candidates but otherwise did not assume significant responsibilities. (Asked at a press conference to describe Nixon's contributions to his administration's policies, Eisenhower replied: “If you give me a week, I might think of one.”) Nevertheless, his performance in office helped to make the role of vice president more prominent and to enhance its consitutional importance. In 1955–57 Eisenhower suffered a series of serious illnesses, including a heart attack, an attack of ileitis, and a stroke. While Eisenhower was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several cabinet sessions and National Security Council meetings, though real power lay in a close circle of Eisenhower advisers, from which Nixon had always been excluded. After his stroke, Eisenhower and Nixon formalized an agreement on the powers and responsibilities of the vice president in the event of presidential disability; the agreement was accepted by later administrations until the adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution in 1967. Nixon's vice presidency was also noteworthy for his many well-publicized trips abroad, including a 1958 tour of Latin America—a trip that journalist Walter Lippmann termed a “diplomatic Pearl Harbor”—during which his car was stoned, slapped, and spat upon by anti-American protestors and a 1959 visit to the Soviet Union, highlighted by an impromptu, profanity-filled “kitchen debate” in Moscow with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev.

Nixon received his party's presidential nomination in 1960 and was opposed in the general election by Democrat John F. Kennedy. The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates. Although Nixon performed well rhetorically, Kennedy managed to convey an appealing image of youthfulness, energy, and physical poise, which convinced many that he had won the debates. In the closest presidential contest since Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Blaine in 1884, Nixon lost to Kennedy by only 112,000 popular votes. Citing irregularities in Illinois and Texas, many observers questioned whether Kennedy had legally won those states, and some prominent Republicans—including Eisenhower—even urged Nixon to contest the results. He chose not to.

"I could think of no worse example for nations abroad, who for the first time were trying to put free electoral procedures into effect, than that of the United States wrangling over the results of our presidential election, and even suggesting that the presidency itself could be stolen by thievery at the ballot box."

Nixon's supporter's and critics alike, both then and later, praised him for the dignity and unselfishness with which he handled defeat and the suspicion that vote fraud had cost him the presidency.

Nixon then retired to private life in California, where he wrote a best-selling book, Six Crises (1961). In 1962 he reluctantly decided to run for governor of California but lost to incumbent Democrat Edmund G. (“Pat”) Brown. In a memorable post election news conference he announced his retirement from politics and attacked the press, declaring that it would not “have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore.” He moved to New York City to practice law, and for the next few years he built a reputation as an expert in foreign affairs and a leader who could appeal to both moderates and conservatives in his party.

Nixon won the Republican nomination for president in 1968 by putting together a coalition that included Southern conservatives led by Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. In exchange for Southern support, Nixon promised to appoint “strict constructionists” to the federal judiciary, to name a Southerner to the Supreme Court, to oppose court-ordered busing, and to choose a vice presidential candidate acceptable to the South. With Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew as his running mate, Nixon campaigned against Democrat Hubert H. Humphrey and third party candidate George Wallace on a vague platform promising an honorable peace in Vietnam—Nixon said that he had a “secret plan” to end the war—the restoration of law and order in the cities, a crackdown on illegal drugs, and an end to the draft. Humphrey, who as Lyndon B. Johnson's vice president was heavily burdened by the latter's unpopular Vietnam policies, called for an end to the bombing of North Vietnam as “an acceptable risk for peace.” Johnson himself halted the bombing on October 31, less than one week before the election, in preparation for direct negotiations with Hanoi. Had he taken this step earlier, Humphrey might have won the election, as polls showed him gaining rapidly on Nixon in the final days of the campaign. Nixon won the election by a narrow margin, 31.7 million popular votes to Humphrey's 30.8 million; the electoral vote was 301 to 191.

Despite expectations from some observers that Nixon would be a “do-nothing” president, his administration undertook a number of important reforms in welfare policy, civil rights, law enforcement, the environment, and other areas. Nixon's proposed Family Assistance Program (FAP), intended to replace the service-oriented Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), would have provided working and nonworking poor families with a guaranteed annual income—though Nixon preferred to call it a “negative income tax.” Although the measure was defeated in the Senate, its failure helped to generate support for incremental legislation incorporating similar ideas—such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), which provided a guaranteed income to the elderly, the blind, and the disabled; and automatic cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security recipients—and it also prompted the expansion and improvement of existing programs, such as food stamps and health insurance for low-income families. In the area of civil rights, Nixon's administration instituted so-called “set aside” policies to reserve a certain percentage of jobs for minorities on federally funded construction projects—the first “affirmative action” program. Although Nixon opposed school busing and delayed taking action on desegregation until federal court orders forced his hand, his administration drastically reduced the percentage of African American students attending all-black schools. In addition, funding for many federal civil rights agencies, in particular the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), was substantially increased while Nixon was in office. In response to pressure from consumer and environmental groups, Nixon proposed legislation that created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). His revenue-sharing program, called “New Federalism,” provided state and local governments with billions of federal tax dollars.

Prior to 1973 the most important of Nixon's domestic problems was the economy. In order to reduce inflation he initially tried to restrict federal spending, but beginning in 1971 his budget proposals contained deficits of several billion dollars, the largest in American history up to that time. Nixon's New Economic Policy, announced in August 1971 in response to continuing inflation, increasing unemployment, and a deteriorating trade deficit, included an 8 percent devaluation of the dollar, new surcharges on imports, and unprecedented peacetime controls on wages and prices. These policies produced temporary improvements in the economy by the end of 1972, but, once price and wage controls were lifted, inflation returned with a vengeance, reaching 8.8 percent in 1973 and 12.2 percent in 1974.

Aiming to achieve “peace with honor” in Vietnam, Nixon gradually reduced the number of American military personnel in the country. Under his policy of “Vietnamization,” combat roles were transferred to South Vietnamese troops, who nevertheless remained heavily dependent on American supplies and air support. At the same time, however, Nixon resumed the bombing of North Vietnam (suspended by President Johnson in October 1968) and expanded the air and ground war to neighboring Cambodia and Laos. In the spring of 1970, American and South Vietnamese forces attacked North Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia, causing widespread protests in the United States; one of these demonstrations—at Kent State University on May 4, 1970—ended tragically when soldiers of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of about 2,000 protestors, killing four and wounding nine.

After intensive negotations between Kissinger and North Vietnamese foreign minister Le Duc Tho, the two sides reached an agreement in October 1972 and Kissinger announced, “Peace is at hand.” But the South Vietnamese raised objections, and the agreement quickly broke down. An intensive 11-day bombing campaign of Hanoi and other North Vietnamese cities in late December (the “Christmas bombings”) was followed by more negotiations, and a new agreement was finally reached in January 1973 and signed in Paris. It included an immediate cease-fire, the withdrawal of all American military personnel, the release of all prisoners of war, and an international force to keep the peace. For their work on the accord Kissinger and Le were awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize for Peace (though Le declined the honor).

Nixon's most significant achievement in foreign affairs may have been the establishment of direct relations with the People's Republic of China after a 21-year estrangement. Following a series of low-level diplomatic contacts in1970 and the lifting of U.S. trade and travel restrictions the following year, the Chinese indicated that they would welcome high-level discussions, and Nixon sent his national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, to China for secret talks. The thaw in relations became apparent with the “ping-pong diplomacy” conducted by American and Chinese table-tennis teams in reciprocal visits in 1971–72. Nixon's visit to China in February–March 1972, the first by an American president while in office, concluded with the Shanghai Communiqué, in which the United States formally recognized the “one-China” principle—that there is only one China, and that Taiwan is a part of China.

The rapprochement with China, undertaken in part to take advantage of the growing Sino-Soviet rift in the late 1960s, gave Nixon more leverage in his dealings with the Soviet Union. By 1971 the Soviets were more amenable to improved relations with the United States, and in May 1972 Nixon paid a state visit to Moscow to sign 10 formal agreements, the most important of which were the nuclear-arms limitation treaties known as SALT I (based on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks conducted between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in 1969) and a memorandum, the Basic Principles of U.S.-Soviet Relations, summarizing the new relationship between the two countries in the new era of détente.

Nixon was less successful in the Middle East, where his administration's comprehensive plan for peace, the Rogers Plan (named for Nixon's first secretary of state, William Rogers) was rejected by both Israel and the Soviet Union. After the 1973 Arab-Israeli war (the “Yom Kippur War”), Kissinger's back-and-forth visits between the Arab states and Israel (dubbed “shuttle diplomacy”) helped to broker disengagement agreements but did little to improve U.S. relations with the Arabs.

Fearing communist revolution in Latin America, the Nixon administration helped to undermine the coalition government of Chile's Marxist President Salvador Allende, elected in 1970. After Allende nationalized American-owned mining companies, the administration restricted Chile's access to international economic assistance and discouraged private investment, increased aid to the Chilean military, cultivated secret contacts with anti-Allende police and military officials, and undertook various other destabilizing measures, including millions of dollars in covert payments to Chilean opposition groups in 1970–73. In September 1973 Allende was overthrown in a military coup led by army commander in chief General Augusto Pinochet.

Renominated with Agnew in 1972, Nixon defeated his Democratic challenger, the liberal Senator George S. McGovern, in one of the largest landslide victories in the history of American presidential elections: 47.1 million to 29.1 million in the popular vote and 520 to 17 in the electoral vote. Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history.

The Watergate Scandal stemmed from illegal activities by Nixon and his aides related to the burglary and wiretapping of the national headquarters of the Democratic Party at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.; eventually it came to encompass allegations of other loosely related crimes committed both before and after the break-in. The five men involved in the burglary, who were hired by the Republican Party's Committee to Re-elect the President, were arrested and charged on June 17, 1972. In the days following the arrests Nixon secretly directed the White House counsel, John Dean, to oversee a “cover-up” to conceal the administration's involvement. Nixon also obstructed the Federal Bureau of Investigation in its inquiry and authorized secret cash payments to the Watergate burglars in an effort to prevent them from implicating the administration.

Several major newspapers investigated the possible involvement of the White House in the burglary. Leading the pack was The Washington Post and its two hungry news hounds, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, whose stories were based largely on information from an unnamed source called “Deep Throat”; the mysterious identity of Deep Throat became a news story in its own right and continues to be speculated on to this day. In February 1973 a special Senate committee—the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, chaired by Senator Sam Ervin—was established to look into the Watergate affair. In televised committee hearings, Dean accused the president of involvement in the cover-up, and others testified to illegal activities by the administration and the campaign staff, including the use of federal agencies to harass Nixon's perceived enemies (many of whose names appeared on an “enemies list” of prominent politicians, journalists, entertainers, academics, and others) and acts of politically inspired espionage by a special White House investigative unit known as the “plumbers.”

In July the committee learned that in 1969 Nixon had installed a recording system in the White House and that all the president's conversations in the Oval Office had been recorded. When the tapes were subpoenaed by Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor appointed to investigate the Watergate affair, Nixon refused to comply, offering to provide summary transcripts instead. Cox rejected the offer. Then, in a series of episodes that came to be known as the Saturday Night Massacre, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, and Richardson resigned rather than comply. Nixon then fired Richardson's assistant, William Ruckelshaus, when he too refused to fire Cox. Cox was finally removed by Solicitor General Robert Bork, though the action was subsequently ruled illegal by a federal district court.

Amid calls for his impeachment, Nixon agreed to the appointment of another special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, and promised that he would not fire him without congressional consent. After protesting in a news conference that “I'm not a crook,” Nixon released seven of the nine tapes requested by Cox, one of which contained a suspicious gap of 18 and one-half minutes. Although damning, the tapes did not contain the “smoking gun” that would prove that the president himself ordered the break-in or attempted to obstruct justice. Jaworski later subpoenaed 64 tapes that Nixon continued towithhold on grounds of “executive privilege,” and in July 1974 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Nixon's claims of executive privilege were invalid. By that time the House Judiciary Committee had already voted to recommend three articles of impeachment, relating to obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and failure to comply with congressional subpoenas. On August 5, in compliance with the Supreme Court's ruling, Nixon submitted transcripts of a conversation taped on June 23, 1972, in which he discusseda plan to use the Central Intelligence Agency to block the FBI's investigation of the Watergate break-in. The smoking gun had finally been found.

Faced with the near-certain prospect of impeachment by the House and conviction in the Senate, Nixon announced his resignation on the evening of August 8, 1974, effective at noon the next day. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford, whom he had appointed vice president in 1973 after Agnew resigned his office amid charges of having committed bribery, extortion, and tax evasion during his tenure as governor of Maryland. Nixon was pardoned by President Ford on September 8, 1974.

Nixon retired with his wife to the seclusion of his estate in San Clemente, California. He wrote RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (1978) and several books on international affairs and American foreign policy, modestly rehabilitating his public reputation and earning a role as an elder statesmanand foreign-policy expert. Nixon spent his last years campaigning for American political support and financial aid for Russia and the other former Soviet republics. Nixon died of a massive stroke in New York City in April 1994, 10 months after his wife's death of lung cancer. In ceremonies after his death he was praised for his diplomatic achievements by President Bill Clinton and other dignitaries. He was buried beside his wife at his birthplace.

Richard married Patricia Thelma Ryan [19014] [MRIN: 6526] on 21 Jun 1940. Patricia was born on 16 Mar 1912 in Ely, Nevada and died in Aug 1993 at age 81.
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861. Adele Augusta Ayer [18315] .

Adele married Unknown Gardner [18316] [MRIN: 6226].

The child from this marriage was:

+ 878 F    i. Dorothy Ayer Gardner [18317] was born in 1892 and died in 1967 at age 75.

862. Harriet Eleanor Fay [18362] was born on 29 Jun 1829 in Savannah, Georgia and died on 27 Feb 1924 in Boston, Massachusetts at age 94.

Harriet married Rev. James Smith Bush [18363] [MRIN: 6250] on 24 Feb 1859 in New York. James was born on 15 Jun 1825 in Rochester, New York and died on 11 Nov 1889 in Ithaca, New York at age 64.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 879 M    i. Samuel Prescott Bush [18364] was born on 4 Oct 1863 in Brick Church, New Jersey and died on 8 Feb 1948 in Columbus, Ohio at age 84.

866. Susan Carter Zimmer [17175] was born in 1954.

Susan married Paul Vogel [17176] [MRIN: 5777].

The child from this marriage was:

   880 M    i. Christopher Lee Vogel [17177] was born in 1982.

874. Mary Custic Lee Spencer [17184] was born in 1956.

Mary married John Glover [17185] [MRIN: 5781].

Children from this marriage were:

   881 M    i. John Glover [17188] was born in 1983.

   882 F    ii. Amelia Lee Glover [17189] was born in 1986.

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878. Dorothy Ayer Gardner [18317] was born in 1892 and died in 1967 at age 75.

Dorothy married Leslie Lynch King [18318] [MRIN: 6227]. Leslie was born in 1881 and died in 1941 at age 60.

The child from this marriage was:

   883 M    i. 38th President Gerald Rudolph Ford [18319] was born on 14 Jul 1913 in Omaha, Nebraska.

General Notes: Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr., original name Leslie Lynch King, Jr. 38th president of the United States (1974–77), who, as 40th vice president, succeeded to the presidency on the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon under the process decreed by the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution and thereby became the nation's only unelected chief executive. His first act upon assuming office was to grant his predecessor “a full, free, and absolute pardon.”

While Ford was still an infant, his parents were divorced, and his mother moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she married Gerald R. Ford, Sr., who adopted the boy and gave him his name. After attending the University of Michigan, where he was a star football player, Ford worked as an assistant coach while he earned a law degree from Yale University (1941). He joined the navy during World War II and served in the South Pacific, attaining the rank of lieutenant commander and nearly losing his life in 1944 during a deadly typhoon that killed hundreds. In 1948, the year he won his first elective office—as Republican congressman from Michigan—he married Elizabeth Anne Bloomer (known as Betty), with whom he had four children, three sons—Michael, John, and Steven—and one daughter, Susan.

Ford served in Congress for 25 years. Well-liked and ideologically flexible, he won the role of House minority leader in 1965 and held this position until Nixon named him vice president in 1973. During his time in Congress, he had developed a reputation for honesty and openness. When Nixon's vice president, Spiro T. Agnew, was forced to resign from office in disgrace, the president had no choice but to nominate the only Republican whom the Democratic leadership of Congress would approve, the affable Jerry Ford.

In 1974, when it became clear that Nixon would face criminal charges for his role in the Watergate Scandal and three articles of impeachment had been passed by the House Judiciary Committee, Nixon resigned, effective August 9. On that day, Ford took the oath of office and became president, stating, “our long national nightmare is over.” He retained the foreign and domestic policy staffs of the Nixon administration, including Henry Kissinger and Secretary of State Alexander Haig.

One of Ford's early acts as president was the announcement of a conditional amnesty program for those who had evaded the draft or deserted during the Vietnam War. The most attention-getting act of his years in office, and the move that for many destroyed his credibility, followed in the next month. On September 8, 1974, declaring that in the end, “it is not the ultimate fate of Richard Nixon that most concerns me” but rather “the immediate future of this great country,” Ford pardoned Nixon “for all offenses against the United States” that he had committed “or may have committed” while in office. The pardon, later alleged to have been the result of blackmail (that if Ford did not pardon him, Nixon would blacken the new president's reputation by publicly claiming that Ford had promised a pardon in exchange for the presidency), effectively squelched any criminal prosecutions to which Nixon might have been liable. Afterward Ford voluntarily appeared before a subcommittee of the House of Representatives on October 17 to explain his reasoning—the first time a standing president had formally testified before a committee of Congress. In another startling move, Ford annoyed members of his own party by naming Nelson A. Rockefeller, both a party liberal and a representative of the so-called “Eastern establishment,” as his vice president.

Ford's administration attempted to cope with the high rate of inflation, which he inherited from the Nixon administration, by slowing down the economy. The result was a very severe recession in 1974–75, which succeeded in lowering inflation but at the cost of an unemployment rate that rose to nearly 9 percent. Despite his WIN (Whip Inflation Now) program, he could do little to stop the country's economic problems. Ford's relations with the Democrat-controlled Congress were perhaps typified by his more than 50 vetoes of legislation by the end of 1976; more than 40 were sustained. Legislative gridlock set in.

During the final days of the Vietnam War, in March 1975, Ford ordered an airlift of some 237,000 anticommunist Vietnamese refugees from Da Nang, most of whom were taken to the United States. Two months later, after the seizure by Cambodia of the American cargo ship Mayaguez, Ford declared the event an “act of piracy” and sent the marines to seize the ship. They succeeded, but the rescue operation to save the 39-member crew resulted in the loss of 41 American lives and the wounding of 50 others.

Twice in September 1975 Ford was the target of assassination attempts. In the first instance, Secret Service agents intervened before shots were fired; in the second, the would-be assassin fired one shot at Ford but missed by several feet. In October he initially refused to consider loans to the city of New York, then on the brink of fiscal collapse, prompting the newspaper headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead.” As the larger implications became clear, he retreated from his earlier position.

In a close contest at the Republican convention in August 1976, Ford won his party's nomination, despite a serious challenge by the then governor of California Ronald Reagan. That fall Ford became the first incumbent president to agree to public debates with a challenger—Jimmy Carter, the Democratic nominee. Ford ran substantially behind from the beginning of the campaign, owing in large part to negative fallout from the Nixon pardon but also to the general public's perception of his ineptitude. His decisions in office had often seemed to be those of Kissinger and the others left over from the Nixon administration; sometimes, as those made during the Mayaguez incident, they seemed simply ill-considered. He misspoke on many occasions, notably declaring in a debate with Jimmy Carter, “There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe” and “I don't believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union,” which journalist William F. Buckley, Jr., called “the ultimate Polish joke.” Even his physical pratfalls, such as hitting his head while deplaning, were well documented for the public. As journalist John Osborne summarized the situation, Ford was seen as a loser, a bumbler, a misfit President who for some reason or other...was prone to slip on airplane ramps, bump his head on helicopter entrances, entangle himself in the leashes of his family dogs, and fall from skis in front of television cameras that showed him a-sprawl in snow.

Ford was defeated in the November 1976 election by a popular vote of 40.8 million to 39.1 million and an electoral vote of 297 to 240. When, during the race that ultimately ousted President Carter in 1980, Ford was offered the vice presidential role by candidate Ronald Reagan, whom Ford held responsible for dissipating Republican support for his 1976 campaign, he refused. After leaving the White House, Ford happily retired from public life, golfed and skied at his leisure and ultimately joined the board of directors of numerous corporations.